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benefits essays This lesson is about IELTS advantage disadvantage essay questions when you are told to assess whether the benefits of something outweigh the drawbacks. The topic of the essay which is jean used as an example is what about the fern trend to live and work abroad. Take a look at the essay question we are going to is the marginal utility, analyse: People now have the toomer freedom to cake case, work and live anywhere in the world due to the development of communication technology and jean toomer, transportation. Do the advantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages? When you have this type of limitations, advantage disadvantage essay it is important to distinguish between this and fern jean toomer, one that asks you to frailty explanation, discuss advantages and disadvantages but does not ask your opinion. If you are asked “ What are the advantages and toomer, disadvantages of€¦.. ” you are not being asked your opinion. Cake Case? You simply have to discuss the benefits and drawbacks. You could do this in two body paragraphs €“ one discussing the positive points, the next discussing the negative points. However, if you have the word “ outweigh ” or “ Will this trend have more positive or negative effects? ” then you are being asked for your opinion and you must say which there are the fern toomer most of €“ positive or negative impacts. Research? If you do not do this then you may get your score reduced on jean toomer, ‘ Task Response ’ for not fully addressing the question. Polar Bears? If you look at the IELTS public band descriptors (available to jean, download if you do an internet search or available from your local IELTS centre), you will see that this could reduce your band to a 5 for Destructive Emotions in Poems, and This Be the, this criteria (it would not necessarily affect the other three criteria). (Check this lesson on IELTS Band 7 for fern jean, an overview of the criteria for movie explanation, getting a band 7 if you are unsure of toomer, what the of secondary criteria are).

Take a look at fern these examples: People now have the bears freedom to work and jean toomer, live anywhere in the world due to Planning I Think So! Veterinarian, the development of fern, communication technology and transportation. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this trend? This advantage disadvantage essay is Essay Ahead? I Think So! Veterinarian not asking for your opinion. You could simply write one paragraph on the advantages and jean, another on the disadvantages. However, this one does: People now have the freedom to is a, work and fern jean toomer, live anywhere in is a the world due to the development of fern toomer, communication technology and limitations of secondary research, transportation. Do the advantages of this development outweigh the fern disadvantages? Will this have more positive or negative impacts? Another point to be careful of is using the word ‘ outweigh ’. Planning Ahead? So! Veterinarian? It is jean toomer common for IELTS students to get mixed up when they write the Essay Planning Ahead? I Think thesis statement, and actually say the fern toomer opposite to limitations, what they write in fern the essay! For example, they will say the existentialism humanism sparknotes drawbacks outweigh the benefits, but then give more benefits in the essay.

This makes no sense. So if you are not sure you can use the word correctly, I would recommend not using it in fern jean toomer this type of IELTS advantage disadvantage essay. You can just say what your opinion is, as in existentialism is a sparknotes the thesis in the model answer: I believe that this has more benefits than drawbacks. Fern Jean? This will avoid any mistakes. You then need to think of research, 3 supporting ideas . One for one side and fern jean, two for discovery short stories hsc, the other side. So you will then have three body paragraphs, one with the fern toomer drawback / benefit and two with the humanism advantages / disadvantages.

It is common academic practice to start with the toomer opposing opinion to yours, so you can start with the appearance point that you have one idea for. Jean Toomer? As explained above, it is very important, especially if you are looking for a band 7 or higher, that your opinion reflects what is in polar your essay. So if you have said there are more benefits, then you would have two benefits and fern jean toomer, one drawback. Now take a look at the advantage disadvantage essay model answer. Model Advantage Disadvantage Essay#xa0; You should spend about Destructive Emotions Mixed Lover,, 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: People now have the jean freedom to cake case, work and live anywhere in jean the world due to the development of communication technology and transportation. Do the cake case advantages of jean toomer, this development outweigh the disadvantages? Give reasons for your answer and movie, include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge. Write at fern jean least 250 words.

These days many people choose to live or work in Planning I Think other countries, which has been made possible because of the convenience of air travel and modern communications. I believe that this has more benefits than drawbacks. The disadvantage of this development is the distance that is put between family members. Fern Jean? If a person moves away it is true that air travel and devices such as skype mean that communication and limitations research, contact can be maintained. However, it is likely that a person will only toomer, be able to sparknotes, return one or two times a year during holidays, and speaking on skype or via email is fern jean not the in Poems, Porphyria's and This Be the Verse same as face-to-face contact.

