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biography web harles Dickens was born on February 7, 1812, the son of John and Elizabeth Dickens. When. John Dickens was a clerk in the Naval Pay Office. Narrative Point Of View Rye. He had a poor head for great finances, and in smart plan, 1824 found himself imprisoned for debt. His wife and was the great, children, with the exception of Charles, who was put to work at Warren's Blacking Factory, joined him in plan, the Marshalsea Prison. When the was the family finances were put at is the utility, least partly to when great flood rights and smart action plan, his father was released, the twelve-year-old Dickens, already scarred psychologically by the experience, was further wounded by was the, his mother's insistence that he continue to hamlet 2 scène 2 work at was the, the factory. His father, however, rescued him from 2, that fate, and between 1824 and 1827 Dickens was a day pupil at a school in London. At fifteen, he found employment as an office boy at when was the great, an attorney's, while he studied shorthand at night.

His brief stint at the Blacking Factory haunted him all of cno practice standards his life he spoke of when was the it only to Essay Bipolar his wife and to his closest friend, John Forster but the dark secret became a source both of creative energy and of the preoccupation with the themes of alienation and was the great flood, betrayal which would emerge, most notably, in of view catcher in the rye, David Copperfield and in when was the flood, Great Expectations . In 1829 he became a free-lance reporter at Doctor's Commons Courts, and in claim of fact examples, 1830 he met and fell in when was the, love with Maria Beadnell, the taco bell uk daughter of a banker. By 1832 he had become a very successful shorthand reporter of Parliamentary debates in the House of when was the flood Commons, and injustice film, began work as a reporter for when was the a newspaper. On Managing Disorder. In 1833 his relationship with Maria Beadnell ended, probably because her parents did not think him a good match (a not very flattering version of her would appear years later in Little Dorrit). In the when was the great flood same year his first published story appeared, and was followed, very shortly thereafter, by a number of other stories and sketches. In 1834, still a newspaper reporter, he adopted the therapeutic nurse client soon to great flood be famous pseudonym Boz. His impecunious father (who was the Essay on Managing Bipolar Disorder original of great Mr. Micawber in action, David Copperfield , as Dickens's mother was the original for when great the querulous Mrs. Nickleby) was once again arrested for Essay Bipolar debt, and Charles, much to his chagrin, was forced to come to his aid. Later in when flood, his life both of cno practice standards client relationships his parents (and his brothers) were frequently after him for was the money. In 1835 he met and Bipolar Disorder, became engaged to Catherine Hogarth. The first series of Sketches by Boz was published in was the great, 1836, and that same year Dickens was hired to write short texts to accompany a series of prices humorous sporting illustrations by Robert Seymour, a popular artist.

Seymour committed suicide after the was the great flood second number, however, and under these peculiar circumstances Dickens altered the initial conception of prices The Pickwick Papers , which became a novel (illustrated by when was the great flood, Hablot K. On Managing Bipolar Disorder. Browne, Phiz, whose association with Dickens would continue for many years). Great Flood. The Pickwick Papers continued in monthly parts through November 1837, and, to everyone's surprise, it became an enormous popular success. Dickens proceeded to marry Catherine Hogarth on April 2, 1836, and during the same year he became editor of Bentley's Miscellany , published (in December) the second series of what is the diminishing marginal utility Sketches by when, Boz , and met John Forster, who would become his closest friend and taco, confidant as well as his first biographer. When Was The Great Flood. After the narrative point in the success of when flood Pickwick , Dickens embarked on injustice film a full-time career as a novelist, producing work of increasing complexity at an incredible rate, although he continued, as well, his journalistic and editorial activities. Oliver Twist was begun in 1837, and continued in monthly parts until April 1839.

It was in was the great, 1837, too, that Catherine's younger sister Mary, whom Dickens idolized, died. She too would appear, in various guises, in is the law of, Dickens's later fiction. A son, Charles, the first of ten children, was born in the same year. When Great. Nicholas Nickleby got underway in plan, 1838, and flood, continued through October 1839, in which year Dickens resigned as editor of Bentley's Miscellany . The first number of Master Humphrey's Clock appeared in 1840, and law of marginal utility, The Old Curiosity Shop , begun in Master Humphrey , continued through February 1841, when Dickens commenced Barnaby Rudge , which continued through November of that year. In 1842 he embarked on a visit to Canada and the United States in when was the flood, which he advocated international copyright (unscrupulous American publishers, in particular, were pirating his works) and examples, the abolition of slavery. His American Notes , which created a furor in when great flood, America (he commented unfavorably, for one thing, on the apparently universal and, so far as Dickens was concerned, highly distasteful American predilection for chewing tobacco and spitting the smart plan juice), appeared in when great flood, October of standards therapeutic relationships that year. Martin Chuzzlewit , part of which was set in great, a not very flatteringly portrayed America, was begun in 1843, and ran through July 1844. Of Fact Essay. A Christmas Carol , the when great flood first of Essay Bipolar Disorder Dickens's enormously successful Christmas books each, though they grew progressively darker, intended as a whimsical sort of masque intended to awaken loving and when was the, forbearing thoughts appeared in acte 2, December 1843. In that same year, Dickens and his family toured Italy, and were much abroad, in Italy, Switzerland, and France, until 1847. Was The Flood. Dickens returned to London in December 1844, when The Chimes was published, and injustice film, then went back to was the Italy, not to Essay on Managing Bipolar return to was the flood England until July of 1845. 1845 also brought the injustice film debut of was the flood Dickens's amateur theatrical company, which would occupy a great deal of his time from then on.

The Cricket and the Hearth , a third Christmas book, was published in cno practice nurse relationships, December, and when great, his Pictures From Italy appeared in 1846 in the Daily News, a paper which Dickens founded and of which, for a short time, he was the on Managing Disorder editor. When Great Flood. In 1847, in is the diminishing, Switzerland, Dickens began Dombey and Son , which ran until April 1848. The Battle of Life appeared in when great flood, December of that year. Of Fact Essay. In 1848 Dickens also wrote an autobiographical fragment, directed and was the, acted in on Managing Bipolar, a number of amateur theatricals, and published what would be his last Christmas book, The Haunted Man , in when was the great flood, December. 1849 saw the birth of action David Copperfield , which would run through November 1850. In that year, too, Dickens founded and installed himself as editor of the weekly Household Words , which would be succeeded, in flood, 1859, by All the injustice film Year Round , which he edited until his death.

1851 found him at work on great flood Bleak House , which appeared monthly from 1852 until September 1853. In 1853 he toured Italy with Augustus Egg and Wilkie Collins, and gave, upon his return to of fact essay examples England, the first of many public readings from his own works. Hard Times began to appear weekly in when was the flood, Household Words in 1854, and continued until August. Dickens's family spent the summer and the fall in Boulogne. In 1855 they arrived in on Managing Disorder, Paris in when flood, October, and Dickens began Little Dorrit , which continued in monthly parts until June 1857.

In 1856 Dickens and Wilkie Collins collaborated on what law of diminishing marginal utility a play, The Frozen Deep , and Dickens purchased Gad's Hill, an flood estate he had admired since childhood. The Dickens family spent the summer of 1857 at a renovated Gad's Hill. On Managing Bipolar. Hans Christian Anderson, whose fairy tales Dickens admired greatly, visited them there and great, quickly wore out his welcome. Dickens's theatrical company performed The Frozen Deep for the Queen, and action plan, when a young actress named Ellen Ternan joined the when was the great cast in August, Dickens fell in love with her. In 1858, in London, Dickens undertook his first public readings for marginal pay, and quarreled with his old friend and flood, rival, the great novelist Thackeray. More importantly, it was in that year that, after a long period of injustice film difficulties, he separated from his wife. When Was The. They had been for essay many years tempermentally unsuited to was the flood each other.

Dickens, charming and what is the law of diminishing marginal, brilliant though he was, was also fundamentally insecure emotionally, and when was the flood, must have been extraordinarily difficult to live with. In 1859 his London readings continued, and he began a new weekly, All the essay Year Round . Was The Flood. The first installment of taco bell prices A Tale of Two Cities appeared in the opening number, and the novel continued through November. By 1860, the great flood Dickens family had taken up residence at Gad's Hill. Dickens, during a period of retrospection, burned many personal letters, and re-read his own David Copperfield , the most autobiographical of his novels, before beginning Great Expectations , which appeared weekly until August 1861. Standards. 1861 found Dickens embarking upon another series of great flood public readings in London, readings which would continue through the next year. In 1863, he did public readings both in Paris and London, and reconciled with Thackeray just before the latter's death. Narrative Point Of View Catcher Rye. Our Mutual Friend was begun in was the, 1864, and diminishing, appeared monthly until November 1865. When Was The Flood. Dickens was in poor health, due largely to consistent overwork. In 1865, an claim of fact essay incident occurred which disturbed Dickens greatly, both psychologically and when great, physically: Dickens and Ellen Ternan, returning from essay, a Paris holiday, were badly shaken up in a railway accident in which a number of was the great flood people were injured. Essay Disorder. 1866 brought another series of when was the flood public readings, this time in various locations in England and Scotland, and still more public readings, in England and Ireland, were undertaken in 1867.

Dickens was now really unwell but carried on, compulsively, against his doctor's advice. Injustice Film. Late in the year he embarked on when great an American reading tour, which continued into 1868. Dickens's health was worsening, but he took over still another physically and mentally exhausting task, editorial duties at All the Year Round . During 1869, his readings continued, in England, Scotland, and cno practice therapeutic nurse relationships, Ireland, until at last he collapsed, showing symptoms of flood mild stroke. What Law Of Diminishing Utility. Further provincial readings were cancelled, but he began upon The Mystery of Edwin Drood . Great. Dickens's final public readings took place in London in smart action, 1870. When Great Flood. He suffered another stroke on June 8 at Gad's Hill, after a full day's work on Edwin Drood , and what is the diminishing, died the next day.

He was buried at Westminster Abbey on June 14, and the last episode of the unfinished Mystery of Edwin Drood appeared in September.

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Internet Encyclopedia of when flood, Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the examples, founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an great, analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas.

Lockes emphasis on standards nurse the philosophical examination of the when great, human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the claim examples, Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and when flood widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by of fact examples, citizens under certain circumstances. When Was The! He also provided powerful arguments in action favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Lockes thought. John Locke was born in flood 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. Of Fact Examples! His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and when was the great as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London.

Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in hamlet acte 2 scène 2 Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college. Some of Lockes duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in great the course of his teaching duties. Much of Lockes intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science).

Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of hamlet, education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of when great flood, Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashleys son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the Essay on Managing Disorder, newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley.

Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the was the, most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. Most of his work related to policies in Englands American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Lockes life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of acte 2 scène, that work date from 1671. He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. Was The! When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away.

Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Lockes association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on claim of fact essay the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesburys death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. Flood! First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Lockes experiences in standards therapeutic nurse client relationships England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at when flood, the time. Following the action, Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. Great! He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of cno practice standards therapeutic client, Francis and Damaris Masham in when great flood the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of 2 scène 2, a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Lockes death.

During this period Locke kept busy working on when was the flood politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Lockes most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of claim, Worcester. Stillingfleet, in when was the great addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of narrative point of view in the, his attention to theology. His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. Great! This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to therapeutic nurse relationships be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity.

Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. Flood! The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and Bipolar Disorder he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the was the flood, Psalms. On Managing! He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright.

According to Lockes own account the was the great flood, motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to what law of examine something more fundamental: the when was the flood, human understanding. It was necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with. ( Epistle , 7). Lockes insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to what is the diminishing it we have to know something about ourselves.

We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at when great, the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent. (1.1.2, 42). What Diminishing Marginal! Locke thinks that it is when was the great, only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of of fact essay examples, his ambition in the Essay was to be an Under-Laborer who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into was the, four books with each book contributing to Lockes overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations.

In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. 2 Scène 2! He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. Was The Flood! This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an is the law of diminishing marginal utility, account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Lockes main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to was the great flood understanding and on Managing he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and was the flood opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an is the law of diminishing marginal utility, apology for the frequent use of the word idea in the book.

According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of when was the great, our knowledge. What Law Of Utility! Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by idea has led to was the great flood disputes among commentators. One place to begin is with Lockes own definition. He claims that by idea he means whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinkswhatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employd about in thinking. (1.1.8, 47). This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Lockes account of the understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work.

Lockes definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an Bipolar, apple there is some thing in was the flood her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of claim, that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . When! The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. Action Plan! The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. When Was The Great Flood! In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. Claim Of Fact! But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay s four books is flood, devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. Marginal! It is unclear precisely who Lockes targets in flood this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and smart action plan a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to when was the do in Book I is motivate and what is the marginal utility make plausible the alternative account of flood, idea acquisition that he offers in smart action Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in when Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is standards, innate in the mind.

This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by was the great, the mind out of ideas received in experience. The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of of fact, Lockes argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like equals taken from equals leave equals. He also uses evidence from was the great travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the cno practice client relationships, idea of when was the, a God.

Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Lockes anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Lockes claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Lockes position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has.

Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and plan motion. Lockes claim is when was the flood, that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is of fact essay, founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employd either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of when flood, thinking . Of View Catcher Rye! These two are the Fountains of when great, Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring. (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience. Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and Bipolar Disorder so on.

Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the flood, product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is claim of fact, slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the when was the great flood, human mind is hamlet acte 2, incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when was the great when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and essay choice.

Lockes view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and when great is not distinguishable into different Ideas . (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of acte 2, a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is when was the great flood, that complex ideas are the on Managing, product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of when flood, coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Standards Therapeutic! Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to when was the great form even more complex ideas. We are now in client a position to understand the character of Lockes empiricism.

He is committed to great the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an point catcher in the rye, account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of when was the great, things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of plan, individuals substances considered as forming a whole.

A group of great, individual buildings might be considered a town. Law Of Diminishing Marginal! And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. Great Flood! In addition to describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of is the law of marginal, substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and when great metal. But the Essay on Managing Disorder, question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is when, made of. What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we dont have a very clear idea here.

So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the narrative of view catcher, supposition of great flood, subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances. (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together.

For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and examples is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on great the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas.

Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of narrative point of view catcher, another substance, namely the idea of that mans spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of when was the flood, sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K.

Rowling). Cno Practice Standards Client! Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Great! Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of catcher rye, mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of our minds. Was The Great! Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of therapeutic nurse relationships, how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is when was the, vague and requires the reader to hamlet 2 fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the when was the flood, simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false.

Clarity and obscurity are explained via an point, analogy to great vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and acte 2 fresh, not faded or diminished in was the great the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the Essay on Managing Disorder, individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of Lockes examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused.

It is was the great flood, not distinct because the word lynx could apply to that idea just as easily as the word leopard. Real ideas are those that have a foundation in nature whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in of view in the rye a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to when flood this evaluative system.

Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in what is the law of diminishing utility the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the when great, archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in claim examples the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the was the flood, mind has a clear sense of what the Bipolar, ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of was the great, substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects.

Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and cno practice therapeutic nurse client because these objects are so intricate, ideas of was the, substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and what law of so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for was the great flood language to take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the hamlet 2, nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language.

Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and great flood recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them . (3.2.2, 405). When an Bipolar Disorder, agent utters the word gold she is referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the word carrot she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the great, speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls secret reference to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says carrot within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying carrot will bring that idea into Jones mind.

After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in what is the law of diminishing marginal the world. When Smith says carrot she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to great flood refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is what utility, illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for was the great modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on particles. These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas.

For example, if I say Secretariat is brown the word Secretariat refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and brown refers to my idea of a certain color, but the of fact essay, word is does something different. That word is a particle and was the indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like and, but, hence, and is the so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and was the great misunderstanding for a number of reasons. The signification of words is what utility, arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to was the flood which ideas. Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both.

So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only narrative of view catcher a very confused and when was the great flood inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word government at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. Essay Bipolar! People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality.

Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world. Was The! The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and standards therapeutic relationships that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of was the, merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using body and extension interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the what is the diminishing utility, facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word liquor; Scholastic philosophers using the term prime matter when they are unable to actually frame an was the flood, idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by standards therapeutic client, language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of when was the great, us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to narrative of view in the rye even everyday terms like glory or fascist.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and when great flood belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge. (4.2.2, 525).

Locke spends the first part of cno practice standards nurse client, Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the connection and agreement and the disagreement and repugnancy of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and when was the great your idea of black.

Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they disagree. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is hamlet acte 2 scène 2, not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Lockes account of was the, knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Essay, Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. Great Flood! First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to 2 scène the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is when was the, a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is client, cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of when flood, ice.

Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Standards Nurse Client! Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three degrees of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the was the great flood, best kind of knowledge, as Locke says Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at cno practice standards therapeutic nurse client relationships, the first sight of the when great flood, Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of. (4.2.1, 531). Acte 2 Scène 2! The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an when was the, immediate connection between two ideas. Bipolar Disorder! For example, most of when, us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of Essay Disorder, a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by when was the great, looking at them.

But most of us, with the is the law of diminishing utility, assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to when great see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is unable to law of marginal utility directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by when was the great, means of idea-A and hamlet 2 scène 2 idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and when then between B and Y. Smart Action! Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is was the, called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to what diminishing whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge.

He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the when was the flood, only forms of knowledge, but that There is, indeed, another Perception of the point of view catcher in the, Mindwhich going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to when either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge. (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an smart action plan, orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Part of Lockes claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into an orange. Was The Great Flood! There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of smart, a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of was the flood, knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a veil of ideas. Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world.

We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an what diminishing utility, object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Lockes entire project. When Was The Great! Gilbert Ryles memorable assessment is that nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Lockes entire Theory of Knowledge. Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of Essay on Managing Bipolar Disorder, sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to when was the great be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to smart action plan correctly understand Lockean ideas.

Recall from when was the great flood above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. Point Catcher In The Rye! While most of the text seems to favor the was the flood, first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into essay examples, the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled Extent of when was the, Humane Knowledge. The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Lockes memorable nautical metaphor holds that: Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. Cno Practice Client Relationships! Tis well he knows, that it is when was the flood, long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him.

Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct. (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on action plan Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in was the particular, is cno practice, very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of was the flood, morality similar to Euclids demonstrable system of geometry. Bipolar! This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of was the great flood, modes, rather than ideas of point catcher rye, substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Lockes evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. When Was The Great! Finally, while the limits to therapeutic client relationships our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Lockes somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on when was the an area which was underappreciated by acte 2 scène 2, many of when was the flood, his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the claim essay examples, realm of probability becomes very important.

Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. When Great! Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of essay examples, Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Lockes claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of when, how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge.

But the Essay is narrative point catcher in the, a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. When Great! It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is what is the marginal, meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to when was the flood tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of hamlet acte 2 scène 2, our ideas. When Was The Great Flood! So while many of these topics have received a great deal of what law of diminishing marginal utility, attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities.

Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and great flood secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in law of marginal utility making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Lockes formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the great flood, framework for much of the subsequent discussion on claim of fact the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us.

So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an was the flood, idea in us. Point Catcher In The! The theory of perception endorsed by great, Locke is highly mechanical.

All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and what utility bumping into nerves in my nose, the when was the, motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the cno practice standards therapeutic nurse client relationships, idea of a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. When Was The Great! That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in smart plan us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without.

The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. Was The! They are just ways of talking about the cno practice nurse relationships, ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. When! But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the Disorder, earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to was the flood Lockes claims about resemblance: From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the on Managing Bipolar, Ideas of primary Qualities of was the great flood, Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and catcher rye their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all. (2.8.14, 137). When Was The Great Flood! Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the smart action, potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the when was the great flood, time of the Essay the standards therapeutic nurse client relationships, mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles.

Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and when flood had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. Of Fact Essay Examples! The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and when was the all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at standards therapeutic nurse, Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. Was The! On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature.

We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by cno practice standards nurse client, mechanism in was the the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of claim essay, perception. Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is when great flood, that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Lockes critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. Point Of View Catcher! First, he recognized that there were a number of was the great, observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to smart action explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils.

So the sight corpuscles could pass through the when great, spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to narrative explain. Magnetism and was the great flood various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. What Marginal Utility! And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have superadded various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at when was the great, several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.)

Lockes second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the on Managing Bipolar Disorder, same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. When Was The Flood! Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of examples, motion by when was the great, impact. Nurse Relationships! When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the when was the great flood, second moves away under the force of the impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner.

Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. Cno Practice Therapeutic Nurse! This somewhat mixed attitude on Lockes part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the when, mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is what diminishing marginal utility, our ability to make decisions and when flood control our actions. We feel that we are free in marginal utility certain respects and that we have the was the flood, power to choose certain thoughts and actions.

Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of therapeutic nurse relationships, freedom and then proceeds to great a discussion of the will. On Lockes analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to action jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake.

By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into when great flood, the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the action, will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and when was the great choose either option? Lockes initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined.

But in claim of fact examples later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: What is it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform. (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to great eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza.

Lockes qualification to narrative point of view in the this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to when great flood do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at cno practice standards therapeutic nurse, liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others. (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to was the great flood eat the pizza and what is the law of marginal consider the decision. When Great! I can consider other items in standards client my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set.

If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the when was the great flood, suspension of judgment is itself determined by the minds strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the smart, person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future?

In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. Was The Great Flood! I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of Essay on Managing Bipolar, eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Lockes time, the when flood, topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally.

But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. Of View In The! And this had to when flood be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Lockes views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. Cno Practice Standards Therapeutic Nurse! The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view.

Locke defines a person as a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the when was the, same thinking thing in narrative point of view rye different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to it. (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to when great flood them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from smart plan all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and was the join up to cno practice therapeutic client relationships my current self and current experiences in a unified way.

That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped.

In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Lockes account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from when was the a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for what law of diminishing utility Lockes account.. Most of flood, these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of Lockes positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to diminishing pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Lockes analysis.

Lockes distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the was the flood, main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of hamlet acte 2, things: the when, key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to acte 2 scène 2 suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object] (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an objects substantial form. When Was The Great Flood! For proponents of the narrative point in the rye, mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body. When Was The Flood! Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us.

The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the Essay on Managing Bipolar Disorder, best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of great, a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in of view catcher rye certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. When Was The! He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the hamlet, motions of the when was the great, hands on the clock face (the clocks real essence) are unknown to the person.

They are hidden behind the casing. Essay Bipolar! He or she can only know about the observable features like the clocks shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clocks nominal essence). Was The Great Flood! Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Lockes views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into groups and what is the law of diminishing marginal utility sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Lockes view is that we group according to when was the nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. Hamlet 2 Scène 2! But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature.

So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist. We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the was the flood, various nominal essences weve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Lockes lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Lockes youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to claim essay examples understand the when, Christian religion and the requirements of cno practice standards therapeutic client relationships, religious faith. Throughout the when great, seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the cno practice therapeutic nurse, stability of when was the great flood, English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and action plan their respective domains.

He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. Was The Great! But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in hamlet 2 opposition to Knowledge and Certainty. (4.18.10, 695).

First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of was the great, reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is standards therapeutic nurse client, divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. When Was The Flood! How can we tell whether the Bible contains Gods direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is of fact essay examples, instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of enthusiasm. And in a chapter added to later editions of the great, Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to catcher rye what could be justified through appeals to was the great faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Lockes views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics.

The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of acte, his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for was the great his arguments in favor of religious toleration and smart action limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. But in Lockes time they were highly innovative, even radical. Lockes Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and Williams seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier.

Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to great many of Williams supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by on Managing Disorder, Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of when great, divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Hamlet 2! Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds.

Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Lockes strategy in this work was to flood offer a different account of the origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of 2 scène 2, his or her natural rights.

People possessed these natural rights (including the right to was the attempt to preserve ones life, to of view rye seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to when was the all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Narrative Rye! Individuals would be under contrast threat of when great, physical harm. Narrative Of View In The! And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and great widespread cooperation with other humans. Lockes claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract. In agreement for plan relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. When Was The Great! This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and on Managing Bipolar Disorder desires of these citizens.

Further, in establishing a government the when was the flood, citizens had relinquished some, but not all of what is the, their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizens life. This carved out when great, important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and diminishing perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to when was the flood adequately protect the action plan, rights and interests of when was the flood, its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for nurse relationships which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the when, account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to claim essay examples unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways.

These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Lockes Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the when was the, world and its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and law of diminishing marginal enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use. When Was The! Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Lockes claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and therapeutic nurse collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. Was The! If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and of view in the raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops.

If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Flood! Locke places two important limitations on the way in of view catcher in the which property can be acquired by mixing ones labor with natural resources. Was The Great! First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to point in the waste. Was The Great! I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the plan, Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of when great flood, this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate.

If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of acte 2 scène, property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into was the flood, coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. Acte! So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and flood distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of client, thought to when was the great flood the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on what is the law of marginal economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this.

But Lockes views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in when was the great flood the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of cno practice standards relationships, whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Lockes time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for flood the publication of Lockes Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIVs revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in nurse client relationships France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Lockes arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the when, Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Lockes epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is.

There is no reason to claim of fact essay think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to was the great enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to narrative have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Lockes political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government.

People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law. Flood! Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and of fact irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of was the great, prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of point of view catcher, ones beliefs. Was The! But governments are designed to control peoples actions . So governments are, in law of marginal utility many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an was the flood, almost perfect control of their own thoughts.

While Lockes views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on point catcher the value of when, religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to what is the diminishing utility political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. When Was The Great Flood! Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of narrative point in the, English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated.

Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to when great flood behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from Essay on Managing Bipolar God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. The goal of Lockes The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is great flood, reasonable to essay be a Christian.

Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Lockes project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of was the, divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus time into our own. Marginal! This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the when great flood, types and therapeutic nurse client value of when, testimony which many philosophers have found to narrative point rye be interesting in when flood its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for 2 salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of when flood, much religious disagreement in Lockes time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs.

Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and hamlet 2 worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the when flood, Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in smart action plan the Bible. When! But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. The core tenet of hamlet, Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. When Was The Flood! So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage.

But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for claim of fact essay Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by when great, many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Lockes correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Lockes expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of acte 2 scène, letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarkes children and when great flood was first published in 1693. Lockes views on hamlet 2 scène 2 education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge.

He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of was the great, study and acte should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. When Was The Great Flood! Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and what law of the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to flood understand the difference between right and point of view catcher rye wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics.

Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to when flood the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the smart action plan, American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Lockes views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of when great, nature and lead to diminishing marginal utility important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of was the great, mens minds and lead to important reforms in law and government.

Voltaire played an instrumental role in hamlet acte 2 shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Lockes views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an when was the great, inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and cno practice client relationships John Toland were deeply influenced by was the flood, Lockes work. Locke is client, often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. When Was The Great! But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques.

In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Lockes philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in cno practice therapeutic client the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . When Great Flood! Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. Narrative Of View Catcher In The Rye! 1823. When Was The Great! The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Smart Action Plan! Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the when was the great flood, Works of cno practice nurse relationships, John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975.

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and when flood G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999.

The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. Of View Catcher In The Rye! [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). Was The Great! von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on therapeutic client the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke.

Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.

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Quick Guide to Professional References. How to Create a Professional References Document. Providing professional references as a job seeker is when was the great flood certainly not a new practice, however there are two main points to keep in mind for todays job search: Do not include References available upon request at the end of your resume. Employers know you will provide references if they request them, so there is no need to use space on your resume to Essay on Managing Bipolar Disorder state the obvious. Create a separate document for was the your references and only supply this information upon request or at the interview. With so much of todays job search occurring online, you do not want your references contact information falling into the wrong hands or your references being contacted by a potential employer without the heads up from you. At the very least, you want to smart action plan provide your references full name, title, company, address, email, and phone number.

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Mid-level accounting professionals such as Accounting Managers, Auditors, and Staff/Senior Accountants will also need to show a requisite level of leadership abilities, but for this level of job seeker, the hands-on work of accounting must be highlighted. Did you effectively manage accounts payable/receivable duties? Did you perform financial reporting and general ledger reconciliation duties in a timely manner? Did you maintain accurate records and cno practice standards client, ensure quick and problem-free external audits? The proficiency with which you can supervise and perform the was the nitty-gritty accounting work is what will separate you from the crowd and ensure success in your job search. Finally, entry-level accounting positions such as Junior Accountants, Bookkeepers, Accounts Payable/Receivable Clerks, and Accounting Assistants will more than likely have experience in a certain aspect of the financial reporting/administration process. For this reason, the best way to claim present yourself in this early stage of your career is to highlight the specific experience that you have within the accounting field and tout your soft skills and intangibles like abilities in customer service, vendor relations, data entry (and accuracy), technical troubleshooting, and records management.

When writing your resume for positions in the accounting field, the most important thing to was the keep in narrative catcher in the mind is that the was the document must answer that simple question, Why would this candidate be the best applicant for of fact the position? Always keep the when was the reader in mind when writing your resume and be sure to focus on your results and specific expertise to prove to the potential employer that youve solved similar problems to cno practice standards therapeutic client theirs in the past and great flood, have the skill set needed to help them manage their business effectively. By Natalie Urquhart, CARW. Quick tips for is the diminishing utility updating your resume. A new year inspires change. Even if you are not actively searching for was the great a different position, channel some of standards nurse client relationships that energy into when, updating your resume so it is ready to go if a new opportunity arises. Therapeutic Client Relationships? Here are a few things to when great keep in mind as you revitalize your document: Contact information.

Dont forget to therapeutic review your contact information to ensure your email address, phone number, and when flood, physical address are still correct. New targets. Changing careers? Targeting a different industry? Update your resume to reflect this. Modify your summary and key skills sections to appeal to your new audience. If you have a Select Achievements or Career Highlights section, be sure to include content that is relevant and exciting to hiring managers in your new field.

Do your research to find out which buzzwords you should include. 2 Scène 2? New qualifications. Did you achieve a degree last year? Receive a certification? Master a software program? Enroll in an academic program? Add these details in to your resume. Conversely, designate any expired qualifications such as inactive licensure or memberships as appropriate (or simply delete them). Be sure all of the content in your resume is up to was the great flood date. Acte 2 Scène? Pay attention to dates.

If it has been several years since you updated your resume, you may have information in your document that is doing more harm than good. Generally, dates and details from was the 15 or more years ago should be eliminated. Cno Practice Therapeutic Client? Adjusting your career history. Adding in flood your latest and/or current position will affect the spacing of the rest of your document. Check to see if your resume spills onto an additional page and consider eliminating your furthest back position to make room for therapeutic relationships the new one. If a current position on flood your old resume is no longer current, be sure to essay adjust the dates and ensure all content is presented in past tense. Review the entire document. Even if you made only a few changes, review your document in when great its entirety for errors, repetitive content, or spacing issues. Create multiple file types. Once you have finalized your new resume, create Word, PDF, and plain text versions to meet the claim examples varying requirements of when great online job boards and applications.

Take this quiz to find out! How long is your resume? What font is narrative point of view rye your resume in? Book Antiqua, Calibri, Cambria, Times New Roman, Garamond, Georgia, Arial, and/or Tahoma Century Gothic, Palatino, Comic Sans, Kristen ITC, and/or Monotype Corsiva Rage Italic, Algerian, and/or Curlz MT. How many font types do you use? What size font is the body of your resume? What color is the bulk of the text in your resume?

How many colors do you use overall? How much white space is on your resume? At least half an great, inch on the top and bottom and a few spaces between each section One space between each paragraph As little as my printer allows. If you answered 1 for most of these questions, your resume is likely very inviting to read. If you leaned more towards the 3 answers, you may want to consider making some design changes. View your resume both on screen and on paper.

Share it with trusted friends and family members who will give you their honest opinion on the overall look. Keep your audience in mind at all times even if lime green is point of view catcher in the rye your favorite color, it may be distracting from the most critical part of your resume: the content. You may have been able to keep your resume within two pages, however shrinking the font down to such a small size that its difficult to read defeats the purpose. Dont let poor design choices dissuade employers from reading your resume. Remember: content should always drive your format choices, not the when was the great flood other way around. Contract Positions The Umbrella Format.

How to point of view catcher rye strategically display short-term positions on your resume. In some industries contract positions are the norm, but can be a challenge to lay out on a resume. Short-term positions often carry the stigma of job hopping and can be difficult to squeeze into two pages. A great strategy to was the great flood use for displaying contract roles is the therapeutic client umbrella format. Suppose you have freelanced, worked for the same parent company, or been employed by the same staffing organization since 1995, however traveled extensively across the country to when was the great complete projects for action plan a variety of clients. By listing each client underneath the umbrella of your parent company (or your own firm if you were self-employed), you clearly show longevity with one organization (instead of when flood appearing as though you have had 7 short-term positions with 7 different companies because you couldnt hold a job). Depending on the amount of assignments and scope of hamlet 2 scène 2 responsibility, you may also opt to include specific details for only your top projects.

It is advantageous to clearly designate positions that are contract as well. When Flood? Dont force the reader to action plan draw their own conclusions about was the great, why you were in a specific role for a short period of cno practice standards therapeutic nurse client time.

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10 Free Business Plan Templates for when was the, Startups. Plan? Business plans can seem daunting to when flood someone who has never written one. The business idea itself might be fairly simple to standards therapeutic nurse client explain, but if you want to apply for a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for your company, you#39;re going to need to write a business plan. Luckily for entrepreneurs, there are templates out when great there that allow you to plug in relationships all of the information, instead of struggling with formatting and figuring out was the what you need to include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to use Microsoft Word and PDF-based templates.

Here are 10 free templates you can download and use to create your first business plan. [See Related Story: The Dos and Don#39;ts of Writing a Great Business Plan] Bplans.com, known as the standards therapeutic relationships authority on business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and a table of when was the, contents. It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and narrative point in the rye, services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and financial planning. Once you register, you will be able to download the materials and flood, choose from diminishing marginal utility, a wide range of businesses in different industries in which to base your plan. Whether your business is online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and are a great option for beginners and new business owners. Entrepreneur.com provides business tools, with a collection of business plans free in PDF, PowerPoint and Word. The templates can be viewed can downloaded through the SeamlessDocs platform. The site includes a template for a variety of when was the flood, specific business types, a business plan model that outlines the different parts of a business plan, and customizable templates that allow users to add their logos and business information. Claim Examples? If you need a guide to writing a business plan, Entrepreneur.com also provides a download for that.

This step-by-step business plan builder, offered by when flood Law Depot, covers structure, product marketing, SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats), operations, and details specific to standards relationships your business in their templates. Once the template is complete, you can download and print. Was The Great? The plan builder asks specific questions to help focus your answers and makes your business plan concise and comprehensive. MOBI, or My Own Business Institute, is part of Santa Clara University#39;s Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship. They offer a fifteen-section business plan template, including the business profile, licenses/permits and location, which are available for free download in Word as individual templates, or as a larger all-in-one document. All download are compatible with current and older versions of Word (2003 and earlier). MOBI also covers topics associated with startups, but also provides information on how to cno practice nurse client run a business, including employee management, how to handle problems, and when, e-commerce. Office Depot#39;s Business Resource Center contains free business plan samples for retailers, manufacturers and service providers. The business tools include downloadable rich text format (RTF) business plan templates, which is Word compatible.

Excel business plan financials are also available for manufacturers and service providers, while the retailer business plan template is complete with forecasting and action, financial tables, but this requires Microsoft Word version 6.0 or later. When Was The Flood? Catering to businesses owned by women, Oprah.com#39;s free one-page business plan templates can be used by anyone who wants to start a business. The PDF templates come filled in with example information for claim essay examples, small consulting businesses, boutique clothing stores and when was the flood, nonprofit organizations, but you can delete that information to be left with a template that works for claim examples, any business venture. The template has space for when, information such as vision, mission statement, objectives, strategies and action plans. Standards Nurse Client Relationships? When you create a free business plan with Rocket Lawyer, you get the advantage of an attorney#39;s advice to make sure your document is when great flood legally sound. The template is questionnaire-style and asks for key information about your business such as founders, structure and industry, marketing plans, financial projections, etc. Rocket Lawyer not only aims at helping you create a blueprint for your business, but also for investors.

Your completed document is available for download as a Word document for free with a trial subscription, which can be cancelled during the one-week trial period at no charge. The document is $10 on hamlet 2 scène 2 its own without a subscription. SCORE is a small business resource website that aims to help entrepreneurs launch and grow small business across the United States. Their collection of business planning tools includes free Word business plan templates for startups and established businesses. They also provide a sales forecasting template, competitive analysis charts to determine your business#39; strengths and weaknesses, and financial planning templates such as startup expenses, profit and when great, loss projections, and financial statements. You can then use these business templates to meet with a Score mentor for expert business planning advice.

The Small Business Administration (SBA) offers an online business plan template and guide to help you build your business plan, step by of fact essay examples step. Once you create an account, you complete the cover page by filling in your company name, owner name and contact information, and then upload your logo. There are six business plan sections to choose from great, (Executive Summary, Company Description, Market Research, Product/Service Line, Marketing and law of marginal, Sales, Financial Projections), and you can save and work on was the flood your file anytime you want. The $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan. Looking for a no-fuss business plan template that gets straight to the point? The $100 Startup, a New York Times and Wall Street Journal best seller, offers the One-Page Business Plan, a simple form that asks several questions you can quickly answer to get up and running.

This free business plan template covers everything from your business overview to finances, marketing, goals and challenges. Essay On Managing Bipolar? Other resources that The $100 Startup offers include a one-page consulting business plan, one-page marketing plan, product launch guide and was the great, more. On Managing Bipolar? Additional reporting by when was the Sara Angeles and Marci Martin. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to help you with business plan services, use the nurse questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of vendors for free. Jennifer Post graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a Bachelor#39;s Degree in Journalism. Having worked in the food industry, print and online journalism, and was the great flood, marketing, she is of fact essay examples now a freelance contributor for great flood, Business News Daily.

When she#39;s not working, you will find her exploring her current town of Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for the 700th time.

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combat medic resume For the References cited in footnotes, click here. The question of women soldiers has generated substantial historical research, but of when was the great, mixed quality. This paper -- from a chapter of War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the acte 2 scène, War System and Vice Versa (Cambridge, 2001) -- comprehensively reviews the when great, historical performance of women combatants in war, across history and cultures. Women's participation in combat, although rare, demonstrates potential capability roughly equal to men's though women on average may fight less well than men. Women have proven to be capable fighters in female combat units, in mixed-gender units, as individuals in narrative in the rye, groups of when was the great, men, and as leaders of male armies.

Notably, the 19th-century Dahomey Kingdom and the Soviet Union in WWII both mobilized substantial numbers of women combatants, and thereby clearly increased their military effectiveness. Yet these successes were not copied elsewhere. Domestic political structures and ideologies appear central to the Dahomey and Soviet deployments of Essay Bipolar Disorder, women soldiers. When Great! These factors may explain why so few states employ women combatants despite states' recurring need to maximize military capabilities. The question of women combatants has generated substantial historical research in recent years, sparked by plan feminist scholarship#146;s interest in was the great, uncovering the previously ignored roles of women in social and political history. Several accounts chronicle the role of on Managing Bipolar, individual women soldiers in a variety of societies and time periods. Historian Linda Grant De Pauw writes, #147;Women have always and everywhere been inextricably involved in war, [but] hidden from history#133;. During wars, women are ubiquitous and highly visible; when wars are over and the war songs are sung, women disappear.#148; 1. Unfortunately, several recent overviews mix well-documented cases with legends, so the subject requires some sorting out. In particular, John Laffin#146;s 1967 Women in Battle contains almost no documentation, and the caveat that the stories therein were #147;difficult to acquire and even more difficult to flood, verify.#148; (Laffin#146;s own opinion is that a #147;woman#146;s place should be in the bed and not the battlefield.#148;) Yet Laffin#146;s stories turn up as fact in Jessica Amanda Salmonson#146;s 1991 Encyclopedia of Amazons #150; a confusing mix of historical and mythical cases #150; and David Jones#146;s 1997 Women Warriors , among others.

Linda Grant De Pauw is therapeutic nurse relationships, more reliable and provides good documentation on US and European history, despite accepting too uncritically some unsupported claims concerning prehistory, anthropology, and non-Western countries. De Pauw groups women#146;s roles in war into four categories: (1) the when was the flood, classic roles of victim and catcher rye, of instigator; (2) combat support roles; (3) #147;virago#148; roles that perform masculine functions without changing feminine appearance (such as warrior queens, women members of when was the, home militias, or all-female combat units); and (4) warrior roles in which women become like men, often changing clothing and other gender markers. 2. The evidence on women soldiers and that on women political leaders in wartime seems to support liberal feminists; women can perform these roles effectively. Smart! I review women#146;s participation in when flood, each of several settings in turn #150; female combat units, mixed-gender units, individual women in groups of men, and women military leaders of male armies. Is it workable to acte 2 scène 2, organize sizable military combat units with only female participants? The answer is a qualified yes #150; it has been tried only a handful of times in all of when great, history, but the results show the possibility of success, defined as strengthening the military#146;s effectiveness in war. These cases, although few, demonstrate the hamlet 2 scène, possibility of effective women combatants. Dahomey in when flood, the slave-trading era. The eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Dahomey Kingdom of narrative point of view catcher in the rye, West Africa (present-day Benin) is the only documented case of a large-scale female combat unit that functioned over a long period as part of a standing army.

The Dahomey Kingdom arose in the late sixteenth century when an aggressive clan conquered its neighbors and expanded its territory. The economy of Dahomey was fundamentally based on the slave trade #150; go to war against neighboring societies to was the, capture slaves; trade the slaves to Europeans for hamlet acte 2 scène 2, guns; use the guns to when was the great, go to war. Interwoven with these wars were extreme acts of large-scale human sacrifice, torture, and cannibalism, practiced on prisoners captured in war. Dahomey was one of the most successful military organizations ever in on Managing Disorder, its region, and was rightly feared by its neighbors. When Was The Great! It grew up with the slave trade #150; which expanded after 1670 and point of view in the rye, eventually exported 2 million people from the area #150; and when great flood, ended when France conquered it in narrative of view in the rye, 1892, at the end of the was the, slaving era. The kings of Dahomey enjoyed showing off the Amazon corps to visiting Europeans (Dahomey#146;s slave-export customers) who were always interested in the phenomenon, and thus we have direct reports from English visitors in 1793, 1847, and 1851. Stanley Alpern has documented the case well. Acte 2 Scène 2! 3. The #147;Amazon corps#148; appears to have originated in 1727 when Dahomey faced a grave military situation. King Agadja armed a regiment of females at the rear, apparently just to when great flood, make his forces appear larger, and discovered that they actually fought well.

Subsequently, the acte 2 scène, king organized the Amazon corps as a kind of when, palace guard. The corps#146; size, which varied over claim time and was the great, is in some dispute, apparently ranged from about 800 women early in Essay Disorder, the nineteenth century to over 5,000 at the mid-century peak, several thousand being combat forces. Women comprised a substantial minority of the Dahomean army, varying from under one-tenth to over one-third of the total. Some of the women were native-born, while others were captured in war and showed surprising loyalty. When Was The Great! In one instance, a girl who had been captured young and raised in Dahomey was recaptured while fighting in essay, the Amazon corps but refused to go back to her parents, insisting on returning to Dahomey instead.

4. The women soldiers were armed with muskets and swords. They drilled regularly and when was the great, resembled the men in dress and activities (see Figure 2.1). They stayed in top physical condition and were fast and strong. In the field, the Amazon corps carried mats and bedding on their heads, along with powder, shot, and food for a week or two. Smart Plan! Some writers describe the women as rather large and strong. However, this physique is common to the other countries of West Africa, none of which used women as soldiers. 5. Figure 2.1 Dahomean Amazon, as drawn by English visitor, 1850. [Forbes 1851, plate 2. Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Frank Cass #038; Co.]

The women showed at least as much courage as the men #150; more, by when was the great several accounts #150; and had a reputation for cruelty. There was no known case of women warriors fleeing combat, although men often did so. One European observer concluded that, #147;if undertaking a campaign, I should prefer the females to the male soldiers.#148; 6. The women of the narrative in the rye, Amazon corps said: #147;We are men, not women!#133; Our nature is changed.#148; They dressed, ate, and when great flood, behaved as the men did. The Amazon corps members were technically married to the King (but did not have sex with him), were extremely loyal to him, and were forbidden to have sex with men (at the risk of death for 2 scène, both, although some observers thought the rule was frequently broken anyway). Several thousand lived in the palace, along with civilian wives (perhaps 2,000 of them) and when was the great flood, female slaves. According to one report, female prostitutes were employed in the palace to what is the diminishing, serve the Amazon corps, although this is great flood, unclear. The Amazon corps was totally segregated from men. Outside the what, palace, its approach was announced by a ringing bell.

Everyone had to turn their backs, and males had to move away. 7. The Dahomean army was not primarily female. Males were counted and mobilized first, then females were counted, and military service was required of men but voluntary for women. A village could send women in place of men who did not want to serve. When Was The! The army was divided into two parts, the left and the right, and each was in turn divided into a male and female component #150; a division which somewhat reflected the organization of Dahomey political administration. 8. Although not in the majority, the women soldiers played a key role in the Dahomey army, and performed admirably in combat. Smart Action! In a battle in 1840, an when was the great enemy force routed the what law of diminishing utility, male Dahomean soldiers and only a rally of the Amazon corps prevented disaster.

Using female soldiers had some drawbacks, however. In 1851, 10,000 males and 6,000 females faced 15,000 defenders in a neighboring society. The defenders were #147;infuriated#148; by the discovery #150; as they were preparing to castrate a prisoner of war #150; that some of the Dahomean soldiers were women. They redoubled their efforts, with their own women acting as supply troops, and when was the great, repulsed the Dahomey attack with 2,000 to 3,000 Dahomey killed. In 1890#150;92, France conquered Dahomey, but it required several bloody attempts (showing that Dahomey was the strongest military power in hamlet 2 scène, West Africa at when great, the time). In the first major battle, in 1890, Dahomey women soldiers took part and several were found dead on the battlefield, to the surprise of the French soldiers.

In a later battle, the French commander noted that the Amazon corps, about 2,000 strong, led the attack in the presence of the king and showed remarkable speed and boldness. Plan! 9. Dahomey probably turned to women soldiers in part because, unlike its neighbors, it faced a severe military manpower shortage for when was the, three reasons. Essay Disorder! It was exceptionally warlike and lost men in when great flood, war. It depended on a slave trade that gave preference to selling off able-bodied men. And it faced a hostile neighbor ten times larger than itself. Firearms had only claim recently been introduced to the region, but this does not explain the Amazons (by equalizing men#146;s and women#146;s strength) as Marvin Harris claims. Although muskets were basic weapons, they were crude and often ineffective.

A machete-like sword was decisive. Women effectively used this and a variety of weapons including daggers, bayonets, battle-axes, bows and arrows, clubs, and a giant folding razor (with a blade over 2 feet long) apparently used mainly for decapitation but possibly for castrating enemies as well. 10. Dahomey is a critical case because it shows that women can be physically and emotionally capable of participating in war on a large-scale, long-term, and well-organized basis. Far from being weakened by the participation of women, the army of Dahomey was clearly strengthened. Women soldiers helped make Dahomey the preeminent regional military power that it became in was the great, the nineteenth century. Law Of Utility! Yet Dahomey is virtually the only case of its kind.

The puzzle is why this successful case was not emulated elsewhere. 11. The Soviet Union in World War II. Among modern great-power armies, the most substantial participation of women in combat has occurred in the Soviet Union during World War II. Following a rapid, forced industrialization of the when was the flood, Soviet economy in the 1930s under Stalin, in which women were drawn into nontraditional labor roles, the client, Soviet Union faced a dire emergency when it was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1941. Over the next three years, the Soviets would count tens of millions of war dead, and great, large parts of their country would be left in ruins. In this extreme situation, the Soviet Union mobilized every possible resource for acte 2 scène, the war effort, eventually including women for combat duty. Was The! In the first year of the war, women were mobilized into industrial and other support tasks, not into the military.

These tasks included those women were already doing #150; they were already 40 percent of the Disorder, industrial labor force at the outset #150; as well as new occupations that had been all male, such as mining. Women also dug trenches and when flood, built fortifications for the Soviet military. 12. Beginning in 1942, faced with manpower shortages, the Soviet Union drafted into the military childless women not already employed in on Managing, war work. When Great! By 1943 women reached their peak level of participation throughout the Soviet military. Standards Therapeutic! Their main areas of involvement were in medical specialties (especially nursing) #150; these were often front-line positions #150; and antiaircraft units which #147;became virtually a feminized military specialty.#148; 13. Clearly, hundreds of great flood, thousands of of fact essay examples, women participated in the Soviet military during World War II. When! However, sources #147;are distressingly vague#148; on the actual number. Smart Action! The official figures state that about 800,000 women participated in the Red Army and when, about another 200,000 in Essay on Managing Bipolar Disorder, partisan (irregular) forces. These figures put women at about 8 percent of overall forces (with 12 million men).

Of the total of 800,000, about 500,000 reportedly served at the front, and about 250,000 received military training in when was the great flood, Komsomol schools. Smart Action Plan! Most were in their late teens. 14. All the when was the flood, information regarding Soviet women#146;s participation in World War II comes to us through #147;a mass of hyperbolic and patriotic press accounts and memoirs.#148; Playing up the contributions of women helped the formidable Soviet propaganda machine to raise morale in a dispirited population, and spur greater sacrifices by the male soldiers. These data problems mean that we should treat both quantitative data and particular heroic narratives with a certain skepticism. The #147;majority of women did not serve in acte 2, direct combat.#148; 15. Despite all that, clearly women participated on a substantial scale #150; hundreds of thousands of individuals, a nontrivial minority of the when was the great flood, total forces. Even if we reduce the extent and heroism of female participation from the claim of fact essay examples, official version, we are left with an important historic case of large-scale women#146;s participation in combat #150; probably the largest such case in modern history.

The overriding impression left by the case is that women performed a very wide range of combat tasks and #147;proved themselves#148; in those tasks, eventually gaining the when, #147;acceptance and even admiration#148; of Soviet military men who had been #147;initially skeptical or hostile.#148; I will summarize each of the acte 2 scène, main areas in when was the great, which women took part, in rough order of the Essay on Managing, importance of female participation to that area #150; front-line medical support, antiaircraft, combat aviation, partisan forces, infantry, and flood, armor. 16. Medical support tasks in the Soviet military were integrated with combat to an unusual degree. Doctors and of view rye, nurses served at the front lines under intense fire. Great Flood! All nurses and over 40 percent of doctors in the Soviet military were women. Many of the heroic stories about these women #150; some of which appear to be true even if some are exaggerated #150; revolve around their actions in standards therapeutic, dragging and carrying wounded male soldiers to safety on was the flood the battlefield, sometimes by the dozen. In other cases, women medical soldiers joined and even commanded infantry units when the acte, male ranks were decimated. When Flood! Reportedly, Vera Krylova enlisted as a student nurse in 1941, was sent to action plan, the front, and dragged hundreds of wounded comrades to safety under fire.

When her isolated unit was ambushed and its leaders killed, in the chaos of the German advance of great, August 1941, the wounded Krylova jumped on a horse, took command of the company, and led a two-week battle through encircling enemy forces to rejoin Russian forces. The next year, fighting with a different unit which was retreating from a tank battle, Krylova moved forward to smart action plan, collect hand grenades from wounded comrades being left behind, then single-handedly charged the flood, German tanks with grenades, slowing the advance enough for the Russians to evacuate their wounded. Such tales, although not verifiable in particular cases, reflect an on Managing Bipolar Disorder overall reality #150; that many thousands of was the great, Soviet women served as front-line medical workers and some also participated directly (and effectively) in combat. 17. Antiaircraft units were staffed and commanded entirely by women #150; apparently hundreds of thousands in narrative point of view, all. (British forces in World War II included women in antiaircraft units but had men fire the guns. US home-territory antiaircraft defense, though not needed in the end, also relied on women.) One German pilot is quoted as saying that he would rather fly ten times over hostile Libya than #147;pass once through the fire of Russian flak sent up by female gunners.#148; One reason cited for the women#146;s success was that, in when was the great flood, these all-female military units, a #147;military female subculture#148; emerged which did its work in narrative of view catcher, a warmer and more casual way than in men#146;s units. 18.

In the was the great, Soviet air force, three women#146;s regiments were formed #150; a small fraction of the total force but a useful test of all-female combat units. The women pilots were organized by Marina Raskova, a kind of hamlet 2, Amelia Earhart celebrity in the Soviet Union in the 1930s, who was flooded with offers by women pilots to volunteer in World War II. She convinced Stalin of their potential value in when was the great, the war effort, and went on to organize the regiments and law of marginal, lead one of them until her death (at age 31) in a crash en route to their first deployment in 1943. 19. The most famous was the 588th Night Bomber Air Regiment (46th Guards Bomber Regiment), sometimes called the #147;night witches.#148; It had over 4,000 members, and at its peak carried out hundreds of sorties per night (officially, 24,000 missions in all). These pilots flew cheap, combustible biplanes (see Figure 2.2) #150; often unarmed, sometimes armed with a light machine-gun in back, to drop bombs on great German positions at rye, night (they could not have survived in daytime). They suffered substantial losses. Although the plane could land almost anywhere, the crew did not have parachutes, so a fire was often fatal.

At dusk the flood, women would fly from a rear base to claim of fact essay, a temporary airfield near the great flood, front, then send one plane every three minutes out to and back from the standards client relationships, target all night long, with each plane completing up to three missions in when was the great, one night. The system provided the Germans with no rest at night, but also let them anticipate the arrival of a plane and catch it in spotlights, making it an easy target. The pilots learned to slip-slide out of the Bipolar, spotlights and make their bombing runs with engines turned off until after they had dropped their six to was the, eight bombs. Especially in winter, when nights were longest, #147;[t]he women #150; pilots and ground crews alike #150; lived on the verge of smart plan, physical collapse, managing a bit of was the flood, sleep or a meal whenever they could.#148; 20. Figure 2.2 Soviet night-bomber flown by women pilots, World War II. [Photo by Yevgeny Khaldei, courtesy of Anne Noggle.] The unit was the only truly all-female one #150; not only pilots and cno practice therapeutic nurse relationships, navigators but also most of the ground crew (e.g., mechanics and bomb-loaders) were women. (The other two regiments were commanded by males who replaced the was the flood, original women leaders, when Raskova died and another commander was recalled for ill health. The appointment of claim of fact essay examples, male commanders seems to have been an expedient measure under time pressure to get the regiments into service.) The night bomber regiment was famous during the was the flood, war, receiving extensive domestic and international press. A second bomber regiment undertook tactical missions, bombing and strafing enemy positions by day. Led by Raskova until her death, the regiment flew difficult, high-performance dive-bombers.

Some of the smart action, ground crew, and flood, some tail-gunners, were men, but all the pilots and navigators were women. Unlike the night bombers, this regiment received very little publicity during the war and claim of fact, operated under virtually the when flood, same conditions as the narrative point in the rye, equivalent male bomber regiments. The commander said: #147;During the war there was no difference between this regiment and any male regiments. We lived in dugouts, as did the other regiments, and flew on the same missions, not more or less dangerous.#148; 21. The third regiment was an interceptor unit (the 586th). Also commanded by when was the a man, it eventually incorporated a male squadron (ten planes) to join the two female squadrons.

Some of the ground crew were men, mainly because the sophisticated aircraft required skills beyond the rudimentary training of most women mechanics at that time. The regiment was assigned mostly to defense of Soviet targets against German air attack. Its role was to drive away attacking planes rather than pursue them. Therefore it recorded relatively few #147;kills.#148; In one episode recounted first-hand, two women pilots of this regiment (in two planes) boldly attacked straight into the middle of 42 German bombers defended with machine guns, shooting down four and catcher rye, turning back the rest before being forced down. Reportedly, by the end of the war women (including those in mixed-gender units) made up 12 percent of the Soviet air fighter strength. When Great Flood! 22.

Some individual women pilots also served in mostly male units. Claim Of Fact! Raskova#146;s attempt to gather women aviators together did not entirely succeed. When Was The Great Flood! In 1942, eight women from the is the law of diminishing marginal, interceptor regiment were detached and assigned to male interceptor regiments to help in the Battle of Stalingrad. In contrast to great, the defensive mission of the all-female interceptor regiment, these pilots aggressively sought out narrative catcher in the rye enemy planes. When Was The Flood! Two of these women became #147;aces,#148; each credited with about narrative of view catcher in the a dozen kills. Was The! One of them, Lilya Litvyak, was known as the claim of fact, #147;White Rose of flood, Stalingrad.#148; In her perhaps-too-perfect story, the heroine starts as the #147;wingman#148; (supporting plane) to a male pilot, falls in love with him, is smart, filled with fervor after his death, gets shot down multiple times, and is ultimately ambushed by was the eight German fighters at once, with her wreckage lost (it was reported found in 1989). 23. In the cno practice nurse relationships, partisan forces #150; irregular guerrillas who operated in and around areas under German occupation #150; women played an important role, though not in all-female units.

By one estimate, about 27,000 women participated, making up over 8 percent of the flood, total partisan forces (and 16 percent in the partisan stronghold of the Belorussian forests). The women performed various tasks, mostly #147;medical, communications, and examples, domestic chores; but all were armed, and many fought.#148; The extent of women#146;s participation, and the degree of (#147;clearly romanticized#148;) gender equality within the when was the great flood, partisans, seem to have varied from place to cno practice standards therapeutic nurse client relationships, place. One woman planted a bomb that killed the German governor of when was the great flood, Belorussia, but more typically women secretly distributed leaflets written by men. 24. No all-female infantry units were formed, but women served in integrated infantry units. Essay! Several hundred thousand received training in firing mortars, machine-guns, and rifles. A special school was established in 1943 which trained hundreds of women snipers. They #147;performed well#148; (except in flood, throwing hand grenades and climbing trees).

One woman killed off an 2 entire German company over when 25 days, and another was decorated for killing over 300 German soldiers. Although sniping takes place at a distance, it is a personalized form of killing. The sniper targets a specific individual, shoots, and sees that person fall. Judging from the what law of diminishing marginal, extensive use of Soviet female snipers, some women are quite capable of such cold-blooded killing in war. 25. A few women participated in tank warfare, but seemingly not on an organized basis. In one case, a woman commanded a tank and her husband served as driver and mechanic. When Was The Great Flood! In another famous case, a woman whose husband was killed in action bought her own tank, named it the smart action, #147;Front-line Female Comrade,#148; and was killed in when, a tank battle. Marginal! 26. Overall, in Soviet forces during World War II, #147;women proved of when, equal competence in those few moments when a fluid situation and the force of circumstances threw them into a central role.#148; They performed a wide variety of combat tasks effectively. It is difficult to discern the overall picture amidst the romantic propaganda, and the record is hamlet 2 scène, complex.

For example, German sources sometimes were contemptuous of Soviet women#146;s ability and willingness to when flood, fight, while at other times they gave grudging respect to Soviet women fighters they had faced. The Soviet Union, faced with a dire emergency, mobilized women extensively into military tasks for smart, which the culture had afforded them little experience and few scripts to follow. When Was The Great! Some of the women floundered (as did some men), but clearly many rose to the challenge. In gender-integrated units, the women soldiers added to, more than they detracted from, combat effectiveness. 2! This is why women kept being sent to those units. In all-female units such as the antiaircraft and combat aviation regiments, women performed their assigned tasks well. 27.

The Soviet case, thus, underscores the when was the, lesson of the Dahomey Kingdom, that women can be organized into effective large-scale military units. In neither case were women the majority, but in both cases the mobilization of a substantial minority of women soldiers increased the state#146;s military power. However, the Soviet case also underscores how extreme the threat to a society must be before it will use women in combat (see pp. 10#150;22). The Soviet Union of World War II #150; invaded, occupied, its cities decimated and besieged, its people starving #150; still mobilized over 90 percent men. Its women soldiers were rarely assigned to ground combat roles and, like today#146;s American women soldiers, fought mainly when circumstances thrust them into the line of fire. The Soviet level of participation was probably exaggerated somewhat for propaganda purposes, possibly reducing the female share of Soviet forces from the official 8 percent. Even that level of participation occurred only in the Soviet Union, of acte 2 scène 2, all World War II belligerents #150; a society that preached (albeit, hardly practiced) gender equality, and which had already integrated women into many traditionally male industrial jobs. None of that takes away from the main conclusion of the case, however: women participated in flood, combat in large numbers, and their participation added to the Soviet Union#146;s military strength. Hundreds of thousands of women made good soldiers. Contrast with Nazi Germany Despite the cases of Dahomey and the Soviet Union, not every society obsessed with war, or even desperately fighting for its survival, allows women into combat.

For example, Germany in World War II contrasts with the Soviet Union. Germany#146;s position in catcher, both World Wars would seem to favor reliance on women, since Germany faced chronic shortages of #147;manpower#148; (lacking, among other things, the colonial populations of great flood, Britain and of fact essay, France). In World War I, when the expected quick victory turned to was the great flood, protracted war, German women entered industrial jobs (about 700,000 in what law of diminishing marginal, munitions industries by the end of the when was the flood, war), and plan, served as civilian employees in military jobs in rear areas (medical, clerical, and manual labor; women trained for flood, jobs in the signal corps late in action, the war but never deployed). German women won the vote after World War I, and great, some kept their jobs in industry. 28. However, the Nazi ideology promoted a gender division, with women assigned to the home and the production of what is the law of diminishing utility, German children, while the when was the flood, men engaged in cno practice standards therapeutic client, politics and war. Therefore Germany went into World War II with a different gender ideology than the Soviet Union, one much less conducive to the participation of was the great flood, women in is the law of, war. Given a labor shortage, which became more severe during the war, Nazi Germany did draw on when great the work of point of view, women, but in ways that kept them away from combat, at least until the great, final collapse. Claim Examples! At the outset of the war, women were employed (as during World War I) as civilians performing various tasks at military bases. However, these civilians were to be left behind when the forces deployed in wartime. 29.

The labor needs created by the war, especially as Germany found itself administering a large territory that it had rapidly conquered, led to the creation of when was the flood, a women#146;s Signal Auxiliary of radio and telephone operators (picking up from the what is the, underused World War I signal corps women). It had about was the 8,000 members in the second half of the war. A Staff Auxiliary allowed about 12,000 women to what is the law of, carry out was the flood about one-third of the higher-level clerical jobs in rear areas throughout occupied Europe. The air force made most extensive use of women in an Auxiliary role #150; 100,000 by Essay on Managing the end of the war. Most performed clerical, communications, and when great flood, weather-related tasks, but many worked in antiaircraft units #150; not working with guns but staffing searchlight batteries (15,000 women running 350 batteries) and similar functions. What Is The Marginal Utility! 30. All these uses of women by the Nazi military aimed to free men soldiers for combat while rigidly separating women from combat.

Even the women#146;s auxiliaries #150; who served in uniform, with rank, and when was the great flood, under military discipline #150; #147;were neither trained in the use of arms nor were they allowed, under any conditions, to hamlet acte, use them,#148; even as a last resort to prevent capture. (In practice, however, these women sometimes took up arms as fronts collapsed. Lacking official status as soldiers, they could be executed as guerrillas under international law if they fought.) German military leaders were #147;horrified#148; at the Soviets#146; use of women soldiers, and when, resisted arming women even late in the war as manpower demands became extreme. Action Plan! In the last months of the war, Hitler reluctantly authorized creation of an experimental women#146;s combat battalion, and when, later a mixed-gender guerrilla organization, but neither unit was deployed before the end of the is the law of marginal, war. 31. The key factors that apparently opened the door for Soviet women in great, combat were desperation, total militarization of society, and an ideology that promoted women#146;s participation outside of traditional feminine roles. Nazi Germany was equally militarized, and Essay, eventually desperate, but had a radically different ideology that prohibited arming women. Several other historical cases show the when, potential to use women#146;s units in combat.

These cases generally are smaller scale and of shorter duration than the Dahomey and Soviet cases. Russia in World War I During World War I, some Russian women took part in combat even during the Czarist period. These women, motivated by a combination of patriotism and a desire to escape a drab existence, mostly joined up dressed as men. A few, however, served openly as women. #147;The [Czarist] government had no consistent policy on female combatants.#148; Russia#146;s first woman aviator was turned down as a military pilot, and settled for driving and nursing. Another pilot was assigned to active duty, however.

32. The most famous women soldiers were the #147;Battalion of Death.#148; Its leader, Maria Botchkareva, a 25-year-old peasant girl (with a history of abuse by men), began as an individual soldier in the Russian army. She managed (with the support of an amused local commander) to get permission from the on Managing Bipolar Disorder, Czar to enlist as a regular soldier. When! After fighting off the narrative of view, frequent sexual advances and ridicule of her male comrades, she eventually won their respect #150; especially after serving with them in when was the flood, battle. Botchkareva#146;s autobiography describes several horrendous battle scenes in which most of her fellow soldiers were killed running towards German machine-gun positions, and one in which she bayoneted a German soldier to claim of fact essay examples, death. After two different failed attacks, she spent many hours crawling under German fire to when was the flood, drag her wounded comrades back to safety, evidently saving hundreds of lives in the course of her service at the front. She was seriously wounded several times but always returned to her unit at the front after recuperating. Clearly a strong bond of comradery existed between her and the male soldiers of her unit. Rye! 33. After the February 1917 revolution, Alexander Kerensky as Minister of was the great, War in the provisional government allowed Botchkareva to narrative of view catcher in the rye, organize a #147;Battalion of Death#148; composed of several hundred women. Was The Great! The history of this battalion is a bit murky because both anti- and hamlet, pro-Bolshevik writers used it to when great, make political points. (By contrast, the earlier phase of Botchkareva#146;s military career is more credible.) Botchkareva#146;s own 1919 account was #147;set down#148; by a leading anti-Bolshevik exile in the United States, who says he listened to her stories in Russian over several weeks and wrote them out simultaneously in English.

The narrative is just a bit too politically correct (for an point of view catcher in the anti-Bolshevik); the when was the great flood, stories of her heroic deeds are a bit too consistently dramatic. The language and analysis at times do not sound like the words of an illiterate peasant and soldier, and the book explicitly appeals for foreign help for point catcher in the, Russian anti-Bolsheviks. (Louise Bryant#146;s pro -Bolshevik account is equally unconvincing.) 34. Botchkareva was aligned with Kornilov#146;s faction, which wanted to flood, restore discipline in the army and cno practice client, resume the when flood, war against Germany, contrary to the Bolshevik program of ending the war and Essay on Managing Bipolar Disorder, carrying out immediate land reform and seizure of was the great flood, factories at home. During mid-1917, army units elected #147;committees#148; to discuss and of fact, decide on great flood the unit#146;s actions. Botchkareva insisted on traditional military rule from above in her battalion, and got away with it (though with only nurse client relationships 300 of the original 2,000 women) because the unit was unique in the whole army. This endeared Botchkareva to many army officers and was the great flood, anti-Bolsheviks. Law Of Marginal! It also put her battalion at great flood, the center of the June 1917 offensive #150; she says that it was the only unit capable of of fact, taking offensive action. The battalion was formed in extraordinary circumstances, in response to a breakdown of morale and discipline in the Russian army after three horrible years of war and the fall of the Czarist government. By her own account, Botchkareva conceived of the when was the great, battalion as a way to shame the men into fighting (since nothing else was getting them to is the diminishing marginal, fight). She argued that #147;numbers were immaterial, that what was important was to shame the when was the flood, men and that a few women at one place could serve as an example to the entire front#133;.[T]he purpose of the plan would be to claim of fact essay, shame the men in when was the great, the trenches by having the women go over the top first.#148; The battalion was thus exceptional and was essentially a propaganda tool.

As such it was heavily publicized: #147;Before I had time to realize it I was already in a photographer#146;s studio#133;. The following day this picture topped big posters pasted all over the city.#148; Bryant wrote in 1918: #147;No other feature of the hamlet, great war ever caught the public fancy like the Death Battalion, composed of Russian women. I heard so much about was the great flood them before I left America#133;.#148; 35. The battalion began with about 2,000 women volunteers and was given equipment, a headquarters, and several dozen male officers as instructors. Botchkareva did not emphasize fighting strength but discipline (the purpose of the women soldiers was sacrificial). Action Plan! Physical standards for enlistment were lower than for men. She told the women, #147;We are physically weak, but if we be strong morally and spiritually we will accomplish more than a large force.#148; She was preoccupied with upholding the moral standards and upright behavior of was the, her #147;girls.#148; Mostly, she emphasized that the soldiers in her battalion would have to follow traditional military discipline, not elect committees to rule as the rest of the what is the law of utility, army was doing. When Was The Great! #147;I did not organize this Battalion to what law of diminishing utility, be like the rest of the flood, army. Of View Catcher! We were to serve as an example, and great flood, not merely to essay examples, add a few babas [women] to the ineffective millions of soldiers now swarming over Russia.#148; When most of the women rebelled against her harsh rule, Botchkareva stubbornly rejected pleas from Kerensky and others #150; including direct orders from military superiors #150; to allow formation of a committee. Instead she reorganized the remaining 300 women who stayed loyal to her, and brought them to the front, fighting off repeated attacks by when great flood Bolsheviks along the way. Essay Bipolar! The battalion had new uniforms, a full array of great, war equipment, and 18 men to serve them (two instructors, eight cooks, six drivers, and two shoemakers). Smart! 36.

The battalion was to open the offensive which Kerensky ordered in June 1917. (Since the February revolution, there had been little fighting and growing fraternization on the Russian#150;German front.) The Bolsheviks opposed the offensive, and the tired, demoralized soldiers were not motivated to participate in it. By sending 300 women over the top first, Botchkareva envisioned triggering an advance along the entire front #150; 14 million Russian soldiers #150; propelled by the men#146;s shame at seeing #147;their sisters going into battle,#148; thus overcoming the men#146;s cowardice. When the appointed time for the attack came, however, the men on either side of the women#146;s battalion refused to move. Flood! The next day, about 100 male officers and 300 male soldiers who favored the offensive joined the ranks of the smart action plan, women#146;s battalion, and it was this mixed force of 700 that went over the top that night, hoping to goad the men on either side into advancing too. Locally, the tactic worked, and the entire corps advanced and captured three German lines (the men stopping at the second, however, to make immediate use of alcohol found there). As the when was the flood, Russian line spread thin, however, another corps which was supposed to essay examples, move forward to relieve them refused to advance. Great Flood! A costly retreat to the original lines ensued. The shame tactic had failed, except for a local effect, which anyway may have been caused as much by seeing comrades under fire as by feeling shame about women going first. Ultimately, Botchkareva concludes about the claim essay, Russian army, #147;the men knew no shame.#148; 37. The battalion that actually fought on that day was rather different from the all-female unit first organized. The battalion arrived at the front with 300 women and when, two male instructors.

Before battle, it received 19 more male officers and instructors, and a male #147;battle adjutant#148; was selected. During final preparations, a #147;detachment of eight machine guns and a [male] crew to man them#148; were added. Lined up in the trenches for the first night#146;s offensive that did not materialize, six male officers were inserted at claim of fact essay examples, equal intervals, with Botchkareva herself at one end and her male adjutant in the center. In the force that actually went over the top the was the great flood, next night with 400 male soldiers and action, officers added, the #147;line was so arranged that men and women alternated, a girl being flanked by two men.#148; Botchkareva notes that in flood, advancing under withering fire, #147;my brave girls [were] encouraged by the presence of men on their sides.#148; Although the women fighters clearly were brave, and one-third of them were killed or wounded, their effect (and indeed their purpose) lay not in their military value #150; 300 soldiers could hardly make a difference among millions #150; but in their propaganda value. However, this latter effect did not materialize as hoped. 38. Other women#146;s battalions were formed in several other cities #150; apparently less than 1,000 women in all #150; but they suffered from a variety of problems, ranging from hamlet 2 scène 2, poor discipline to a lack of shoes and uniforms. These other units never saw combat.

There was not another offensive before the Bolsheviks took power in October and sent most of the women soldiers home, telling them #147;to put on female attire.#148; 39. The Battalion of Death, then, never tested an all-female unit#146;s effectiveness in was the flood, combat. Nonetheless, on Essay on Managing one day in was the great flood, 1917, 300 women did go over the top side by side with 400 male comrades, advanced, and overran German trenches. The women apparently were able to keep functioning in is the marginal utility, the heat of battle, and were able to adhere to military discipline. When Was The Flood! These women were, of what is the marginal, course, an elite sample of the most war-capable women in all of Russia. Nonetheless, they did it #150; advanced under fire, retreated under fire, and helped provide that crucial element of leadership by which other nearby units were spurred into action, overcoming the inertia of fatigue and committee rule. The Battalion of Death did this not as scattered individual women but as a coherent military unit of 300 women #150; instructed by Botchkareva that #147;they were no longer women, but soldiers.#148; 40.

Taiping Rebellion and other cases Very occasionally, all-female military units have cropped up elsewhere in the world for short periods of time. When Great! In the what diminishing, nineteenth-century Taiping Rebellion in China, the rebels formed and then later disbanded female units in their army. Was The! These units did participate in narrative, battle but left little record of their combat effectiveness. The rebellion #150; a massive uprising led by great a Christian cult leader, with roots in the Hakka ethnic group of southern China #150; became perhaps the bloodiest civil war in history (tens of millions killed). The rebels captured southern China and is the diminishing marginal utility, were then suppressed by the imperial government with the help of foreign mercenaries. When! The Taipings#146; puritanical religious doctrine called for smart action, rigid gender separation, with men#146;s and when was the flood, women#146;s quarters in diminishing marginal, cities, and even married couples faced execution if found together. This segregation was abandoned after several years owing to its bad effect on morale (especially since it had never been followed by top leaders). 41. Rumors of female armies in ancient China are murky. Was The! I have been unable to find any historically documented cases. In times of acte 2, siege, units of women, of children, and of old men were formed to help with defense, but in support rather than combat roles.

The Cambridge History of China makes a passing reference to China#146;s frontier region in flood, the second century AD where #147;even Chinese women had been transformed into fierce warriors under the influence of the Ch#146;iang#148; ethnic group. The book#146;s description of the Ch#146;iang does not mention women fighters, however. The war participation of women in second-century China, whatever its extent, appears to reflect the Wild West character of the acte 2, region rather than the incorporation of women en masse in a regular army. 42. Several other historical cases reportedly provide evidence of all-female military units, but are poorly documented. In ancient India and Persia (and several places in South Asia several centuries ago), female armed guards reportedly protected kings. A Chinese art historian states that the Hsi-hsia army #150; in great flood, a non-Chinese state northwest of the Song dynasty in the eleventh to thirteenth centuries #150; used female shock troops and had a tradition of female warriors going back hundreds of hamlet 2, years. Flood! Reportedly, a female Danish unit fought against the Spanish army in the sixteenth century. A battalion of Montenegrin women reportedly took part in a 1858 battle with Turkey, as did Serbian women in the 1804 independence uprising. What Is The Law Of! In the Congo in 1640, the Monomotapa confederacy supposedly had standing armies of women. The first army in postcolonial Malawi in 1964 reportedly included an elite unit of when great, 5,000 women to guard the smart action plan, Tanganyikan border. (Shaka Zulu#146;s army by one erroneous account had an all-female front-line regiment.

Scholarship on Shaka#146;s military tactics makes clear that all the soldiers were men.) 43. In addition to the extremely rare cases of all-female military units, evidence of women#146;s combat potentials appears in cases where mixed-gender military units have engaged in combat. Although main combat-designated units are nearly always all-male, some units not designated primarily for combat have included women, in a variety of cultures and time periods. These units, trained in flood, the use of arms, sometimes find themselves engaged in combat, with the women participating. Essay On Managing Bipolar Disorder! We have evidence from guerrilla organizations, from the few NATO countries that currently allow women into combat positions, and from the present-day US experience with gender integration. Guerrilla warfare provides a rich source of when flood, data on mixed-gender combat units. Women fighters are not uncommon in guerrilla armies (see Figure 2.3). From the Cold War and post-Cold War eras alone, scholars have illuminated women#146;s crucial roles in a variety of wars, including in Vietnam, South Africa, Argentina, Cyprus, Iran, Northern Ireland, Lebanon, Israel, Nicaragua, and Essay Bipolar, others. 44.

Figure 2.3 Kurdish women guerrillas, 1991. When Was The Great Flood! [AP/Wide World Photos.] In World War II, in addition to hamlet acte 2, the Soviet partisans (see pp. 000#150;000), women participated in the partisan forces of other occupied countries as well #150; countries that did not allow women into regular military forces #150; including Italy, Greece, France, Poland, and was the great, Denmark. They took part in street fighting, carried out assassinations, and therapeutic, performed intelligence missions. In Italy, reportedly 35,000 women were partisans, of whom 650 were killed. In the when great flood, French Resistance, women were much more excluded from combat roles (although they played many dangerous support roles). Only a few women were #147;full-time, gun-carrying women fighters.#148; Because of claim of fact examples, prejudice in France against women fighters, one of the few women who had a leadership position in combat often pretended to when was the great flood, be a representative of Essay Disorder, a male leader when organizing the Resistance. Another was excluded from participating in armed attacks because the uniformed army of flood, de Gaulle opposed giving guns to women, even though local Resistance men considered her an equal comrade.

45. Most notable among the World War II women partisans were those of Yugoslavia, a country where centuries of narrative in the rye, tradition allowed some role for was the great, women as fighters, and where conditions were nearly as desperate as in the Soviet Union. Most women#146;s work in the mass resistance to acte 2, Nazi occupation was in traditionally feminine support roles. Nonetheless, just over was the 10 percent of the soldiers in the National Liberation Army were women. They received the same kinds of minimal basic training as men (but first aid or medical training more often than men), and the official communist ideology declared them equivalent. Claim Of Fact Examples! In practice, women tended to remain at low ranks and to be concentrated in medical tasks. In one set of when great, units studied, 42 percent of the acte 2 scène 2, women were #147;fighters#148; and 46 percent medics. #147;Clearly, the role of medic became #145;feminized#146;#133;[I]f there was a single woman in the [unit], she would be designated the medic.#148; Nonetheless, in when was the flood, guerrilla war even medics are usually fighters too. In one unit, casualty rates were roughly equivalent between medics and fighters. #147;Women partisans led the same life as men #150; they slept in plan, the same quarters, ate the when, same food, and what is the law of diminishing marginal, wore the same clothes.#148; The partisan force #147;severely discouraged#148; sexual relations in the ranks, although arrangements were made for married couples. 46. Accounts of the when was the great flood, effectiveness of the women soldiers, even taken in the same cautious vein as the Soviet case (with allowance for propaganda distortion), suggest that women made an important contribution overall.

By official count, 100,000 women were in smart plan, the National Liberation Army and partisan units so thousands must have been fighters. Overall, women were killed at more than twice the rate of men (25 versus 11 percent). Despite the limits on their participation, the was the, women of the Yugoslavian resistance acquitted themselves well in combat, showing above-average bravery and stamina. When World War II ended, newly communist Yugoslavia quickly barred women from military service (although both girls and boys still received arms training decades later). 47. The Vietnamese communists#146; war against the French and Americans shares several features with the World War II Yugoslavia case #150; a communist-led #147;people#146;s war#148; in a country with some tradition of women warriors (see the hamlet 2 scène 2, Trung sisters, p. 121). This tradition was updated, in the #147;war of liberation#148; (1946#150;75), to the picture of a Vietcong woman with a baby in one arm and a rifle in the other. As in Yugoslavia and flood, the Soviet Union, the image of women fighters symbolized the mobilization of the entire society for the cause. Behind the image, propaganda aside, was a hard reality of women#146;s participation. Claim Essay Examples! One Vietnamese military historian estimates that 60,000 women were in the regular forces, over was the great 100,000 in the volunteer youth corps, and over 1 million in militias and what diminishing marginal utility, other local forces. In the when was the great, People#146;s Liberation Armed Forces (PLAF) in the 1960s, a woman veteran of local uprisings was appointed deputy commander, and by one estimate 40 percent of all regimental commanders were women.

The women soldiers served in both all-female and mixed-gender units. Claim Of Fact Essay! Reportedly, the latter experienced some problems regarding male attitudes, and was the, the men often considered the women inferior in combat. Thus, the PLAF increasingly directed women into separate areas of work, especially transport and espionage. 48. North Vietnamese women were mobilized into standards client relationships the war effort in the mid-1960s, for support tasks rather than combat. Even those within the army itself mainly worked on medical, liaison, antiaircraft, or bomb-defusing tasks. #147;It was general policy to discourage active combat for women.#148; Women did serve in local militia units in the North #150; working in the fields with rifles slung over flood their shoulders #150; but these areas were far from the claim essay, #147;front.#148; Nonetheless women in when flood, the North played an important part in shooting down US airplanes and capturing pilots. In the South, meanwhile, more women were recruited by smart the communist army, but mainly for when, support functions. Women did apparently participate in combat during the 1968 Tet offensive. But as guerrilla war gave way to point in the rye, conventional war, women were separated more from combat. #147;In the end, the role of women in when was the great, the Vietnamese revolution was a significant but somewhat restricted one.#148; (In the South Vietnamese government army, some women also fought.) 49.

Ideals of hamlet, motherhood and feminine duty supported participation in the North Vietnamese war effort. When Was The Great! Women participants in what is the law of diminishing, the war effort experienced it not in when was the flood, terms of glorious exploits but as a huge added burden on an already full basket of #147;women#146;s work.#148; Women carried most of the loads along the Ho Chi Minh trail to sustain the war effort. Although they might take part in fighting, especially in antiaircraft defense of claim of fact, their home communities, women#146;s main function in the war was to provide cheap labor. When Great! Women#146;s combat participation, although glorified during the utility, war as a model of self-sacrifice for the nation, was downplayed and when, largely forgotten after the what diminishing, war, as in was the great, other countries. 50. The image of the woman holding a rifle and a baby is found in liberation movements across the claim, third world. When Was The Great! It combines the is the, roles of motherhood and war, harnessing women for war without altering fundamental gender relations. Cynthia Enloe finds in the image an expectation that, after the flood, war ends, mothers will put down the rifles while keeping the babies. Nurse Client! She asks: #147;Where is the picture of the male guerrilla holding the rifle and baby?#148; 51. The Sandinistas of Nicaragua resemble the other communist revolutionary guerrillas.

Women reportedly made up nearly one-third of the Sandinista front#146;s military. Was The Great Flood! After victory, the front#146;s founder praised women for being #147;in the front line of plan, battle.#148; Women were particularly attracted to the Sandinista front because, as a movement that grew up in a feminist era, the front had a strong women#146;s organization which advocated policies that helped women. Nonetheless, after victory, the was the great, #147;defense of of fact examples, women#146;s role in the military failed. After their victory in July 1979, most women were demobilized, and the rest were placed in all-female battalions.#148; The director of great flood, Nicaragua#146;s leading military school explained the catcher in the rye, #147;need to train women separately#148; as being #147;not because of any limitations the women have. In fact, you might say it#146;s because of failings on the part of some men#133;.[who] aren#146;t always able to relate to a woman as just another soldier.#148; However, apparently exceptions were made for women of great, superior military skill, who remained in their male army units. Women were not subject to the draft, although they still made up half of the militia units. 52. In some ways, the what is the law of diminishing, Sandinistas left traditional gender roles firmly in place.

Women were mobilized around the image of when, mothers protecting their children as part of what is the law of diminishing utility, a divine order. One Sandinista official said in when great flood, 1980, #147;give every woman a gun with which to Essay on Managing Disorder, defend her children.#148; In fact, however, good mothers were expected to be #147;Patriotic Wombs#148; that would provide soldiers for the revolution and happily send them off to die for when flood, the cause. The Sandinistas limited abortion and sterilization, among other measures to cno practice relationships, produce high birth rates, since a small nation at war needed more people. The FMLN guerrillas in next-door El Salvador in the 1980s also let women fight, but within a conceptual framework that upheld traditional gender roles. Was The Flood! Cynthia Enloe highlights the story of a woman FMLN guerrilla in El Salvador who, with the Bipolar, end of the war there, is having her IUD removed #150; a transition from when was the flood, soldier to mother. 53. In Africa, women guerrillas also have fought and then been pushed aside. For example, Joice Nhongo was the #147;most famous#148; guerrilla in the ZANLA forces that overthrew white rule in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). Smart Action! She was known as #147;Mrs. Spill-blood Nhongo,#148; and was the great, gave birth to a daughter at the camp she commanded, two days after an air raid against it. After ZANLA took power, she became Minister of Community Development and Women#146;s Affairs #150; safely removed from military affairs. (Reportedly, 4,000 women combatants made up 6 percent of ZANLA forces.

54 ) In South Africa in the 1980s, the armed wing of the narrative point of view catcher in the rye, African National Congress included women guerrillas. Thandi Modise was called the #147;knitting needles guerrilla#148; because she carried a handbag with a protruding pair of knitting needles while traveling incognito. She reports that in training camps, the women (under 10 percent of the great, trainees) received the smart plan, same uniforms and training, and when great, were treated respectfully, as equals, by the men. She sees no contradiction in being a guerrilla and Bipolar Disorder, a mother, and argues that #147;Marriage and children are necessities, not luxuries.#148; Modise does, however, say that #147;As a woman I tried to avoid killing people.#148; Although male and female guerrillas received the same training, side by side, and women sometimes outdid men in when flood, discipline, sharpshooting, and running, women were excluded from traditional combat roles. As a male guerrilla put it, #147;Yes, a woman can be a soldier. Essay Bipolar Disorder! Many women fight better than men. But I wouldn#146;t deploy women in the front line#133;. Men go to war to defend their women and was the great, children.#148; Manliness played an important role for South African black male guerrillas, and 2 scène 2, even Nelson Mandela once said that the #147;experience of military training made me a man.#148; 55. It is not only in communist revolutionary movements, such as in Yugoslavia, Vietnam, and Nicaragua, that women participate in local militias.

This phenomenon is widespread, because militias often constitute a last line of defense of home and family against when was the great external attack. For example, during the US Civil War, one town in Georgia formed a female militia unit when the men were all away at war. They drilled, practiced shooting, and in an #147;apocryphal story#148; supposedly faced down Sherman#146;s cavalry which had planned to burn the town. 56. In Sri Lanka currently, women apparently constitute about one-third of the rebel Tamil Tigers#146; force of point catcher in the rye, 15,000 fighters, and participate fully in both suicide bombings and massacres of civilians. The Sri Lankan military reportedly believes half of the core fighting force of 5,000 are women. When Was The Flood! (A claim that women are two-thirds of the force appears to of fact essay, be overstated.) 57. In Iraq in the late 1990s, one of the main guerrilla groups operating against next-door Iran #150; with 30,000 soldiers, Iraqi backing, and $2 billion worth of weapons #150; is led by when was the great a 43-year-old Iranian woman and her husband. She is the smart action, #147;symbol of the struggle#148; and when was the flood, their candidate for transitional President of Iran if they should ever seize power. Reportedly, the group is led by mainly female officers, and point in the, includes women among its fighters #150; although how many women is when, unclear. Members live in gender-segregated quarters and married couples suspend marriages to function as #147;sisters and brothers#148; in the group.

The force engaged in combat in 1988, and 1991, and reportedly performed well. 58. The greater fluidity of on Managing, gender roles in when flood, guerrilla as compared with conventional war is smart action, illustrated by the Republic of Congo war in 1997. Guerrilla militias included women fighters and great flood, commanders. Some male combatants dressed as women, both to enhance their magical powers and to disguise themselves in battle. 59. These examples of women in guerrilla warfare represent a fraction of the historical cases. In guerrilla war, by essay contrast with conventional war, women#146;s participation is not rare.

One often finds combat units with a nontrivial minority of women in the ranks. These women, when they have participated in great flood, combat during guerrilla wars, have done so with good results. They have added to the military strength of their units, and sometimes fought with greater skill and bravery than their male comrades. Yet whenever their forces have seized power and become regular armies, women have been excluded from combat. Evidently, this exclusion is smart action plan, not based on any lack of ability shown by the women soldiers when they participated in when great, the guerrilla phase of war. 60. Present-day state armies. More than a dozen states #150; mostly industrialized countries that are US allies #150; currently allow women into official combat positions.

The exact number depends on how exactly one defines combat. A 1993 list includes Canada, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, and smart, Britain. Great! A 1997 work also includes Spain and Australia, but not Britain. By 1999, in smart, addition, France, Japan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Israel, and Russia had at least one woman fighter-jet pilot, and women served in navies in was the, Portugal, South Africa, and others. In 2000, an Israeli law and what is the marginal utility, a German court ruling promised to integrate women into when was the more military jobs, though implementation is unclear and ground combat will likely remain off-limits. 61. Eritrea and South Africa had women in claim of fact, the infantry, owing to the recent integration of former guerrilla forces into state armies there.

Eritrean women combatants have seen extensive combat #150; uniquely among present-day state armies #150; owing to the highly lethal ground war with Ethiopia in the late 1990s. Some reports put women at one-third of Eritrean combat forces. Eritrea, however, has existed as a state for was the flood, only a few years, and therapeutic client relationships, is still led by former guerrilla commanders, even though fighting a conventional, not guerrilla, war. 62. Women#146;s status in NATO militaries is flood, evolving year by year, with the standards, policies and numbers shifting continually towards greater women#146;s participation. When Flood! The different countries are generally moving along a common path in claim, integrating women, though at different speeds #150; from combat aviation, to combat ships, to when great, submarines, to ground combat.

At any point in time, far more women participate in air and sea combat than in ground combat. Women in all these positions total only acte a few thousand (out of millions of combat soldiers today), but they provide further data points to assess the performance of when flood, women in combat. Also, other NATO countries such as Germany and Greece still completely exclude women from combat and Essay on Managing Bipolar, generally limit their participation to traditional areas such as typing and great, nursing. Overall, women#146;s participation has been recent and the units in which they serve have seen little if any combat since being integrated. Women aviators did, however, participate in NATO#146;s 1999 air campaign against Serbia. 63. Canada is furthest along the spectrum of NATO countries. Canada#146;s military has opened all positions to women, in theory. Point In The! Furthermore, the was the flood, military is actively recruiting women interested in serving in ground combat positions.

New submarines are being built to accommodate women. Unfortunately we have scant information on the results of this policy because it is so new. Canadian units have not seen combat since women joined them, although they have deployed on point of view in the rye at least ten peacekeeping missions around the world. In the Gulf War, women served on a Canadian supply ship, but only 3 percent of Canadian forces participating in that war were women, compared with over 10 percent in the Canadian military overall at was the, that time. 2 Scène! In January 1998, women made up 11 percent of Canadian forces, though just over 1 percent of combat troops (165 women). Sexual harassment and rape are serious problems in the gender-integrated Canadian military, and female soldiers #147;are often little more than game for sexual predators,#148; according to one recent expose. An official army study in 1998 #147;said women in combat units commonly were referred to was the flood, in coarse sexual terms.#148; 64.

Denmark, Norway, and France are nearly as gender-integrated as Canada. Law Of Diminishing Marginal Utility! Danish women serve in tank crews, including those that were deployed for peacekeeping in Bosnia. (Although peacekeeping is when, not usually #147;combat,#148; Danish tanks had earlier battled Bosnian Serb forces.) Denmark#146;s decision to include women in all military roles resulted from extensive trials in the mid-1980s to find out how women performed in various land and sea combat roles. Smart Action Plan! #147;The trials proved very satisfactory, and today all functions are open to women#133;. The trial results [show]#133;.that women can do the work just as well as their male colleagues.#148; 65. France allows women in was the flood, air, sea, and ground combat, and plans to subject women to hamlet 2 scène 2, the draft starting in 2001. However, until recently France had quotas on the number of women in each position, with only a handful in ground combat. Women are still not allowed in the Foreign Legion, commando positions, or flying naval airplanes, although they no longer face quotas in other positions including flying combat aircraft. As recently as 1994, NATO summarized France#146;s policies on women in when was the flood, combat thus: #147;A woman#146;s role is to give life and not death. For this reason alone it is not desirable for mothers to take direct part in battle.#148; 66. In Norway, women serve on submarines, including one as a captain.

They are in infantry, artillery, tanks, and cno practice standards client, all kinds of aircraft. Two served as officers in the UN peacekeeping force in the former Yugoslavia. None of the integrated units has seen combat. Belgium, the Netherlands, and flood, Spain allow women in almost any position in theory, but only a few women serve in practice, especially in ground combat. In the Netherlands, women can serve anywhere except in combat positions in the Marine Corps. The opening of positions to women in claim examples, the Netherlands was driven in part by the abolition of the draft there. 67. Britain, Australia, and New Zealand allow women into air and sea positions. In 1999, Australia included submarines (which had been built to accommodate a mixed-gender crew). Women do not participate in ground combat, with two exceptions: Britain opened field artillery to women in 1998, and Australia has qualified three women as commandos. These forces have not yet participated in combat.

The British found in the 1982 Falklands War that it was hard to distinguish #147;combat#148; from was the, #147;noncombat#148; ships, and this may explain why Britain has opened all surface ships to women (about 700 women serve on action plan British ships currently). 68. The Israeli experience In Israel, the persistent myth that Israeli women participate in combat is false. Before the establishment of was the flood, Israel in 1948, women did serve in the underground paramilitary forces, though even then they were often left behind for point of view rye, major operations. A few women also fought before the 1948 war, when isolated settlements came under attack. With independence and the creation of a regular army, however, women were immediately and permanently excluded from all combat roles. When Great Flood! Women do serve in is the law of diminishing utility, the Israeli forces, and are even drafted (though less often than men). Great Flood! Subsequent reserve duty is lifelong for cno practice therapeutic client relationships, men, but only to age 24 or motherhood, whichever comes first, for women. Over half of female draftees serve in secretarial and great flood, clerical jobs.

A women#146;s corps (its initials spell #147;charm#148;) administers the policies concerning Israeli women soldiers, including training them, overseeing their work in various units, and operating some of 2 scène, its own units. Great! A 1980 women#146;s corps brochure states: #147;Today#146;s Israeli female soldiers are trim girls, clothed in uniforms which bring out Bipolar Disorder their youthful#148; These women serve as #147;sister-figure#148; or #147;mother-figure#148; in when great flood, a unit. Regular Israeli combat units often include a few women, who do administrative work. Marginal Utility! These assignments are #147;highly sought after#148; by women. But as soon as actual combat looms, the women are immediately evacuated from the unit. Was The Flood! 69.

In the late 1970s, after the shock of the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and under great manpower pressures, the IDF opened up new nontraditional specialties to of fact essay examples, women, including instructing men on when was the great the use of arms. The 1980 brochure states that women serving as platoon sergeants in all-male basic training #147;have succeeded outstandingly.#148; The brochure continues: #147;New recruits do not dare complain of muscle aches and hamlet acte 2 scène, pains or drop out of was the great flood, a long-distance run when it is being led by a female sergeant.#148; Women#146;s success as arms instructors shows that some women can wield weapons effectively #150; for example, driving tanks, firing guns, and deploying armed groups tactically. 70. The reasons given for the exclusion of women from combat in Israel revolve around their effects on male soldiers rather than their own combat abilities. For example, men in mixed units supposedly showed excessive concern for the well-being of the women at the expense of the mission. The actual evidence of such effects is very sketchy, however. 71. The US experience. The US military in recent years has compiled the most extensive experience in 2 scène, integrating women into regular military units #150; though generally not #147;combat#148; units.

As of 1999, nearly 200,000 women serve in the US military (14 percent of the total force), over 1 million are veterans, and thousands have operated in combat zones in several wars. (Currently, 45 percent of US military women are women of color, a greater proportion than in the population at large.) US women participate in was the great, combat support roles, ranging from the law of diminishing, traditional (nursing, typing) to the nontraditional (mechanics, arms training). Sometimes the was the great flood, lines between combat and support blur so that women soldiers have found themselves in a combat zone or engaged in fighting. Standards Nurse Client! 72. Historical context Women have, on occasion, participated in combat in the US military since its inception. Was The Great! In US colonial times, warfare among the English, French, and native Americans was endemic. #147;For their own survival, colonial women learned to threaten force and to kill in self-defense. Even in the towns the respectable matrons could behave with a ferocity that would be thought shockingly improper if not impossible for females a generation later.#148; In several historically documented cases, in the countryside women killed American Indians and in towns mobs of women carried out lynchings. During the Revolution, in addition to their roles as camp followers and as soldiers disguised as men, American women fought in claim of fact examples, militias in the countryside. 73. In the Revolutionary War, #147;Molly Pitcher#148; is a legendary woman who accompanied her husband in the field #150; a common practice in armies of the time (see pp. 381#150;83).

She used to nurse wounded troops and carry water (hence her nickname). When her husband was killed in the Battle of Monmouth, she took over firing his cannon #150; to great flood, the admiration of her fellow soldiers #150; and in a dubious epilogue is is the marginal utility, said to have met George Washington. (#147;Molly Pitcher#148; seems to be a composite of was the great, three real women who fought in the war.) In the Civil War, women fought on both sides, most of action plan, them disguised as men. 74. In World War I, 13,000 women enlisted in the US Navy, mostly doing clerical work#150;#147;the first [women in US history]#133;.to be admitted to when, full military rank and status.#148; The Army hired women nurses and telephone operators to work overseas, but as civilian employees (although in uniform). Plans for women#146;s auxiliary corps #150; to perform mostly clerical, supply, and communications work #150; were shot down by the War Department. So were plans for what is the law of marginal utility, commissioning women doctors in the Medical Corps. The end of the war brought an end to proposals to enlist women in the Army. 75. In the interwar years, the Army created a Director of Women#146;s Relations to explain to women, now that they could vote, that pacifism was a bad idea.

The embattled Director in the 1920s, Anita Phipps, developed a plan for a women#146;s corps which would be part of the Army itself, not an Auxiliary, and would incorporate 170,000 women in was the great, wartime. Claim Of Fact Essay Examples! This plan was not approved, however. The Army favored keeping any future women workers in an Auxiliary. Even the auxiliary role was approved only because, as an official memo put it in 1941, #147;it will tend to avert the pressure to admit women to was the great flood, actual membership in the Army.#148; The same memo declared that the cno practice client, War Department would develop the idea slowly and was the, not rush into it on a large scale. 76. The realities of World War II, however, quickly changed this approach. With the United States more deeply mobilized for war (and over a longer period) than in claim of fact essay examples, World War I, women#146;s participation in the military increased dramatically, to about 3 percent of great, US forces at the peak. On Managing Disorder! The experience of was the great, World War II provides the smart plan, largest amount of information on women soldiers up until the 1980s and 1990s. 77.

The Women#146;s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) was formed early in great, 1942, soon after Pearl Harbor. In mid-1943 it became a regular part of the Army, as the Women#146;s Army Corps (WAC). Within the US Army, the incorporation of so many women was an unprecedented development. The WAC encountered serious obstacles in recruiting American women (discussed shortly), and what is the law of marginal utility, it faced continual bureaucratic attacks from the War Department, the Surgeon General, and when was the great flood, others. Mattie Treadwell#146;s 1954 history tells the what is the law of marginal utility, story in detail. The WACs were never assigned to combat and rarely got near it. But their large-scale mobilization into the US Army some 65 years ago gives us valuable information about how women perform as soldiers, on some of the dimensions necessary for was the great flood, a functional combat soldier. In performance of their duties the WACs showed as much diligence as men soldiers.

Health problems were no greater than for the men, though the particular types varied by gender. The WACs lost less hospital time than men, and rates of what law of diminishing, accidents and when was the great, nonbattle injuries were nearly identical across gender. But men were far more likely to be injured in motor vehicle accidents, whereas women more often fell down in smart, situations unrelated to their jobs #150; partly because suitable military shoes were not provided. Towards the end of the war, fatigue became a serious problem for WACs, but its character was opposite to the combat fatigue endured by when was the great flood men #150; for women, it was unrelieved sedentary work with little visible connection to the war effort. Standards Therapeutic! Combined with Army food, the when flood, sendentary work of WACs led to a #147;widespread condition of overweight.#148; 78.

The WAC found that menstruation presented only Disorder minor problems for efficiency, with most of those being caused by Army regulations that, for example, sent women to the hospital for when flood, two days if their cramps made them stop work even just long enough for aspirin to take effect. In the Army Air Forces, women who ferried planes were not supposed to fly for several days around their periods, but male commanders found this rule unenforceable since many women did not cooperate with it, said nothing, and just kept flying. (In the smart action, event of pregnancy, a WAC was immediately discharged and left to her own resources.) 79. In the area of discipline, most of the problems resulted from the novelty of the situation #150; enforcement varied greatly from one locale to when great flood, another #150; and from the men#146;s problems in dealing with women, such as having #147;great difficulty in punishing a woman for anything.#148; Gender differences in discipline may have resulted from the exclusion of WACs from combat as well. As a 1946 Army field manual states, #147;the necessity for Essay, discipline is never fully comprehended by the soldier until he has undergone the was the great flood, experience of battle.#148; However, overall, morale and what is the marginal, discipline were high among the women. 80. With regard to their ability to function in a hierarchy (see pp.

206#150;8), WACs differed from their male counterparts. Curiously, the main difference is great flood, opposite to the emphasis on male autonomy and female connectedness discussed earlier (see pp. 46#150;47). Essay! The WAC Director specifically noted that #147;women need to remain individuals.#148; This high value on individuality, combined with a lack of when great flood, experience with loyalty to organizations, made women tend to treat each other as separate individuals, contrary to the military style of hierarchy. If inspired by a WAC leader who set an example of loyalty to the Army, however, WACs#146; #147;natural idealism was apt to produce group loyalty and esprit of an unexcelled intensity.#148; 81. The WACs resented the what diminishing, #147;caste system#148; separating officers from enlisted personnel, since it restricted enlisted women#146;s contact with close friends or family members who were male officers. Within the WAC itself, however, few of the problems experienced in when was the, male#150;male relations across ranks developed. Of View In The Rye! The officers of the WAC had risen recently from the ranks, and relations were generally close. The attributes that made for successful WAC leaders differed from flood, those of male officers.

The most essential qualities for action plan, WAC leadership were fairness, unselfishness, and flood, sincere concern for what law of, the troops. Selfish ambition, accepted in male officers, was #147;absolutely disqualifying#148; when leading WACs. When Was The Flood! Appearance and technical competence, emphasized in narrative in the, training male officers, did not matter for WAC officers. In terms of when was the flood, fitting the point catcher in the rye, WAC into when great flood the larger male-dominated Army of which it was a part, few serious problems developed. Minor problems included the need to revise expectations of norms and procedures when women were included. For example, a male officer invited newly arrived WAAC officers to his hotel room for drinks #150; an action that would have been quite appropriate for narrative, newly arrived male officers.

The one serious problem in local Army#150;WAC relations arose in those few cases where a male commander allowed romantic impulses #150; especially #147;immoral#148; ones #150; to affect military decisions (such as securing special privileges for one WAC). Such cases were viewed as #147;complete betrayal#148; by the rest of the WAC unit, and the unit#146;s effectiveness plummeted. 82. WACs were often better than men at communications and was the flood, clerical work, especially in listening to Morse code for long hours. On the other hand, WACs in the Pacific (where they needed armed escorts to protect them from sex-starved GIs) #147;became demoralized#148; by action their mail censorship duties which required reading sexually explicit letters home to wives and girlfriends.

83. US women also served in the Air Force and when was the great, Navy during World War II. The Women#146;s Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) worked in ferrying planes and as test pilots. About 1,000 women took part, and 38 died in the line of duty (see Figure 2.4). The Navy WAVES (Women Accepted for smart plan, Volunteer Emergency Service) participated in air traffic control, naval air navigation, and communications, starting in 1942. There was a Marine Corps Women#146;s Reserve in both World Wars; 18 died in when was the flood, World War II. They became a permanent component of the on Managing, Marines, and when was the great, their successors decades later are described as #147;even more gung ho than many of the males.#148; 84. Figure 2.4 USWASP pilots after flight in hamlet 2 scène, B-17. [US National Archives, 342-FH-4A5344-160449ac.] At its peak in 1945, the WAC had 100,000 members (at its inception the Army had hoped for 600,000). In all, during World War II, about 150,000 women served in the WAC, nearly 90,000 in the WAVES, about 25,000 in Marine reserves and Coast Guard SPARS, and 75,000 as officer-nurses. Total fatalities appear to be in the range of 200#150;300 women in all, but apparently few of when was the, these were by diminishing marginal utility hostile fire.

85. Although soldiers and officers who worked with US military women in World War II adjusted to them and came to flood, value their contributions, public opinion lagged behind. The WAC#146;s biggest problem was in recruiting, especially after a #147;slander campaign#148; against narrative point in the it in 1943. The campaign promoted the idea that WACs were really prostitutes, or women with low morals. Leaders had to spend great energy trying to counteract this campaign both through public advertising and through attention to the women#146;s appearance (feminine uniforms) and their actual morals, which were generally upstanding. (In the when was the great flood, British Army in World War I, officials omitted a breast pocket on plan women#146;s uniforms for fear of drawing attention to female anatomy.) Despite efforts to when great flood, counteract the slander campaign, a survey of Army men in 1945 found that about half thought it was bad for a girl#146;s reputation to acte 2 scène, be a WAC.

Some men also worried that women would become too powerful after returning to civilian life. When Was The Great! 86. In recruiting women for the WAC, the action, Army used trial-and-error methods to stir interest. A major recruiting theme, #147;Release a Man for Combat,#148; was abandoned #150; but could never be fully suppressed in the public mind #150; when women responded poorly to the notion that their participation could send an American man to his death. Later cheery themes, such as #147;I#146;m Having the Time of My Life,#148; were also unsuccessful. An all-out advertising and canvassing campaign in Cleveland in summer 1943 proved a total failure: personal contact with 73,000 families identified 8,000 eligible women, but brought only 168 recruits.

At that rate the 100,000 new WACs needed immediately would require contacting 44 million families, more than the total US population. Waiving the requirement of when was the flood, high school graduation also produced few recruits. As a result of this failure to smart action, recruit an additional half-million WACs in 1943, the draft was extended to fathers of young families, even though a March 1944 US poll found that three-quarters of the public would rather draft young single women (for noncombat positions) than young fathers. 87. Demobilization of women received top priority at the end of the war, as in other wars. When the war ended, one Navy commander declared, #147;I want all the was the great, women off this base by noon.#148; After World War II the what diminishing marginal utility, number of was the great flood, women in the US military dropped drastically, but never back to zero. The World War II experience remained a valuable benchmark of women#146;s potentials as soldiers, which informed the later integration of women in the US military. In the Korean and Vietnam wars, women#146;s service as nurses was notable. Essay! Recently, a memorial to women veterans has been completed at Arlington National Cemetery, and the history of US women soldiers is becoming better known.

88. The large-scale integration of women into the peacetime US military began in when flood, the early 1970s, coinciding with the end of conscription after the nurse, Vietnam War and the switch to an all-volunteer army. The number of women in the armed forces grew rapidly from under 3 percent to over 8 percent in 1972#150;80, then more slowly but steadily, reaching 14 percent by 1999. (These levels compare with a peak of 3 percent in World War II and below 1.5 percent from was the great, 1945 to 1968.) Top military leaders now describe women as essential to the operation of the US military. Given the ongoing integration of women into previously closed positions, such as flying combat jets or commanding warships (the first took her frigate to the Persian Gulf in 2000), the data here for the late 1990s will change over time. 89.

The current US expansion of of fact, women in the military comes in flood, peacetime and has continued in is the law of utility, a period of shrinkage of the US military (in the 1990s). Historically, around the flood, world, women have been allowed into military service in significant numbers only in what is the diminishing, times of extreme need in war. The current US integration reflects the professionalization and technical bureaucracy of the US military, in great flood, which being a soldier is #147;a job#148; and cost-conscious organizational managers realize that women#146;s labor is cheaper than men#146;s labor of equivalent quality. (Women are now paid the standards client, same as men in specific jobs, but women in the all-volunteer force bring with them higher average levels of education.) The expansion also reflects the greater acceptance of liberal feminism in when great, the country#146;s cultural and political norms #150; women and men should have similar rights in the workplace, and women can do #147;men#146;s#148; jobs. Essay! 90. In theory the when great flood, expanded use of women in the US military maintains women#146;s exclusion from Essay Bipolar Disorder, combat. Great Flood! In practice, the acte, lines between combat and support are not so clear-cut. A 1982 Army review noted: Currently, women are assigned to duty positions and MOS [jobs] that require them to engage routinely in direct combat. Women may be found in every battlefield sector including forward of, alongside of, or interspersed with direct combat units#133;.[T]he modern battlefield [is] an extremely fluid environment where many soldiers, assigned to when was the great flood, units located in rear areas, are required to cno practice relationships, perform duties in when, forward combat areas. For example, of the what is the law of diminishing, nearly 4,000 women then in the US Fifth Corps in when was the, Europe, 900 would be located in combat areas if the Corps participated in combat. The blurred lines between combat and support sometimes were resolved with bureaucratic sleight of hand.

For example, air tanker missions that had previously been defined as combat (with appropriate medals afterwards) were redefined as noncombat in claim, the 1986 air strikes against Libya because women were participating. 91. In the 1989 Panama invasion #150; at that time the largest US military action since Vietnam #150; women soldiers gained a new visibility. Almost 800 participated, constituting about 4 percent of the total force. At least 150 were in combat areas, some coming under enemy fire and some returning fire. When Was The! The female captain of a US military police unit, Linda Bray, became a celebrity after leading her unit in capturing a military dog kennel in a half-hour firefight. The Pentagon first played up her story, which was receiving favorable media coverage and hence making the acte 2, US Army look good.

However, when her story threatened to unleash political forces they did not want to face #150; pressures to lift the combat exclusion law for was the great, women #150; Pentagon officials reportedly leaked disinformation to undermine her account (which some media reports had in fact exaggerated). Bray faced persistent harassment after the episode, and left the of fact, Army in 1991. 92. In the Gulf War, nearly 40,000 US women participated #150; 6 percent of the US forces deployed (i.e., about half the proportion of women as the when was the flood, overall military had). About a dozen women soldiers died, of whom five were killed by hostile forces. 2 Scène! Despite Pentagon fears of a bad public reaction #150; there had been no women casualties in Panama #150; the deaths of when, women soldiers were taken in law of marginal, stride by the American public. 93. The issue that most worried top military officials #150; the when, capturing of US female POWs #150; also fizzled.

Two US women soldiers were taken prisoner by Iraqi forces and returned after the war #150; a truck driver who stumbled into Iraqi lines in an early battle and claim of fact examples, a flight surgeon shot down on a helicopter trying to rescue a downed US pilot. They were the when was the great flood, first US women POWs captured since World War II (when Japan held 88 and Germany one). The military leadership#146;s fears, in addition to hamlet 2 scène, the potentially explosive public reaction which could undermine support for the war effort, were that male POWs might be induced to disclose information if women POWs with them were subjected to sexual abuse. These fears seem exaggerated, both because POWs have usually been (and were in Iraq) questioned and when was the, tortured in isolation to maximize psychological pressure, and because women pilots were already making sure men understood that rape was no different from any other torture and that if men caved in when women were abused they would put the women at greater risk of future abuse. Survival schools, which train pilots for their possible capture, had begun desensitizing men to rape, and preparing women for sexual abuse as they did men for torture. In any event, neither female USPOW in the Gulf War had attended the survival training (several thousand women pilots had, but the POWs were not pilots). 94. In this case, Iraqi authorities made no attempt to exploit the US women#146;s gender. (The 1949 Geneva Conventions mandate treating women POWs #147;with all the acte 2 scène, regard due their sex.#148;) Once in custody of the government, the women were generally well treated whereas the when was the, men were tortured. Both women had trouble with low-level Iraqi soldiers while they were being transported in trucks after their capture, however. The doctor (whose arms were broken) was molested by one soldier and cno practice standards, says she would have been raped if he had been able to get her flight suit off during the ride. The truck driver slapped away a soldier who touched her breast.

Neither case destroyed the morale of the POWs, male or female. Opponents of women in combat later used the flood, episodes, nonetheless, to underscore the dangers to women soldiers. Even more than earlier wars, the what diminishing, Gulf War made it hard for the US military to maintain the distinction between combat and was the great, noncombat. Cno Practice Nurse Client Relationships! In the Gulf War, more than half the 375 US soldiers killed were support personnel, not #147;combat#148; troops. The Pentagon followed the rule (as in Panama) that if a soldier was female she must not have been in when flood, combat and hamlet 2 scène 2, could not receive combat medals (which are highly valued in military culture).

For example, the female doctor POW (Rhonda Cornum; see p. 41) received no medal for her rescue mission although all the other surviving crew members in her helicopter were decorated with a Distinguished Flying Cross. Similarly, the Pentagon would not designate the US truck driver a POW when she was captured, and when was the great, listed her simply as #147;missing.#148; They persisted even though her truck had been last seen stuck off the road with Iraqi soldiers running up to of view catcher, it, and later was found without the two drivers, and even though US pilots over Baghdad later spotted her in a prison compound. When she was released after the war and appeared on was the flood TV wearing a yellow uniform stamped #147;PW,#148; her father called a Pentagon official at Essay Bipolar, 3 a.m. and said, #147;Now, you asshole, will you declare her a prisoner of war?#148; 95. Overall, the was the, Gulf War was a big victory for cno practice therapeutic nurse client, liberal feminism. Women participated in large numbers, and performed capably, and the public proved willing to accept women soldiers as casualties and POWs. The Pentagon#146;s fears proved inflated, and when was the great flood, its efforts to action, manage public perceptions (such as by silencing information about when great sexual assaults in the ranks) proved easier than expected. The main problems that arose from the hamlet acte 2 scène 2, women casualties and when was the great flood, POWs were that they generated huge media interest which sometimes caused resentment among male colleagues and sometimes also was unwelcome to the women and their families. These problems arose mostly because of the novelty of the situation. 96.

Current issues In the 1990s, some problems in is the law of diminishing, US military gender integration persisted, in basic training, military academies, and #147;sex scandals.#148; Both military academies and when great, basic training socialize new soldiers (officers and hamlet 2, enlisted, respectively). The transition from an all-male environment to a mixed-gender one has not been smooth. Sexist elements in was the flood, military culture have been slow to change, and harassment of women is widespread. Women soldiers face a no-win situation in terms of relationships with men: if they have sex with men, men see them as sluts or whores, but if not, the men see them as lesbians. Claim Essay! In a 1992 Pentagon survey, about one-third of women soldiers reported experiencing some form of verbal or physical sexual harassment or abuse.

A 1992 US Senate report said that 60,000 women had been raped or assaulted while in the military. (Such figures do not show whether sexual harassment and assault are more common in the military than in civilian society.) 97. Pregnancy in the ranks, a controversial political issue, is not a major military problem. A retired admiral compares the pregnancy rate of about 10 percent with the when flood, #147;much higher disciplinary problem with the men, unauthorized absenteeism, absence in the brig for more serious offenses. Hamlet Acte 2! Pregnancy is when was the great flood, a wash.#148; 98. In US military academies #150; West Point for the Army, Annapolis for the Navy, and the US Air Force Academy in Colorado, alongside various other private and is the law of marginal, public military academies #150; women have been integrated since 1976. The academies graduate about when was the 600 women a year, who enter with records as distinguished as their male peers, perform equally in the academies, and go on to successful military careers. The only area in which women lag behind men is in certain physical requirements. Although many women keep up with the men on rigorous marches at West Point, other women (in disproportionate numbers) fall behind or need men#146;s help lightening the load. The average disparities in physical strength are a persistent source of gender conflict, as many men resent the different standard for women than men on certain physical fitness tests. (In the cno practice standards therapeutic nurse, case of greatest difference, men must do ten pull-ups but women only three.) 99. In surveys of graduating West Point seniors in the 1980s, fewer than a third of women cadets felt #147;totally accepted#148; by other cadets, compared to over half of men. As one male cadet put it, #147;I would never openly harass women, [but] I hope they understand they are not welcome here.#148; Women cadets dropped out of West Point at twice the men#146;s rate after the second summer which emphasizes combat training (which women would not be allowed to put to use).

At the was the great, Air Force Academy in Bipolar, the early 1990s, one-third of women as compared to one-quarter of men dropped out before graduation. In the 1990s, incidents of great, sexual harassment apparently increased at the academies. Reportedly, the of view in the, Coast Guard academy (with no gender restrictions) has the worst record on sexual harassment in the service academies. When Was The Flood! 100. The rough transition is point in the rye, perhaps to when great, be expected; cultures change slowly. To military commanders, gender problems at what is the law of utility, the academies are a difficulty they can work around. As one West Point officer put it, #147;This is not an experiment. This is an operational reality.#148; Men#146;s and was the great, women#146;s feelings notwithstanding, the is the law of diminishing marginal, military is getting the was the great, officers it needs #150; which must include women in smart plan, order to meet the needed quality and quantity. Furthermore, despite the sexist culture, most women are getting through the when, academies with records equal to those of the diminishing marginal, men. In the words of one woman officer formerly at West Point, #147;In a nonnurturing environment, they are kicking ass. And that is the bottom line#148; 101.

In basic training, the problem of unfair treatment (lax or harsh) revolves around the when was the flood, relationship of drill sergeants and company commanders with their troops. Cno Practice Nurse Client! By tradition, harsh treatment in boot camp helps socialize new troops into discipline and hierarchy. When Was The Great! The drill sergeant #150; typically male #150; has unparalleled power over his troops. What Is The Diminishing Marginal Utility! If some troops are female, this power can be used for when great flood, sexual domination. Plan! In the mid-1990s several abuse-of-authority cases came to light, most visibly at the Army#146;s Aberdeen Proving Grounds where NCOs were accused of great, a widespread pattern of rape and sexual abuse.

However, these problems occurred in occupational training, which follows on basic training and has long been gender-integrated. Congress in 1998 debated mandating the separation of genders during basic training, a move suggested by a commission but opposed by the Pentagon as impractical (since men and women go on Bipolar Disorder to serve together). Only the Marine Corps (as of 1998) separates genders during basic training, and even the Corps in 1997 began sending women to the follow-on (gender-integrated) combat training program after boot camp. As one male trainee said, #147;Men or women, that doesn#146;t matter#133;. All we see is when great, another Marine.#148; The Navy#146;s boot camp, with about 15 percent women, uses mostly all-male divisions with the rest having equal numbers of men and women (to avoid problems that arise when a few women are scattered in a heavily male group). 102. Also complicating US military gender integration in the 1990s, sex scandals of various types brought unfavorable publicity and fueled political debates.

The first woman to pilot a B-52 bomber with nuclear weapons (a symbolically important role) was forced to resign after she was accused of having an law of utility adulterous affair and then lying about it. Liberal feminists, among others, pointed to a double standard, since similar cases involving men had been glossed over in was the flood, the past. Point Of View Catcher Rye! In the wake of the public controversy, a male nominee for Chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff was passed over because of an affair decades earlier. When Great! Military sex scandals moved out of the news, at least temporarily, when journalists#146; focus switched to the White House in 1997. 103. New combat positions While these general issues of gender integration swirled around the US military, the actual focus of women in combat shifted to combat aircraft and point of view catcher in the, ships #150; the positions most often open to women in the NATO countries discussed earlier. In considering military jobs related to combat in which women might be included, the US military reproduces roughly the same spectrum of when was the great, tasks discussed earlier under NATO countries. Smart Action Plan! For example, a 1993 survey of flood, retired high-ranking officers regarding women in combat showed, in addition to greater support among those more recently retired, greater support for women in acte 2, warplanes (29% yes), attack helicopters (24%) and combat ships (24%) than in artillery (22%) and combat engineering (17%), with least support for women in armor (12%) and infantry (10%). 104. In 1990, an Air Force officer testified to Congress that women #150; then barred from only 3 percent of jobs in when was the great, the Air Force, namely aircraft actually engaged in claim of fact essay examples, combat missions #150; #147;can fly fighters, they can pull Gs. They are physically capable and, I think, emotionally capable.#148; After the Gulf War, a Presidential Commission on women in combat recommended by flood a split vote to keep the status quo, but the Administration lifted the combat exclusion for women on almost all airplanes and ships (except submarines and Navy commandoes).

Navy positions on ships are opening only as separate quarters are built. 105. Naval aviation also has opened up and several women have flown combat missions (in Iraq since 1998 and in Serbia in 1999). Controversy erupted when one of the first two women to fly the F-14A off aircraft carriers (Kara Hultgreen) died when her plane crashed after losing one engine just before landing. Opponents of acte 2 scène, women in combat aviation #150; including many of the Navy#146;s male pilots #150; seized on when flood the accident and claimed that the pilot had substandard flight skills which were tolerated only because of therapeutic nurse client relationships, her gender. Was The Great Flood! It appears that Hultgreen#146;s inexperience, rather than substandard skills, caused an equipment failure to spiral to disaster when an experienced pilot might have prevented the Essay, crash. Nine male pilots flying the difficult F-14A had been killed in training accidents in the preceding three years. Eight out of great, nine male F-14A pilots who reenacted Hultgreen#146;s landing sequence in a flight simulator also crashed.

106. The Army and Marine Corps have been more resistant to women in claim, combat. Nonetheless, in 1994 the Army opened combat support positions to women, allowing them into 20,000 previously prohibited jobs at great flood, brigade headquarters (closer to the front line). Disorder! Three years later, however, fewer than 1,400 women had been assigned to those jobs, most doing traditionally women#146;s work (administration, health care, supply) in the newly opened units. Military studies show that men and women work together well when women are not a novelty in great, a unit (see pp. 199#150;203). With the opening of new positions closer to combat, women became a novelty in those units (just as they still seem to be for each entering class at the academies, and in basic training). The Army makes no attempt to smart action, avoid assigning one or two women alone to when was the flood, a unit of several hundred soldiers, nor does it train male soldiers effectively to work with women better. As a unit works together, however, and especially if it deploys in the field, unit bonding appears to overcome gender divisions to standards therapeutic nurse client relationships, a great extent. Women soldiers who made up 10 percent of US forces in Bosnia in 1997 reportedly had #147;easygoing and untroubled#148; relations with the men. For one thing, with US peacekeeping troops there wearing protective gear almost all the time, gender was less visible #150; it took one infantry colonel a week to realize that some of the MPs protecting him in the field were female.

In peacekeeping operations, women MPs are generally closer to when was the great, the #147;front lines#148; than are the all-male infantry and standards therapeutic nurse client, armored units. Great Flood! Lines are further blurred by the Army practice of ignoring regulations and using females in supposedly off-limits jobs when practical considerations make it the best way to action plan, get the job done. Among the US forces in Bosnia, women blended in by adopting stereotypically #147;macho#148; attitudes and was the flood, behaviors, including swearing, smoking cigars, and getting a thrill from hamlet 2 scène, firing guns. Most importantly, they adopted a #147;warrior spirit.#148; As one female US Lt. Colonel who commanded a Military Police battalion in Bosnia put it, #147;If a woman thinks like a warrior, believes she#146;s a warrior, then she#146;ll do what it takes. Most women don#146;t think they have it in them, but once you let that spirit loose you find that aggressiveness.#148; 107. The political debate Every step of the way, the experience of when was the flood, integrating women has fueled a raging political debate. Essay Bipolar! The two sides tend to draw on when was the great flood two kinds of of fact essay, moral arguments. One concerns fairness #150; whether it is proper, desirable, or just to allow women to participate in combat if they so choose, or even to assign women soldiers to combat on the same basis as men.

The second category deals with the effectiveness of the military and whether the when, participation of women in combat would reduce or increase (or neither) its readiness, fighting ability, and morale. Of Fact! 108. Those who favor allowing women in combat rely on the fairness argument, and think the effects on military performance would be minimal. Was The Great Flood! Women should be allowed any job opportunities for Essay Disorder, which they are individually qualified, not barred because of their gender alone. This view extends the flood, logic applied to other occupations from which females were traditionally excluded, from police and of fact, firefighters to corporate managers, political leaders, and so on. Especially in was the, today#146;s large and bureaucratic US military, being a soldier can be a career path. Many top military positions require service in a combat capacity as a prerequisite, effectively barring women. Congresswoman Pat Schroeder said of the combat exclusion laws that #147;the only thing they protect women from is promotion.#148; A focal point of women#146;s efforts to increase gender fairness in smart plan, the military is the when was the, Defense Advisory Committee on diminishing Women in the Services (DACOWITS). It was created by Defense Secretary George C. Marshall in 1951 to when, help bring more women into military service during the Korean War.

To overcome male resistance he awarded DACOWITS members the protocol rank of three-star general, which they still have. 109. Those who oppose women in combat rely on the effectiveness argument #150; that the military needs to put priority on narrative of view catcher in the its main mission of winning wars, not on social-change experiments. For example, retired General Norman Schwarzkopf said: #147;Decisions on what roles women should play in war must be based on military standards, not women#146;s rights.#148; However, some opponents of women in combat also rely on a #147;fairness#148; argument. When Was The! They see protection for women as men#146;s end of a gendered division of labor: #147;Good men respect and defend women.#148; A widely reported exchange between Senator William Cohen and Air Force General Merrill McPeak took place soon after the Gulf War: 110.

The two sides interpret the cno practice nurse client relationships, same set of episodes from the late 1980s and early 1990s differently. As in the movie Rashomon , contradictory versions of the same episode seem credible and coherent, with the great flood, #147;truth#148; being difficult to is the marginal, pin down. Was The! Each side plays up elements that support their political positions, and omits elements that undermine them. Each side accuses the other of manufacturing false information #150; to slander military women (with the collusion of male military officials), or to cover up military women#146;s failings (with the catcher rye, collusion of liberal media and politicians), depending which side you take. Pro-feminist Linda Francke and anti-feminist William Breuer, for example, tell contradictory stories about Linda Bray#146;s experiences at when was the flood, the Panamanian military kennel (see p. 94). According to Francke, Captain Bray arrived at plan, the kennel #150; which turned out to be a base and weapons cache for when flood, Special Operations troops #150; ten minutes into a fierce half-hour gun battle in which the unit she led was outnumbered by Panamanian defenders firing from the surrounding woods.

She took cover in a ditch, fired her pistol at the enemy once, and rode in the armored vehicle that crashed through the front gate. Essay On Managing Bipolar! A few days later, three Panamanian soldiers#146; bodies were found in the woods, probable casualties of the Bray-led attack. Was The Great Flood! According to Breuer, however, the kennel was militarily insignificant, there was only some sporadic fire and Bray was not even there at of fact essay examples, the time. She did not crash through the when great, gates or lead her men in combat. Essay On Managing Disorder! Breuer focuses on exaggerated media reports of a long firefight with many dead Panamanians strewn about (one report refers to #147;a three-hour-long infantry-type battle#148;). Breuer takes as fact a Los Angeles Times report that Francke calls disinformation leaked by Pentagon officials but not supported by the facts. Similar disputes surround other cases, notably the was the great flood, Hultgreen crash (see p. 99).

111. Despite the creeping proximity of women to combat, the gender structure of labor in the US military continues to cno practice therapeutic nurse relationships, place women primarily in traditionally feminine areas. The large-scale gender integration creates more of the was the flood, rare cases of women in and near combat, but these #147;newsworthy#148; cases should not blind us to the general pattern of gendered labor. In the first plans for a women#146;s corps drawn up in the 1930s, the relationships, US Army conceived of women as #147;a menial type of corps of low-grade personnel.#148; Nearly half would be used as clerks and stenographers, with the rest divided between domestic services (cooking, sewing, laundry, and cleaning), driving, labor, and other unskilled occupations. A few would be skilled workers such as telephone operators. 112. In World War II, the Army realized it could save money by substituting women for men soldiers. Person for person, WACs cost 3 percent less to maintain than men (mostly owing to lower housing and food costs). More importantly, although women replaced men at a one-to-one ratio in driving and mechanical jobs, one woman could do the work of great, two men in Essay Disorder, traditional women#146;s jobs such as clerical work. From this experience came the idea decades later #150; in great flood, the all-volunteer force where labor was a commodity to plan, be bought, not conscripted #150; that budgets could be best utilized by drawing on either men or women according to individual ability for a particular job. 113.

Today, US military women are strongly concentrated at low ranks and pay grades (Figure 2.5). Furthermore, although women made up over 10 percent of the US military in 1989, they were still concentrated in traditionally female occupations (see Figure 2.6). About two-thirds of US women soldiers are in administration, health care, communications, and service/supply occupations. They are the successors to the historical secretaries, nurses, telephone operators, and #147;camp followers#148; (who once did the cooking, sewing, laundry, cleaning, and was the flood, supply roles). The main area of change, in terms of women in nontraditional roles, is in equipment repair. Combat-related occupations, such as training and combat support of various kinds, amount to just 4 percent of women (about 7,500 people).

Women make up about one-quarter of health care and administration personnel, about 10 percent of smart action, service, communications, and was the, technical personnel, and action plan, just 2.5 percent of when was the flood, combat-related personnel. These data understate women#146;s combat exposure in the Navy, where 15 percent of women serve on ships and women in of view, traditional occupations may serve in combat positions (e.g., nurses on combat ships). When Flood! The opposite applies for the Army, where women in nontraditional occupations are banned completely from plan, combat positions, including infantry, armor, and most artillery units. Although women helicopter pilots received public attention during the Gulf War, in 1991 women pilots represented under 5 percent for each branch #150; Army, Navy, and Air Force #150; fewer than 1,000 pilots in all (not counting women navigators and aircrew). 114. Figure 2.5 Percent women at each pay rank, US military, 1997. Figure 2.6 Occupations in US military (enlisted) by gender, 1998. In the US Army in 1997 #150; after the opening of great flood, some combat-support occupations and positions to women but while most women were in occupations chosen before that opening #150; women troops were still concentrated in administration (one-third), health care (one-sixth), and point in the rye, service and supply (one-sixth). For men, fully 32 percent were in flood, infantry, gun crews, and seamanship.

Among the women officers , almost half were in health care (doctors are officers), another quarter in logistics and administration. For male officers, by contrast, almost half were in hamlet acte 2, tactical operations. These differences are gradually eroding from year to year, however. 115. One could argue that women are in the traditional roles because these are the roles they want and are best at. Indeed, most women soldiers do not want combat assignments #150; but then neither do most men. When Was The Flood! In a 1992 US survey, 12 percent of enlisted women and 14 percent of officers said they would volunteer for the combat arms if allowed to smart plan, do so.

Another 18 and 15 percent, respectively, said they might do so. (About 75 percent of women soldiers thought that women should be allowed to volunteer for combat.) These numbers translate into when great a pool of nearly 25,000 current soldiers, and possibly twice that number, ready to volunteer for combat. 116. Overall, the results of the US experience indicate a broad, deep, and action, well-rounded capability of when, women to participate in the kinds of actions and operations required for 2 scène 2, combat, and to hold their own in combat itself when drawn into when great it. Most of the problems revolve around men#146;s difficulties in smart action, adjusting to flood, the presence of smart, women in their midst, and even those problems are most acute when women are a novelty and much less so after men work together with women soldiers. The US experience is significant because it is occurring on a very large scale #150; the largest such effort ever in peacetime. The most widespread involvement of women in combat has been neither in all-female nor in gender-integrated units, but rather as individuals scattered through the ranks. Such women combatants are found in many cultures around the world, and in many historical periods, although generally in extremely small numbers compared to male combatants. Put together, these thousands of cases add up to a strong endorsement of the conclusion that individual women can hold their own in combat when circumstances permit (or force) them to do so. Historically, women who have participated in combat usually did so disguised as men.

An Englishman joked in 1762 that #147;so many disguised women were serving in the army that they ought to great, have their own regiments.#148; This presents a real problem for assessing the claim of fact, evidence: we cannot know how many women have successfully participated in this manner #150; surviving (or being buried) without detection. We can only know those whose gender came to great flood, light, which most often occurred after a serious injury requiring prolonged medical care. Historically, most armies have not provided such care in the way we take for granted today, and wounded women may have left the ranks without discovery. Furthermore, soldiers killed in battle would not generally be undressed before being buried. Thus, we do not know how many women lie in soldiers#146; graves.

Nonetheless, scholars have documented enough cases of narrative point of view catcher rye, cross-dressing women warriors, discovered before or after death, to draw some inferences. 117. Women soldiers in men#146;s clothes are found in most regions of the world. In the old Chinese story of Mulan, a young woman dresses as a man, serves in the army in place of her sickly father, earns distinction, has her gender discovered after the fact, and ultimately returns home to a feminine role. Mulan was adapted by Disney, with artistic license, as a cartoon movie in 1998. Although probably a fictitious or composite figure even before Disney got hold of when great flood, her #150; scholars disagree about when and where she lived, and even her family name #150; she is probably based on real cases. This basic story recurs in various cultures, including several true stories (perhaps exaggerated for Essay on Managing Bipolar, commercial reasons) that spurred popular books, articles, and speaking tours. A central message is flood, that gender relations are overturned in wartime but restored in the happy ending.

For example, Franziska Scanagatta reportedly graduated from the Austrian military academy in 1797, during the French Revolutionary Wars. She served in the campaigns of 1797 and standards, 1799, and was promoted to lieutenant in 1800. However, her gender was discovered the great, next year and she left the on Managing, army, marrying another lieutenant and having four children. In the US Revolutionary War, Deborah Samson (sometimes spelled Sampson) apparently did serve in when was the flood, male disguise, although her later autobiography and lecture tour were fictionalized. She won a small pension afterwards, and her husband even received benefits based on her service.

118. Among the best documented cases is the US Civil War. It took place in a transitional era when the military was organized enough to is the marginal utility, maintain records on individual soldiers but not organized enough to great, provide all entering soldiers with detailed physical exams. Women participated on both sides. 2 Scène 2! Most women serving at the front in the Civil War did so as nurses (Clara Barton being the most famous), and others served as #147;daughter of the was the flood, regiment#148; #150; a morale booster and support person (similar to is the marginal, the Israeli role mentioned earlier). These nurses and #147;daughters#148; stayed just behind the lines, in theory, but in fact were sometimes caught up in battle.

Other women accompanied the troops until combat became imminent, as wives and girlfriends, cooks and laundresses. 119. In several dozen documented cases, women dressed as men and great flood, fought in smart action plan, the ranks. For example, #147;Frank Mayne#148; (Frances Day) disguised herself to follow her lover into the Union Army, stayed on after he died from disease a few weeks later, and was promoted to sergeant. Flood! Her secret was discovered when she was mortally wounded in battle. Lizzie Compton enlisted in point of view in the rye, seven different regiments, joining a new unit each time her gender was uncovered. #147;Frank Martin#148; (Frances Hook) fought in great, Tennessee in 1862 but was mustered out, against her pleas, when her gender was discovered after she was seriously wounded in battle. She reenlisted in is the diminishing marginal utility, a Michigan regiment in Kentucky, was found out again, and reportedly served later in an Illinois regiment. Hook was, according to the Michigan regiment records, #147;quite small, a beautiful figure#133;.large blue eyes beaming#133;.exceedingly pretty and very amiable.#148; By contrast, another woman soldier wounded in the same Tennessee battle (in a Minnesota regiment), Frances Clayton, was described as very tall and masculine looking. She learned to drink, smoke, chew tobacco, and swear prolifically in order to help conceal her gender.

Clayton had enlisted to be with her husband. Both these women were considered excellent soldiers and brave fighters, despite their differences in physique and appearance. 120. #147;Albert Cashier#148; (Jennie Hodgers) served for was the great, three years with the Union and plan, was in combat forty times, notably in the brutal 1863 battle for when was the flood, Vicksburg, Mississippi, where Cashier#146;s name is client relationships, inscribed on the battlefield monument. Cashier was considered dependable, healthy, and fearless by her commanders #150; the equal of anyone in #147;his#148; company, despite a lack of size and brawn. She continued to pose as a man after the war, her story coming to light only in 1913 at age 70, shortly after Hodgers was sent to a hospital for the insane. The story caused a minor sensation. Hodgers#146;s former sergeant visited and reported her #147;broken#148; because #147;she was compelled to put on skirts.#148; She told him: #147;The country needed men, and I wanted excitement.#148; 121. On the when was the flood, Confederate side, generally fewer women served near the front than on the Union side, although some women served in therapeutic nurse, support roles usually called #147;mother#148; of the troops.

Some Confederate women did serve while disguised as men. When Was The Great Flood! #147;Richard Anderson#148; (Amy Clarke) enlisted in the Confederate army with her husband, stayed after he was killed, and was captured by cno practice standards therapeutic nurse client the Union and was the great flood, released in Essay Bipolar Disorder, a dress after her gender was discovered. She then apparently (although evidence is thin) returned to service as a lieutenant, even though her gender was then known. Lucy Matilda Thompson #150; tall, masculine, and an expert shot #150; also enlisted in the Confederate army with her husband, and was discovered only after serious injury. 122. While some women believed in the Confederate cause, others joined only to remain close to husbands or boyfriends. Sarah Malinda Blaylock of North Carolina joined the Confederate army with her husband, although he was a Unionist, when he was about to was the great flood, be drafted. A month later, he rubbed his body with poison sumac and received a medical discharge. She immediately revealed her identity and was discharged as well. Standards Relationships! They went on to become Unionist partisans, and led raiding parties from the was the great, Tennessee mountains.

123. The most famous women soldiers of the war served as spies and published their stories afterwards. #147;Franklin Thompson#148; (Sarah Emma Edmonds) adopted a male identity before the war and worked in the Union army as a #147;male#148; nurse and mail carrier who was recruited to the secret service and slipped behind Confederate lines on numerous occasions to bring back vital military information (Figure 2.7). On these forays, Edmonds adopted disguise-within-a-disguise, as an African American man, or an nurse Irish woman peddler. She lived through many battles, deserted the army when her identity appeared to be in jeopardy, and published a best-selling book in 1864, Nurse and Spy , about when great her escapades, told as though she were a female nurse who sometimes adopted male disguise. She was the only woman ever accepted into the veterans#146; group, Grand Army of the Republic, in 1898. (Several other cross-dressing women combatants wrote successful books, encouraging similar, fictional stories.) 124. Figure 2.7 Sarah Emma Edmonds as #147;Franklin Thompson,#148; US Civil War. [Courtesy of State Archives of Michigan.] Edmonds#146;s counterpart in cno practice standards nurse relationships, the Confederacy was #147;Lieutenant Harry T. Buford#148; (Loreta Janeta Velazquez). With the help of a fake moustache and beard, Velazquez fought with the was the great flood, Confederate army as an independent lieutenant (floating from one unit to another as needed) in 1861, and at least twice temporarily took charge of a company that had lost its officers. She served under her fiance without being recognized by him, worked as a spy switching in and out of male and female attire, and was arrested by hamlet acte 2 scène both the flood, North and the South numerous times on charges of spying or (in the South) being a woman, only to get away each time and essay examples, carry on.

After revealing herself to her fiance (when both were recovering in a hospital) and marrying him, only to was the, have him die weeks later, Velazquez gave up male disguise and turned to spying full-time, as a woman. She became one of the what law of diminishing marginal utility, South#146;s most effective secret agents, working as double (and once triple) agent under the North#146;s secret service, counterfeiting large sums in when, the US Treasury to finance the Confederacy, blockade-running through Cuba, and action, making a clean getaway at the end of the war. She published her controversial memoirs in 1876. 125. Many women were discovered quickly and discharged #150; often victims of was the, their #147;feminine#148; mannerisms, such as how they put on stockings or wrung out dishcloths. Two soldiers were found out when officers threw apples to them, which they tried to catch with their aprons (they were not wearing aprons).

Another, according to an 1862 newspaper account, was found out after #147;trying to put her pants on over her head.#148; Several women were discovered after giving birth, including a Union sergeant whose delivery was #147;in violation of all military law#148; according to an outraged superior officer, and a Confederate officer who gave birth after being taken prisoner by the North. Many women, however, were discovered only after injury or death, and hamlet, an unknown number either were buried on the battlefield or survived the war undiscovered. Of course, while hundreds of women soldiers may have fought in the Civil War, hundreds of thousands of men did. The participation of women was limited in was the great, that they almost always had to law of utility, pretend to be men in order to fight, and they were summarily dismissed or punished when discovered. 126. Women have participated in naval warfare and as pirates on was the a number of occasions, in a variety of roles #150; disguised as men, working in support jobs on ships, and in cno practice therapeutic nurse client relationships, rare cases as openly female combatants. In the sailing ships of the British Navy in great flood, the eighteenth and claim of fact examples, nineteenth centuries, it was common for when great flood, women to accompany men to sea, both as wives and as service workers (prostitutes, cooks).

As Figure 2.8 illustrates, in Bipolar, time of was the flood, battle women participated under fire, facing many of the same dangers as the men. They traditionally helped nurse the wounded and of view catcher, carry gunpowder to the cannons. Great Flood! The latter was an action especially difficult and when was the flood, dangerous task, since heavy cartridges had to be carried from the (spark-free) powder room up ladders to the slippery and smoke-filled gun deck, over standards therapeutic and over. Was The Flood! It was #147;not unusual#148; for cno practice nurse client relationships, the noise, vibration, and stress of battle to induce labor in a pregnant woman, who gave birth with little assistance from others. 127. Figure 2.8 British seaman#146;s wife helps a wounded seaman in battle, 1830. [From Matthew Henry Barker, The Log Book . Great Flood! London: J. #038; W. Robins, 1830.] These combat support roles for women at sea are supplemented by quite a few cases of women who adopted male dress and joined the acte, Navy as regular sailors #150; usually motivated by economic and social restrictions faced by when was the flood women on land (and by pure adventurousness). Of three biographies of what marginal utility, eighteenth-century women who went to sea with the Royal Navy, one turns out to be accurate, one is embellished with fiction, and the third entirely fictitious. The public showed both tolerance of, and amusement at, the was the flood, story of a woman dressing as a man and taking to sea, especially if she went in search of a lost love (which few real women did) and returned to normal gender roles at narrative point of view catcher rye, the end of the story. It was surprisingly easy to when great flood, pass as a man in the eighteenth century, when men were routinely press-ganged into naval service to fill labor shortages in the war-prone British Navy.

As with all cross-dressing female soldiers, it is Essay on Managing Bipolar Disorder, hard to estimate numbers of when was the great, real historical cases behind the popular ballads. 128. Openly female fighters. The form of female participation found least often is the isolated individual female soldier who, without gender disguise, fights among her male comrades. Cno Practice Standards Therapeutic Client Relationships! Cultures tend to treat these as exceptional cases, decoupled from when great flood, any idea of women#146;s systematic participation. For example, the Russian Naval Academy#146;s first female cadet, admitted in 1997, is being treated as an exception #150; admitted by special decision of the hamlet acte 2 scène, Defense Minister. To quote an officer at the academy, #147;One girl alone cannot ruin the navy.#148; Many stories describe individual, remarkable women who simply went to war as women, their strong abilities usually convincing males to accept them despite their gender. Some of these stories are of dubious historical accuracy, other are composites of several cases, and others are well documented.

The phenomenon of when great flood, individual, openly female warriors is widespread and yet, in most times and places, rare. 129. Simple societies In several simple, prestate societies, women sometimes participate in fighting. In these societies, combat and support roles are not always clearly separated (although in some cultures they are), so that when a small band of warriors goes off to fight, women may accompany them and occasionally participate in fighting. I have mentioned the case of women of the 2, Eurasian steppes in the early Iron Age (see pp. 13#150;14). Among the Maori, women fought in emergencies, as when inner home defenses were threatened. This was unusual, however. As the flood, Maori proverb says, #147;Fighting with men and childbirth with women.#148; Several other cases illustrate women#146;s participation, although in none of them do women play a role equal to men in combat. Some native American societies allowed women to participate in combat to a minor extent. Among the southern Apaches, some women accompanied war parties and 2 scène, a few #147;also fought and were known for their bravery and expert marksmanship.#148; Reports are somewhat contradictory, however.

Cremony reported in was the, 1868: Many of the women delight to is the law of diminishing marginal utility, participate in predatory excursions, urging on great flood the men, and actually taking part in conflicts. They ride like centaurs and therapeutic nurse, handle their rifles with deadly skill#133;.[T]he fighting women#133;.are numerous, well trained, and desperate, often exhibiting more real courage than the men. However, a 1941 report states that Apache raiding parties were #147;made up of men only. Women never go on was the great raids.#148; Nonetheless, prisoners taken in battle were often taken back to camp for the women (especially those who had lost loved ones in battle) to torture and kill. Apache girls and smart action plan, young women received much physical training including riding and when great flood, using knife, bow, and action, rifle #150; and were expected to guard camp while males were away. Adult women occasionally joined a raiding or war party, usually to when great flood, help with cooking, cleaning, and nursing. 130. The most famous woman Apache warrior was Lozen, who rode and fought with Geronimo (against the US and Mexican armies in the late nineteenth century). Lozen was unusual because she was not married. A witness who, as a child, rode with Geronimo#146;s band recalls: #147;Lozen#133;.was called The Woman Warrior; and standards therapeutic relationships, though she may not have had as much strength as one of the men she was as good a shot as any of was the, them.#148; This witness mentions that #147;no unmarried woman was permitted to standards client relationships, go#148; with a war party. #147;Lozen?

No, she was not married#133;. But to us she was as a Holy Woman#133;. Great! And she was brave!#148; Lozen, the sister of Chief Victorio, reputedly used her powers as medicine woman to detect the is the marginal utility, enemy#146;s presence and help the was the great, Apache warriors elude capture on hamlet many occasions. After her brother#146;s death, Lozen rode with Chief Nana, who #150; with a force of 15 to was the, 40 warriors #150; eluded a US force of over 1,000 soldiers and won eight battles against them. Lozen went on to ride with Geronimo, was eventually captured with him, and died in narrative point of view catcher in the rye, custody. Clearly, however, Lozen was the exception. Was The Great! Most Apache women did not participate in war, and most war parties did not integrate women into of fact examples the ranks. Was The Flood! 131.

On the long war expeditions of the extremely aggressive Mundurucu (Brazil), warriors were joined by their wives and #147;a number of unmarried girls. Of Fact Essay! Their tasks were to when was the great flood, carry cooking utensils and all of the Essay on Managing Bipolar Disorder, equipment of the men, except for their arms#133;. They also cooked, fetched water and firewood and great, performed other female services. Contrary to [an 1831 report]#133;.that the women helped on smart plan the battlefield#133;.the women were always left at a safe distance#148; during fighting. 132. Cheyenne Indian women also occasionally, though rarely, went with war parties, and when flood, showed courage equal to the men. When the chief#146;s horse was killed in a battle in 1876, his sister charged in narrative catcher in the, among the white troops and rode away with him to safety. According to when great flood, some reports, Cheyenne women who had been in Essay on Managing Bipolar, wars formed a small guild and held meetings.

Women also occasionally accompanied war parties among the Shasta (California). Great Flood! The women cut enemy bowstrings with knives, and were sometimes taken prisoner. Action Plan! They also cooked and carried supplies. The Gabrielino society (California) #150; wrongly characterized by nineteenth-century writers as #147;timid and peaceful#148; #150; used women and children to was the, accompany war parties, carrying the food and supplies, as did the Hidatsa, Choctaw, and Guiana Amerindians. Possibly, Klamath (Oregon) women fought other women in war. The Konkow sometimes allowed women to participate in torturing captured male enemies. 133. Women#146;s participation in torturing and killing prisoners is found elsewhere as well, scattered across the anthropological record of cross-cultural research on catcher rye simple societies.

For example, among the when was the great flood, Tupinamba of Brazil, women enthusiastically helped torture prisoners of war to of fact essay, death and then dismember and when was the flood, eat them. Similarly, Kiwai women of hamlet, Oceania had the special job of #147;mangling#148; enemy wounded and was the flood, then killing them with knives or digging sticks. In seventeenth-century colonial Massachusetts a mob of women tortured two Indian prisoners to Essay on Managing, death after overcoming their guards. Afghan women in the nineteenth century tortured enemy survivors of battle. When Was The Flood! In 1993 a mob of Somali women tore apart four foreign journalists. 134. It is claim essay examples, possible, incidentally, for a culture to mobilize women into combat support without taking away their noncombatant protected status. When! In Papuan warfare, women #147;collect stray arrows for of view catcher in the, their husbands#148; and scout enemy movements, enjoying immunity from attack. Kapauku warfare (New Guinea) extends total immunity to women who function as support troops in was the great, the middle of the smart action, battle. #147;The Kapauku consider it highly immoral for a man to shoot at a female during a battle.

Even an accidental injury brings#133;.derision and loss of when great flood, prestige.#148; These cases highlight the distinction between combat and combat-support categories. Law Of Utility! 135. In Celtic traditions, women warriors are a recurrent theme. Beyond the when great, historical cases, warrior queens of dubious historical basis also figure prominently in legends and myths of many cultures. For example, Queen Medb (Maeve), in the Celtic classic The Tain , would have lived around the first century AD. In the legend, the 2 scène 2, goddess-warrior Medb commanded 1,500 soldiers but was most fearsome as a single warrior. The Celtic tradition in general gives considerable latitude for military roles to women. When! In Celtic myth, #147;again and again it is the magic intervention in the course of battle of a female, goddess, queen or a combination of the two, which provides the focus or climax of the story.#148; Legends refer frequently to warlike queens and goddesses, but little hard evidence indicates actual women fighters. Even the goddesses of claim of fact examples, war generally do not engage in battle, but use magic to influence battle outcomes, or sometimes train men in the art of war. As for historical evidence, since the Celts were not literate, we must rely on second-hand accounts.

A Roman historian claimed that if a Celt called in his wife, foreigners would be hard pressed, since she was stronger than him and could rain blows and kicks of amazing strength on the foreigners. However, I have found no evidence that Celtic women participated as regular soldiers in warfare. If they did so, they left little trace. 136. Historical cases in industrialized societies In industrialized societies, individual women have also fought openly on occasion. In the French Revolutionary Wars, which first mobilized a whole national population for war service on when was the great flood a mass scale, several hundred women proposed forming a women#146;s militia. A proposal for a women#146;s battalion was considered, but rejected, in 1793. However, Renee Bordereau served openly in the royalist cavalry, fighting with #147;unbelievable courage,#148; evidently out of rage at the murder of 42 of cno practice standards client, her relatives (including her father before her eyes).

Afterwards she dictated her memoirs which were published as a pamphlet. In the French siege of Saragossa, Spain, in 1808, a Spanish woman named Agostina served with hundreds of women bringing drink to great, the 200 defending soldiers and water to action, swab the cannons. When the French broke through and killed all the artillerymen, Agostina began firing a cannon, and other women joined in, forcing a French retreat. After the war, she continued as an when was the artillery captain, in uniform with standard pay and pension, despite being openly female. A French woman, wearing male clothing but known by all to be female, fought competently in Corsica in 1792#150;99, and on Managing, retired as a sergeant major after being wounded.

Another woman served openly in the French army in 1793#150;1815, was wounded six times, and great, dictated her memoirs afterwards. Standards Nurse Relationships! No attempt was made to when was the great, discharge her, because she fought well. Essay On Managing Bipolar Disorder! 137. In at least two cases in the US Civil War, similarly, women served openly as officers in when was the great flood, the Confederate army at the rank of captain (in addition to claim, those disguised as men). During World War I, a number of women participated individually in when flood, several armies.

One of the most famous, Englishwoman Flora Sandes, fought with the Serbian army on is the marginal the same terms as the men, and took an great Austrian speaking tour in 1920. 138. Just as individual women have proven capable as soldiers, so too they have shown themselves adept as military leaders. Male soldiers and officers will follow the commands and exhortations of a female leader #150; and not just one whose gender is disguised #150; when that leader is deemed to possess proper authority. Joan of Arc The most famous case #150; although it is atypical #150; is Joan of Arc. Point Catcher! As a peasant girl, she heard voices telling her that God wanted her to was the great, save France, which was doing poorly in the Hundred Years War against England. The English, with the collusion of some French forces, occupied much of essay, France including Paris and the cathedral of when was the great, Reims where French kings were crowned, and were besieging Orleans. Action Plan! At age 16, Joan somehow convinced the French ruler to provide her some troops and when was the flood, send her to Orleans, where (in 1429) she rallied the demoralized army trying to relieve the siege.

She personally led the attack on the key English fortress, and prevailed. Using her ability to motivate the rank-and-file soldiers with religious fervor, and overcoming some initial resistance by the French military leadership, Joan led the army to a series of victories, culminating in the coronation of Charles VII at Reims with Joan by his side. These successes turned the tide of the plan, Hundred Years War. The next year, Joan was captured by Burgundy and was the great flood, sold to smart, the English, who condemned her both for idolatry and for flood, wearing men#146;s clothing, and smart action plan, burned her at the stake. 139. Joan#146;s main strength as a military leader was her ability to inspire troops to follow her. Leadership is critical in overcoming the paralyzing terror and confusion of soldiers on the battlefield (see pp. 253#150;58). Joan pro- vided the necessary strong leadership, in a manner not unlike that of the captains of mercenary units at that time.

The mercenaries would risk their lives for their captain and were rewarded with plunder, whereas Joan#146;s troops were rewarded with spiritual ecstasy. The French soldiers believed that Joan was a holy presence. They loved her, and was the flood, rushed to touch her, or her horse. Joan exemplified a spiritual life: she prohibited looting by her troops, even for food. Narrative Point Catcher! She was charitable to all. She chased away pro-stitutes (who follow armies; see pp. 342#150;48).

She prayed frequently and when was the great flood, heard mass daily. In battle, she refused to shed blood personally, preferring to carry her standard instead of smart, using her sword. Reportedly she could not stand the when was the, sight of blood. Cno Practice Standards Therapeutic Nurse Client! Her soldiers #150; the same ones those prostitutes had been serving #150; claimed they were not sexually aroused around her, even when they saw her breasts or bare legs (when she was dressing, or wounded). Instead, the soldiers #147;relished the spirituality of their own existence when with her.#148; In addition to these qualities, Joan appears to have had a knack for flood, military tactics. She was especially adept at riding a horse while wielding a lance, at setting up artillery (which was fairly new), and at organizing armies for law of, battle.

Her contemporaries described her as a simple, innocent, and ignorant girl except in great flood, the art of war, where she acted as though she had 30 years#146; experience. 140. Most women military leaders, unlike Joan, were queens who held political power and exercised military leadership from that position. Antonia Fraser reviews the record of a dozen such historical #147;warrior queens.#148; Different stories treat such figures differently #150; for example, some emphasizing their chastity and others their sexual voracity. Smart Action Plan! 141. The documented historical cases include Semiramis (Sammu-ramat), who ruled Assyria in 811#150;806 BC after her husband#146;s death and before her son came of age. Not much is known about her, but Greek writers built her up into a legendary adventuress, conqueror, and voracious lover #150; a story further embellished, centuries later, in was the flood, a Voltaire play and essay examples, a Rossini opera. 142. The forces of great, Tomyris, queen and general of the Essay on Managing Disorder, Massagetae in today#146;s eastern Iran, defeated the Persian ruler Cyrus in the sixth century BC, according to the fifth-century Greek historian Herodotus (who here, unlike the Amazon case, is when was the flood, reporting fairly recent history). When Cyrus tried to conquer her territory, using trickery and capturing her son, Tomyris#146; army crushed the Persians in an extremely violent battle and killed Cyrus.

Fifty years later, the Essay Bipolar Disorder, Persian king Xerxes battled the Greeks at Salamis, with a warrior queen at his side #150; Artemisia of Halicarnassus (again, according to Herodotus, who praises her #147;manly courage#148;). Although she advised against the unwise naval encounter with the when was the flood, Greeks, Artemisia fought more bravely than Xerxes#146; male commanders: he is supposed to have said, #147;My men have turned into women, my women into is the diminishing utility men.#148; The Greeks, who resented a woman warring against when great them, had offered a large reward for Artemisia#146;s capture, but she managed to escape the battle alive with some clever tactics. (Tactics included ramming and sinking a friendly vessel, convincing a pursuer that she was on cno practice standards therapeutic client his side, while Xerxes assumed she had sunk an enemy vessel.) 143. The legendary and historical British queen Boudica (Boadicea or Boudicca) led a rebellion against when was the the Romans around 60 AD (17 years after their invasion). A statue of her on a chariot stands near the British Parliament (see Figure 2.9). Boudica took leadership of the Iceni people (in present-day England) after her husband died. Her Iron Age society was of cno practice nurse client, Celtic heritage (see p. 115) #150; warlike, reckless, horse-loving, robust and strong, prone to fighting naked accompanied by loud noise and frequent drinking. Celtic women, although they did not rule in a matriarchy as has been claimed, led freer lives than Roman law allowed. Women were not excluded from Celtic religion, which included powerful goddesses, and apparently women could serve as druids (priests). The historian Tacitus said of the great flood, Britons (in contrast to the Romans), #147;they make no distinction of sex in their appointment of commanders.#148; At the time Boudica took power, another queen, Cartimandua, presided over the Brigantian territories to the north, as a client of Rome (which had come to her aid when her rule was threatened).

144. Figure 2.9 Statue of Boudica, London. [By Thomas Thornycroft. Of Fact Examples! Photo by when great flood Sue Lanzon.] Boudica#146;s own history is sketchy, although the is the law of diminishing, main outlines seem clear. Upon the death of Boudica#146;s husband, the when was the great, Romans seized his estate, dispossessed the in the rye, Iceni nobles, flogged the new queen, Boudica, and great, raped her two daughters. These humiliations came at a time of cno practice standards therapeutic, wide resentment against imperial rule. Drawing on spiritual and political symbols, Boudica mobilized her people to flood, rebel, and led an army of possibly 100,000 which overran, burned, and sacked a Roman colonial settlement. Joined by other tribes, the army ambushed the what law of diminishing marginal, Roman reinforcements and when flood, moved on the trading city of London, which the Romans abandoned and is the diminishing utility, the rebels burned, as they did a third city, populated by when great flood Britons friendly to Rome. In the course of these attacks, tens of thousands of people died and many atrocities occurred. The Romans regrouped, attacked Boudica#146;s army, and #150; with superior experience and equipment #150; routed them and killed tens of thousands of soldiers along with their families who had come to see the what, battle.

Boudica reportedly killed herself afterwards. Rome inflicted vengeance on the Britons, and great, went on to rule for 400 years. Queen Cartimandua had not joined the rebellion, and is the diminishing, remained in power. 145. Two hundred years after Boudica#146;s rebellion, Queen Zenobia of Palmyra led a similar revolt against the Roman empire, in was the, modern-day Syria. Around 260 AD, Zenobia#146;s husband Odainat, ruler of the Roman colony Palmyra, went to hamlet, war against when great Persia and won. The incredibly beautiful Zenobia rode with the men in standards client relationships, wartime, was as brave as her husband, and great, supposedly had sex only for purposes of procreation. When her husband and his heir from an earlier marriage were assassinated, Zenobia took power as regent for her own son.

She quickly turned to point, an ambitious campaign of military conquest, and within a few years ruled a large territory from was the great, Egypt to the Bosphorus, then declared independence from Rome. She rode with her troops (an army of 100,000 or more), transmitting orders through her general. Eventually Rome attacked, reconquered the territory, sacked Palmyra, and took Zenobia captive. Taken to Rome, she apparently survived and smart, built a comfortable life married to a Roman senator. 146. Matilda of when great, Tuscany was an important ally of Pope Gregory VII in his eleventh-century power struggle with the Emperor Henry IV. Pious and largely chaste, she led her army on hamlet acte 2 scène 2 the battlefield, exhorting her troops and plunging into the battle with sword in hand.

She won and lost many battles, played important diplomatic roles, and died in old age. Her body was reburied in St. Peter#146;s (Rome) in the seventeenth century, with the inscription: #147;This warrior-woman disposed her troops as the Amazonian Penthesilea [of Greek myth]#133;.#148; 147. In the twelfth century, Maud #150; daughter of when was the great, King Henry I of England and 2 scène, husband of Emperor Henry V #150; became heiress to the English throne after her brother and then her husband both died. In the long succession struggle with her (male) cousin following her father#146;s death, Maud both led and defended against various military attacks and sieges. 148. Queen Tamara of twelfth-century Georgia plotted military strategy for aggressive campaigns, marched with her army, and spurred her soldiers on with battlefield speeches. Was The Flood! The voraciously sexual Tamara of Georgian legend contrasts with the real Tamara, #147;more of a matriarch than an of view erotic heroine,#148; who was later canonized by the church. 149. These European queens #150; to whom we may add Queen Isabella of Spain and flood, Queen Elizabeth of 2 scène 2, England #150; are joined by when others far from Europe.

The first-century Vietnamese sisters Trung Trac and Trung Nhi are said to have raised an army that expelled Chinese invaders 2,000 years ago (see Figure 2.10). One commander in their force supposedly gave birth at the front before fighting her way through enemy lines with her baby on her back. The Rani of standards, Jhansi led the nineteenth-century Indian rebellion against when was the flood British rule. 150. Figure 2.10 Trung sisters drive Chinese from Vietnam in 39 AD. [From Fraser 1989, 96f.]

Queen Nzinga (or Nzingha, N#146;Zinga, Jinga, or Mbande Zinga) of seventeenth-century Angola took power when her brother (the king) died. Claim Of Fact Essay! A cannibal who personally beheaded and drank the blood of prisoners, her economic base was the slave trade. Nzinga ruled first Ndongo and then #150; never having fully overcome sexist traditions there #150; neighboring Matamba which had some history of female rulers. She shifted alliances between the Portuguese and the Dutch, and is currently seen in Angola as a proto-nationalist who inflicted military defeats on colonialist Portugal. (Some writers claim that Nzinga#146;s army included many female soldiers, but this seems to have no basis.) 151. Historical warrior queens sometimes tried to link themselves symbolically (for practical reasons) with well-known goddesses of war #150; Semiramis (ninth-century BC Babylon) with the goddess Astarte, Cleopatra (first-century BC Egypt) with Isis, and Boudica (first-century AD England) with Celtic warrior goddesses. In other cases, warrior queen figures are symbolic of the was the flood, nation and removed from plan, military strategy. Queen Louise of Prussia led the fight against Napoleon #150; as a national symbol dressed in military attire, but not a military strategist or fighter (she suffered disastrous defeat). When Was The Great Flood! 152. Other women in point, more recent centuries have shown leadership in battle. During the was the great flood, conquest of Paraguay by its neighbors in 1864#150;70, the dictator#146;s mistress, Elisa (Ella) Lynch, played an important role and held the rank of cno practice client relationships, colonel.

In one critical battle in 1868, as a town was being overrun, she rode to the women#146;s camp, organized thousands of when great flood, women into an #147;army#148; carrying hoes and brooms, and marched back over the hill to town, where Argentinian infantry panicked and ran at the rumor of thousands of claim of fact essay, Paraguayan reinforcements arriving. When Great! This seems to have been an isolated incident, although Paraguayans of all ages and both genders participated in home defense in several other desperate battles during that war. Therapeutic! 153. In feudal times, in when flood, both Europe and Asia, it was not unusual for 2 scène, women to take over defense of their castle when their men were away, held prisoner, or killed. The Countess of Montfort, who lived in fourteenth-century France, is an exemplary case. When her husband was taken prisoner by an archrival #150; a man given to atrocities in war #150; the when, Countess organized military affairs including morale, finance, tactics, and diplomacy. When besieged by the rival, she led the catcher in the, defense, dressed in armor, from horseback in the streets, mobilizing women to throw down stones and boiling tar on the enemy. When Flood! She used a secret gate to sneak out with some knights during a lull, then destroyed half the enemy in claim examples, an attack from behind, breaking the siege. When Flood! (Although victorious, the Countess ultimately went mad and lived her last 30 years in isolation in a castle.) 154. Modern political leaders in wartime.

Women in the present-day interstate system sometimes become military leaders when they hold political power during wartime. For example, Margaret Thatcher, Golda Meir, and what is the law of marginal, Indira Gandhi led their countries in war. (Thatcher is the only woman to lead a #147;great power#148; this century.) Benazir Bhutto of was the, Pakistan and Corazon Aquino of the Philippines both struggled to control their own military forces in the late 1980s (Aquino survived seven coup attempts). Turkey#146;s Tansu Ciller prosecuted a harsh war to Essay on Managing, suppress Kurdish rebels in the mid-1990s. President Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga of Sri Lanka (and the prime minister, her mother) practiced war against Tamil separatists after her peace initiatives failed. Violeta Chamorro of Nicaragua kept the peace between factions that had fought a brutal civil war. Other states, such as Norway and Iceland, have had women leaders at times when war and peace were not major political issues in when great flood, those countries. 155.

Female national leaders use both #147;masculine#148; and #147;feminine#148; styles in military and diplomatic matters. Aquino#146;s modest femininity was a great asset in diplomacy. Utility! On a 1986 US visit, according to a State Department official, Aquino #147;had hard-bitten politicians eating out when great of the palm of her hand.#148; However, this femininity made it harder for her to gain loyalty and obedience from her military. After each of several coup attempts, Aquino delivered speeches that first addressed military and government officials in masculinized English and then switched to more feminine phrases in Tagalog to address her citizens. 156. In sum, overall, women like men seem capable of leading in war or in peace.

They do not appear to of view catcher, be more peaceful, more oriented to nonviolent resolution of international conflicts, or less committed to state sovereignty and territorial integrity than are male leaders. We still lack enough data, however. Women national leaders, from World War II through 1993, number 28 individuals (excluding hereditary heads of when great flood, state) #150; a small fraction of the total. 157. US foreign policy Within the United States foreign policy establishment, women leaders do not show particular softness compared with male counterparts. Both Secretary of on Managing, State Madeleine Albright and UN Ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick were hard-liners within their administrations. (Kirkpatrick, incidentally, remarked of the White House Situation Room that #147;I don#146;t think there had ever been a woman in that room before.#148;) In the US Congress, it is hard to compare men#146;s and women#146;s voting records on foreign policy issues because there have been so few women. The US Senate was 98#150;99 percent male until 1992, when it dropped to only 94 percent male. Women have never chaired the key foreign policy committees (Armed Services and Foreign/International Relations) in the Senate or the House. When Was The Great! 158. In the US State Department in 1989, women held fewer than 7 percent of the narrative point in the rye, senior foreign service positions (up from 2 percent in 1970), but 79 percent of the great, lowest-rank civil service positions (from 72 percent in 1970). 2 Scène 2! Thus, men more often make the policies while women type the memos.

A #147;glass ceiling#148; holds women down in the State Department hierarchy. When Great Flood! In the of fact, Department of Defense, similarly, women are concentrated at low levels and have trouble moving up the hierarchy either as service members or as civilians. 159. A 1993 study of foreign policy insiders found that career women in when was the great flood, the State Department were less hard-line and less prone to acte, recommend force than men. However, for women political appointees at State and for great flood, both career and political women in Defense, no such gender gap existed. In fact, #147;in the acte 2, few instances in which they differed from their male counterparts, [women] seemed to be more hard line and when great flood, conservative.#148; Regarding the foreign policy process, there were no statistically significant gender differences. Acte! Nearly 90 percent of men and when great flood, women at both State and Defense, excluding career women at cno practice client relationships, Defense who split evenly, thought that having more women in the Department would not affect foreign policy or process. Overall, little evidence shows that women foreign policy insiders hold a #147;women#146;s perspective#148; on international issues or the policy process.

160. A 1990 poll asked US men and women whether they thought women in public office would do a better job than men, in several issue areas. Across issues, more women than men thought women would do a better job, but this gap was only a few percentage points on was the great flood most issues. Both genders on average thought women would do a better job in improving education, assisting the poor, protecting the hamlet acte, environment, governing honestly, and working for world peace. Both genders thought women would do a worse job in trade negotiations, diplomacy, decisions about war, and (especially) directing the military. The main societal factors creating difficulty for female US foreign policy insiders were the stereotypes of foreign policy as a male preserve and of women as unknow- ledgeable about foreign affairs. Among the poll respondents, almost all women and nearly three-quarters of men said the public sees women as knowing less than men about foreign affairs, although only 22 percent of women and 11 percent of was the flood, men said they personally believed that idea. 161. A 1976 study analyzed gender differences in elite opinion about foreign policy issues.

Of the women, 42 percent were educators or media leaders (occupations that tend to be #147;dovish#148;), whereas 38 of the men were military officers or business executives (#147;hawkish#148; occupations). Essay Bipolar Disorder! The women were also somewhat younger on average, and more likely to when was the great flood, be Democrats and self-described liberals; 73 percent of men and 11 percent of women had military service records. Bipolar! Multivariate statistical analysis controlled for some of when was the great flood, these variables. On Cold War questions, significant gender differences appeared on only four of twenty items. Action Plan! Of the when great flood, nine questions in this cluster relating to the use of force, only one showed a significant gender gap. Essay On Managing! On international questions unrelated to the Cold War, such as poverty and humanitarian concerns, again few gender differences were found. Only on questions regarding #147;isolationism#148; did a consistent and significant gender gap appear, with women more isolationist. In multivariate analyses, occupation rather than gender was the best predictor of foreign policy views. This study suggests that US women in leadership positions in when flood, the 1970s did not share the tendency of the general population of women to be somewhat more peace- ful on foreign policy questions (see pp. 329#150;30). This could be because women achieved leadership positions by 2 emulating, or being selected for, #147;masculine#148; qualities.

162. Diplomacy Women#146;s military leadership abilities might overlap with their more general political and diplomatic capacities. US women ambassadors, beginning with the first in 1933, show #147;striking similarities#148; as high-energy risk takers, patriotic, courageous, tall, physically fit women who loved their jobs. As girls, they were curious about the world, were called tomboys, were voracious readers, and received special attention from parents and teachers. Only 17 of 44 were married while serving as ambassador.

The ambassadors, especially the early ones, faced sexist attitudes in the host countries and institutional lack of support (though equal pay) within the State Department. Most #147;accepted the fact of discrimination as a condition of the times and carried on without too much grumbling.#148; Men, in describing these ambassadors, referred frequently to great, their #147;femininity.#148; The women used this to advantage: since they were not considered threatening, they could speak bluntly to male officials without the latter worrying about losing face. Claim Essay Examples! However, the first US woman appointed as ambassador to a Middle Eastern country, April Glaspie, was blamed by Congressional critics for was the great flood, supposedly giving Saddam Hussein the #147;green light#148; to invade Kuwait. One senior male State Department official reportedly said: #147;We have some lessons to learn. Narrative In The! The first is don#146;t send women as Ambassadors.#148; 163. Fortunately, Hapsburg emperor Charles V did not obey that logic in 1529, when the Paix des Dames (#147;Ladies#146; Peace#148;) ended a destructive war with France. The peace resulted from the initiatives of Marguerite of Austria #150; the emperor#146;s aunt and regent of the Hapsburg-controlled Netherlands #150; and Louise of Savoy, who was the French king#146;s mother and Marguerite#146;s sister-in-law. The negotiations grew out of was the great, a feeler to Marguerite#146;s ambassador at a party given by Louise in Paris. Both sides were under pressure owing to the complexity of shifting alliances. By negotiating through his mother, the French king kept his allies out of the talks and retained the ability to narrative rye, reject the result if he did not like it. The treaty demonstrated Western Europe#146;s common interests and allowed efforts to be redirected against Turkey.

Marguerite is generally credited as the central player and Charles as the main beneficiary of the treaty. 164. Five centuries later, however, in when was the, the emerging international civil service of the smart plan, United Nations staff, women#146;s potentials remain underutilized. The UN staff is nearly half female at when was the, the lowest levels, but women are only about 10 percent of the top staff, just over 5 percent of hamlet 2, Assistant Secretaries General, and great, zero percent of is the law of utility, Undersecretaries General (1992 data). All seven Secretaries General have been male.

Despite a commitment in the UN Charter that women be eligible to participate equally in any capacity (gained by when was the the activism of Eleanor Roosevelt and marginal, a few others in 1945), in reality women have faced persistent discrimination at the UN. 165. The evidence #150; from large-scale organized female participation through various types of gender integration through the was the flood, participation of individual women #150; shows that when women have found their way into combat, they have generally performed about point catcher in the as well as most men have. Women in combat support roles, furthermore, have had little trouble fitting into when great military organizations, and have held their own when circumstances occasionally placed them in combat (especially in guerrilla wars). They can fight; they can kill. Yet exceptional individual women who wanted to go to war had either to overcome stubborn resistance from men or to adopt male disguise. Overall, the on Managing, war system works to when flood, push women away from killing roles except in Essay on Managing Disorder, the most dire emergencies such as when defending their homes and children. This does not necessarily protect women participants from harm.

Women have faced great danger on the battlefield, whether as nurses in front-line trenches, as powder-carriers aboard ships and in artillery units, or as helicopter pilots ferrying male troops around. What these women generally do not share with the men around them is the task of aggressive killing. Most striking are the flood, very rare historical cases in which larger numbers of women were mobilized into what is the law of diminishing marginal utility combat #150; a substantial number of the healthy, strong young women in a population. In the nineteenth-century Dahomey Kingdom and the Soviet Union of World War II, women made up a nontrivial minority of the military, and great, clearly contributed to action plan, the war effort. They were a military asset which, when mobilized, increased the effectiveness of the military in combat, in flood, a few cases even turning the tide of battle. Women#146;s physical strength, while less than men#146;s on average, has been adequate to many combat situations #150; from piloting to sniping to plan, firing machine-guns. One recurring argument of those opposed to women in when great flood, combat #150; that the narrative of view catcher, women would be unable to when was the, drag wounded comrades from the Essay Bipolar, battlefield under fire #150; is refuted by the record of when was the, women nurses#146; doing so. Women#146;s supposedly lower levels of aggressiveness, and their nurturing nature, have been, historically, nobstacle to many women#146;s participation in combat. Furthermore, contrary to the idea that women are too soft-hearted to kill, not only did Soviet snipers coolly shoot down dozens of German soldiers, but in narrative catcher, various cases women took the lead in cruelty and torture, especially of when great flood, prisoners.

1 De Pauw 1998, disappear xiii; Pennington ed. n.d. 2 Laffin 1967, verify 186, bed 185; Salmonson 1991; Jones 1997; De Pauw 1998, 17#150;25. 3 Polanyi 1966, 3, 26#150;27; Manning 1982, 9#150;11; Duncan 1847, visiting 233#150;38; Alpern 1998; Dalzel 1967. 4 Polanyi 1966, 28; Snelgrave 1734, 125#150;26; Wrangham and Peterson 1996, 109#150;10; size: Alpern 1998, 72#150;75; Forbes 1851/I, 14#150;15, Forbes 1851/II, 55#150;56; Obichere 1971, 67; loyalty: Ajayi and Smith 1971, 52. 5 Duncan 1847, muskets 224#150;27, 231#150;35; Forbes 1851/I, resembled 23; Smith 1989, mats 59; physique: Herskovits 1938, 46; Burton in of fact essay examples, Alpern 1998, 36; Smith 1989, none 43, 47; Turney-High 1971, 155, 159#150;60. 6 Alpern 1998, 158, courage 159, fleeing 162; Forbes 1851/I, cruelty 132; Duncan 1847, 236, prefer 240. 7 Forbes 1851/I, we 23, 134; Alpern 1998, 44#150;47; Herskovits 1938, broken 46, segregated 48; Duncan 1847, bell 257#150;58. 8 Polanyi 1966, mobilized 42#150;43; Herskovits 1938, send 76, administration 85. 9 1840: Forbes 1851/I, 14#150;15; infuriated: Ajayi and Smith 1971, 37#150;39, 50#150;51; France: Obichere 1971, 67#150;75, commander 75, 107; Alpern 1998, 104.

10 Alpern 1998, manpower 36#150;37, weapons 61, 65#150;68; firearms: Smith 1989, 51, 81; M. When Was The Great! Harris 1989, 285. 11 Obichere 1971, preeminent 120#150;21. 12 Griesse and Stites 1982, labor 68#150;69. 13 Griesse and Stites 1982, drafted 31, specialty 69. 14 Griesse and Stites 1982, vague#150;Komsomol 73, teens 31; De Pauw 1998, 239#150;45; D. Bipolar Disorder! Jones 1997, 137#150;45. 15 Griesse and Stites 1982, memoirs#150;combat 75, 71#150;75; Presidential Commission 1993, C28. 16 Griesse and Stites 1982, hostile 72. 17 Griesse and Stites 1982, 71; Krylova: Jones 1997, 137#150;40. 18 Griesse and Stites 1982, pass 69, subculture 72; British: Quester 1977, 81#150;82.

19 Cottam 1983; Noggle 1994, 15#150;17, 99#150;101; White 1994, 7#150;11; Griesse and Stites 1982, 70; Pennington 1993; [less reliable: Myles 1981; Jones 1997, 140#150;45]. 20 White 1994, 9#150;11, verge 10; Noggle 1994, 18#150;98. 21 Noggle 1994, 99#150;156, dangerous 105; White 1994, 9. 22 Noggle 1994, 157#150;219, attacked 160#150;61; White 1994, 8; Cottam 1983, strength 7. 23 Noggle 1994, 157#150;58; White 1994, 8#150;9; Jones 1997, 142#150;43. 24 Griesse and when great, Stites 1982, 71#150;72. 25 Griesse and Stites 1982, integrated#150;snipers 69#150;72; Jones 1997, 45; cf.

Randall 1981, grenades 145#150;46. 26 Griesse and of fact essay examples, Stites 1982, 72. 27 Griesse and when was the, Stites 1982, proved 73, German 75. 28 Tuten 1982, 48#150;49. 29 Tuten 1982, 51. 30 Tuten 1982, 54#150;55. 31 Tuten 1982, 55#150;56; De Pauw 1998, 245#150;47; Jones 1997, 200; Seifert 1995; practice: Ruth Seifert, personal communication 2000. 32 De Pauw 1998, 214#150;16, 207#150;30; Hirschfeld 1934, 110#150;23; Stites 1978, policy 280. 33 Botchkareva 1919, 71#150;136; Stites 1978, 280.

34 Botchkareva 1919, 154#150;71; Stites 1978, 280; White 1994, 4#150;5, 13; Bryant 1918, 212, 216#150;18. 35 Shame: Botchkareva 1919, 157, 207, 211, studio 161; Bryant 1918, 10. 36 Botchkareva 1919, began 163#150;64, swarming 173, 172#150;83, 202#150;5, uniforms 189, 192, 197. 37 Botchkareva 1919, sisters 207, knew 262. 38 Botchkareva 1919, adjutant 205, 208#150;12. 39 Bryant 1918, 212#150;13. 40 Botchkareva 1919, soldiers 165. 41 Spence 1996; Fairbank ed. Narrative Point Of View Rye! 1978, 276#150;77; Michael 1966, 43#150;45; Jen 1973. 42 Boulding 1992/I, 237; David Graff, personal communication 1998; Peter Lorge, personal communication 1998; De Pauw 1998, 204#150;5, 332#150;33; Li 1995; Twitchett and Loewe 1986, Ch#146;iang 433, 422#150;23. 43 Ancient: Alpern 1998, 2#150;3; Chinese: Yu forthcoming; Danish: Francke 1997, 243; Montenegrin#150;Serbian: Jancar 1982, 87; Congo#150;Malawi: Brown 1998; Shaka: Brown 1998; Edgerton 1988, 38#150;39, 107; Thompson 1969, 344.

44 Pettman 1996a, 126#150;53; Isaksson 1988; Ruddick 1990, 231; Elshtain 1987, 184#150;85; Zur 1989, 315#150;20; Zur and was the great flood, Morrison 1989; Vietnam: D. Butler 1990; Jason ed. 1991; Argentina: Taylor 1997; Taylor 1993; Cyprus: Pourou-Kazantzis 1998; Lebanon: Cooke 1987; Keddie and Baron eds. 1991; Moghadam 1993; Emmett 1996; Kandiyoti 1996; Nicaragua: Mulinari 1996; Mulinari 1998; South Africa: Cock 1989; Cock 1991; Unterhalter 1987, 119; Zimbabwe: Thompson 1982; Philippines: Aguilar-San Juan 1982; Others: Ridd and Callaway eds. 1986; Matthews 1993; S. Carter 1992; Noakes 1998, 103#150;63; Mora 1998; Beilstein 1998; Collett 1996; Peterson and Runyan 1993, 129#150;35. 45 Wilhelm 1988, Italy 119; Weitz 1995, 147#150;70, fighters 148, 150, comrade 155; Jones 1997, 199#150;203. 46 Jancar 1982, roles 85, 100, NLA 90, 99, training 93#150;94, medic 97#150;98; Jancar-Webster 1990, clothes#150;married 89. 47 Jancar-Webster 1990, 88; Jancar 1982, 93.

48 Duiker 1982, 114#150;15; Turner 1998, estimates 20#150;21; De Pauw 1998, 269#150;72. 49 Duiker 1982, policy#150;one 117#150;19; south: Francke 1997, 244. 51 Enloe 1983, 166; Bayard de Volo 1998, 246. 52 Jones 1997, founder 103; Randall 1981, director 138#150;39, 147; Seitz, Lobao, and Treadway 1993, 175. 53 Bayard de Volo 1998, give#150;wombs 246#150;48; cf.

Mora 1998, 170; Luttwak 1997. 54 Uglow ed. 1989, 400#150;1; Cock 1991, numbers 182#150;83; Sylvester 1989, 108; cf. Kenya: Kanogo 1987, 94. 55 Cock 1991, knitting 149, equals 162#150;65, luxuries#150;killing 152#150;53, 150, defend 165, man 168; Morris 1993. 56 Hall 1993, apocryphal 104#150;5; Fellman 1992. 57 Filkins 2000, third; Ganguly 2000, half; De Pauw 1998, two-thirds 292; De Alwis 1998; Bennett, Bexley, and Warnock 1995, 135#150;56, 228#150;41. 60 Enloe 1983, 160#150;72; Tetreault 1992; Boulding 1992/II, 288#150;92; De Pauw 1998, 290#150;91. 61 Seager 1997, 92; Segal 1993, 86; Manning 1999; law: Jerusalem Post 2000; ruling: Inverardi 2000. 62 Fisher 1999; De Pauw 1998, 292.

63 Lory Manning, personal communication 1998; Enloe 1982, 127#150;31; NATO 1994. 64 NATO 1994, 4; Enloe 1994, 81; O#146;Hara 1998, 23, 14; Associated Press 1998a; Weinstein and White 1997. 65 NATO 1994, 6, 8. 66 NATO 1994, 16. 67 Manning 1999; NATO 1994, 25. 68 Manning 1999; NATO 1994. 69 Van Creveld 1993, 6#150;9; Gal 1986, 46#150;57, 32#150;33, 48#150;49, brochure 47, sister#150;sought 52; Bloom 1982; Enloe 1983, 156. 70 Gal 1986, 50, succeeded#150;recruits 49#150;50, 52#150;53; Van Creveld 1993, 8#150;9; Jerusalem Post 2000.

71 De Pauw 1998, 281#150;86. 72 Manning 1999; Elshtain 1987, 241; Stiehm 1989; Presidential Commission 1993; Moore 1996. 73 De Pauw 1975, 174#150;93, later 174#150;75; De Pauw 1998, 110#150;15. 74 De Pauw 1998, 115#150;31. 75 Treadwell 1954, 6#150;10, status 10; De Pauw 1998, 225#150;29; Hewitt 1974.

76 Treadwell 1954, 18. 77 Campbell 1990, 107; De Pauw 1998, 247#150;58; Larson 1995. 78 Treadwell 1954, 611, 626, overweight 627. 79 Treadwell 1954, rule 612#150;14, pregnancy 507#150;9. 80 Treadwell 1954, 503#150;7, punishing 503, battle 676; Campbell 1990, morale 112. 81 Treadwell 1954, 675. 82 Treadwell 1954, caste 511#150;14, drinks 681#150;82, immoral 678, betrayal 682, 669#150;83. 83 Costello 1985, 49, 52. 84 Soderbergh 1992, xv, gung xvii. 85 Soderbergh 1992, 146#150;47. 86 Treadwell 1954, 191#150;218; Campbell 1990, 115#150;17, survey 116; Meyer 1996, 33#150;35, uniforms 154; De Pauw 1998, 251#150;58; Costello 1985, 47; Enloe 1983, pocket 119, 141.

87 Treadwell 1954, release 184, failure 189; Costello 1985, cheery#150;draft 47#150;48; Bourke 1999, poll 303. 88 Francke 1997, noon 22. 89 Manning and Griffith 1998, number 9; Marlowe 1983; US Army 1982, 2, 1.2, 1.4; Quester 1977, 85; Nabors 1982; Thompson 2000. 90 Rustad 1982, 46; Enloe 1983, 7; Dyer 1985, 122#150;25. 91 Corps: US Army 1982, 4.4#150;4.5; tanker: Francke 1997, 228#150;29. 92 Francke 1997, 46#150;72. 93 Francke 1997, 76. 94 Francke 1997, 73#150;103; survival 80#150;82, 87#150;91; Enloe 1993, 222; WWII: Manning 1999. 95 Francke 1997, 82, doctor 102, asshole 97; Cornum 1996; Sciolino 1992.

96 Enloe 1994, 99; Enloe 1993, 201#150;27; Francke 1997, 96. 97 De Pauw 1998, 7; Enloe 1983, 145; Francke 1997, 250, 29; Senate: McNeil-Lehrer News Hour, July 1, 1992. 98 Francke 1997, wash 251. 99 Francke 1997, 183#150;219. 100 Francke 1997, welcome 205, data 200#150;7; Moskos 1994, coast 61; Stiehm 1981; Mitchell 1996. 101 Francke 1997, reality 200, line 216; Ballard 1996; Stiehm 1981; Faludi 1994; New York Times , April 23, 1997: A20; Hess 1997.

102 Myers 1997a; Myers 1997b; Myers 1998a, Myers 1998b; Shenon 1998; Janofsky 1997, matter; D. Johnson 1997, Navy. 103 Shenon 1997; Associated Press 1997; Sciolino 1997a; Sciolino 1997b; Spinner 1997a; Jones 1997a; Jones 1997b; Cohen 1997b; Myers 1998c. 104 Presidential Commission 1993, D-9. 105 Francke 1997, capable 221. 106 Manning 1999, several; Francke 1997, 256#150;58; Spears 1998. 107 Priest 1997a; Priest 1997b; Priest 1997c; Moskos 1998. 108 Moral: Peach 1993; Peach 1996; Presidential Commission 1993, 46; Hackworth 1991, 24; Holm 1992, 389; Lagerspetz et al . 1988; debate: McNeil 1991; Stiehm 1981; Rustad 1982; Goldman ed. 1982; Mitchell 1989; Blacksmith ed.

1992; Howes and therapeutic, Stevenson eds. 1993; Addis, Russo, and Sebesta eds. 1994; US House 1992; US Department of Defense 1992, 15; Mariner 1997; Donnelly 1997; Cohen 1997a. 109 Van Creveld 1993, 8; Bendekgey 1992, 19, 23; DeFleur 1992, 25; Fuentes 1992, 35; Katzenstein 1998, 45#150;103; Summers 1992, promotion 131. 110 Holm 1992, experiments 389; Gutmann 2000; Presidential Commission 1993, Schwarzkopf 46, defend 46; Katzenstein 1998, exchange 50. 111 Bray: Francke 1997, 46#150;72; Breuer 1997, 139#150;40; Dever and Dever 1995, infantry 127; Hultgreen: Francke 1997, 256#150;58; Breuer 1997, 206#150;12. 112 Treadwell 1954, 12. 113 Treadwell 1954, chapter 37. 114 Aviators: Francke 1997, 226; Katzenstein 1998, 79; Navy#150;all: Manning 1999. 115 Priest 1997b.

116 Presidential Commission 1993, D5; Astrachan 1986, 63#150;65. 117 Wheelwright 1989; De Pauw 1998, regiments 105; Enloe 1983, 119#150;23. 118 Mulan: Raven and Weir 1981, 32; Ayscough 1937, 214#150;27; Scanagatta: Wish Stream 1964; Samson: De Pauw 1998, 126; Wheelwright 1989, 132#150;35. 119 Hall 1993, xi, daughter xiii, 4. 120 Hall 1993, 177, 20, 161, Hook 26#150;28. 121 Hall 1993, 20#150;26. 122 Hall 1993, 98#150;101.

123 Hall 1993, 101#150;3. 124 Hall 1993, 46#150;97; De Pauw 1998, fictional 106. 125 Hall 1993, 107#150;53, temporarily 108, 120; De Pauw 1998, 153; Wheelwright 1989, 139#150;41. 126 Hall 1993, 155#150;56, pants 156#150;57, birth 159#150;60. 127 Stark 1996, 82#150;122, battle 71#150;72; De Pauw 1982; Stanley ed.

1995; Creighton and when great, Norling eds. 1996; Druett 2000. 128 Stark 1996, motivated 92, biographies 102, easy 88#150;90. 129 Stanley 1998, A4. 130 Griffen 1988, also 12; Cremony 1868, 142; Opler 1941, raids 333, 350#150;51; Stockel 1991, xii, 17, 46, 30. 131 Stockel 1991, 29#150;51, 41; Ball 1980, witness 103#150;4. 132 Murphy 1957, distance 1022#150;23; Goldschmidt 1989, 23. 133 Grinnell 1923, Cheyenne 44#150;47; Heizer ed. 1978, Shasta 218#150;19, Gabrielino 546#150;47, Konkow 380; Turney-High 1971, Shasta#150;others, 154; Klamath: Gatschet 1890; Barrett 1964; Stern 1965; Cressman 1956; Spier 1930, 31; Goldschmidt 1989, 23. 134 Brazil: M. Therapeutic Relationships! Harris 1989, 321; Kiwai: Turney-High 1971, mangling 162, 7; Massachusetts: De Pauw 1998, 113#150;14; Somali: Ehrenreich 1997a, 128#150;29. 135 Pospisil 1963, 59.

136 Fraser 1989, story 14#150;17; Boulding 1992/I, 276#150;82; Matthews 1989, 76#150;77; Stone 1979, 47, 49#150;52, 68#150;69; Larrington ed. 1992, 123#150;25; Green 1993, 27#150;28; Mac Cana 1970, 86; Green 1993, 24; Chadwick 1970, 134#150;35; Ritchie and Ritchie 1985, 14; Dillon and Chadwick 1972, 25, 146; Hill 1986; Ellis 1996, 77#150;98. 137 Pierson 1987, militia 208#150;10; De Pauw 1998, 135#150;39. 138 Civil: Hall 1993, 104#150;5, 163#150;64, 154; WWI: Hirschfeld 1934, 111#150;15; Wheelwright 1989, 29#150;36, Sandes 14#150;16, 147; De Pauw 1998, 212, 207#150;30; Bourke 1999, 294#150;97, 299#150;333. 139 DeVries 1996; Wheeler and when was the flood, Wood eds. 1996; Enloe 1983, 118#150;19; Fraioli 1996, 189; Wood 1996, 19; Schibanoff 1996. 140 DeVries 1996, 5#150;12, relished 9. 141 Fraser 1989, 11#150;13.

142 Fraser 1989, 28#150;30. 143 Fraser 1989, 30#150;34; Lefkowitz and Fant 1977, 11#150;12. 144 Fraser 1989, 43#150;106, naked 47#150;48, Tacitus, 53#150;55; De Pauw 1998, 70#150;74. 145 Fraser 1989, 58#150;101. 146 Fraser 1989, 107#150;28; De Pauw 1998, 75#150;77. 147 Matilda: Fraser 1989, 131#150;50; Europe: Boulding 1992/II, 33; De Pauw 1998, 82#150;87. 148 Fraser 1989, 151#150;66. 149 Fraser 1989, 167#150;81, matriarch 168. 150 Trung: De Pauw 1998, 269; Rani: Fraser 1989, 272#150;96. 151 Boxer 1952, 227#150;28, 242, 261, 264#150;69, 274, 286; Miller 1975; Miller 1976, 203#150;21; Birmingham 1966, 6, 92#150;116; Vansina 1966, 134#150;44; Beachey 1976, 88#150;90; Alpern 1998, 2; claim: De Pauw 1998, 180#150;81; Salmonson 1991, 198; Brown 1998.

152 Fraser 1989, 17. 153 Barrett 1938, 263. 154 Fraser 1989, 158#150;59; Montfort: Tuchman 1979, 74#150;75. 155 Fraser 1989, 307#150;22; Richardson and Howes 1993; Carras 1995; Harris 1995; Nelson and Chowdhury eds. 1994; Genovese ed. 1993; Norris 1997; Williams 1995; cf. Victoria: Monypenny and Buckle 1912, 1089. 156 Boudreau 1995, 75, 78#150;79. 157 Number: D#146;Amico 1995, 24#150;25; McGlen and Sarkees 1993.

158 Burwell and smart, Sarkees 1993, 111, 115; Jeffreys-Jones 1995, room 175; Morin 1995, 274; McGlen and was the, Sarkees 1993, 2#150;3; DuBois 1995. 159 McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 76, glass 83, 87; Burwell and Sarkees 1993, 117#150;31. 160 McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 196#150;215, differed 211, process 254, affect 283, overall 302. 161 McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 37, 46, 47. 162 Holsti and Rosenau 1981; selected: Cantor and Bernay 1992.

163 Morin 1995, striking 264, 266, 270, 272; McGlen and Sarkees 1993, send 300. 164 Von Habsburg 1969, 123#150;24; Knecht 1982, 219; Brandi 1939, 279#150;80.

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