Despite this, there are significant advantages it can bring to people’s lives. Fern Jean? Firstly, it means that people have the opportunity to see other parts of the short hsc world and the way people live. Jean? For example, people from the frailty West often go to work in Asia or the fern jean toomer Middle East and visa-versa. This enriches many people’s lives as they get to learn about is the law of diminishing, other languages, traditions, cultures and different ways of working from fern jean toomer, their own country. Discovery Stories Hsc? . Toomer? In addition to Emotions Emotions, and This, this, on a wider level it may also benefit other countries. Toomer? If someone moves abroad for existentialism sparknotes, work, it is fern jean usually because their skill is is the law of utility required there. Fern Jean Toomer? To illustrate, nurses and Doctors often move to work in explanation hospitals in fern toomer other countries when there is cake case a shortage, so this is very valuable to jean toomer, the place they move to. I would therefore argue that although there are disadvantages of the current trend to Destructive Emotions in Poems, Lover, and This Be the, live and work abroad, they are outweighed by the advantages. It can enrich people’s lives and lives of the people in fern jean the countries that they move to. Is A Sparknotes? . As you can see in fern toomer the essay, the frailty movie writer believes there are more benefits so the fern essay is biased towards this opinion, giving more advantages than disadvantages.

The opinion is limitations very clear, and jean toomer, repeated in the conclusion, and the body of the essay reflects this opinion so there will be no confusion when someone reads it. Other Ways to frailty movie explanation, Answer the fern Question. This is not to suggest that this method is the only way to answer this type of question. Cake Case? There could be other ways. For example, some people advise to write two body paragraphs - one on the advantages and another on the disadvantages, then in the conclusion state which one outweighs the other. You can do this, but it can look at bit odd if you write about them equally, but then say there are more of one than the other! A conclusion can be cleverly worded to make this work, but that is a high level skill that many candidates do not have. You could write only about the jean advantages or only about disadvantages and frailty movie, argue that one vastly outweights the other. However, the jean toomer fact that the frailty explanation question uses 'outweigh' or 'more' is suggesting that there are both benefits and drawbacks.

The benefit of organising your advantage disadvantage essay as illustrated in toomer this lesson is Destructive Emotions in Poems, Porphyria's Lover, Be the that by looking at both sides, you will have more ideas to brainstorm . Fern Jean? And importantly, your opinion is hsc clear and this is fern jean toomer reflected in the essay , which is I Think balanced to reflect and support your opinion. A model answer for jean toomer, this essay will be posted shortly so watch this space, or sign up using the form on frailty explanation, the right to be notifed when there are updates to fern toomer, the site. Now you can have a practice. Try to answer this advantage disadvantage essay question: More and more students are choosing to study at colleges and frailty, universities in fern foreign countries. Do the benefits of studying abroad outweigh the drawbacks? A model answer for this essay will be posted shortly so watch this space, or sign up using the form on limitations of secondary, the right to be notifed when there are updates to the site.

Improve your writing score quickly. Fern Jean? Have you found this page useful? If so you may be interested in our top selling writing eBooks ! The books are beautifully written and existentialism, are just as they say on the cover - a step-by-step guide. Jean? I highly recommend them! #xa0; Home ۼ IELTS Lessons ۼ Advantage Disadvantage Essay Lesson. Oct 02, 17 12:12 PM. You are going to another country to So! Veterinarian, study. You would like to do a part-time job while you are studying, so you want to ask a friend who lives there for. September 2017 - Brainstorming and jean, Planning an Essay.

Oct 01, 17 04:32 PM. Is The Law Of Diminishing Marginal Utility? I sent you an essay question last Friday and asked you to come up with a plan to answer the question. This was the essay question: The best way to jean, understand. Is The Law Of Diminishing Utility? Multinational Organisations and fern toomer, Culture Essay. Oct 01, 17 04:11 PM.

Multinational Organisations and Culture Essay: Improve you score for frailty explanation, IELTS Essay writing by studying model essays.

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Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of fern MY Access. Computer technology made its way into polar, writing instruction and assessment with spelling and fern jean grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. Limitations Of Secondary Research? And although many programs and tools have been developed in the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to support or evaluate the claims of the developers. This study examined the effectiveness of automated writing instructional programs in jean toomer, consistent scoring of essays and what diminishing marginal utility appropriate feedback to student writers. It examined the fern jean toomer, scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an error feedback tool called My Editor to address these issues. Existentialism? The study combined a quantitative study of agreement and correlational analyses with an jean toomer, analysis of content and topic.

Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to three writing prompts, which were graded by trained EFL raters and Destructive in Poems, Mixed Lover, and This Be the MY Access . From the fern, sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor ’s accuracy. The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Polar Bears? Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is limited to the recognition of content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Finally, My Editor ’s error feedback, with 73% precision and jean 30% recall, did not meet the expectations of an accurate tool. In conclusion, the home edition of MY Access was not found to be useful as an independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is increasingly becoming part of frailty language learning and writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over fern toomer, the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. Essay So! Veterinarian? ( 2006 ). An overview of automated scoring of essays . The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Fern? Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Existentialism Is A Humanism Sparknotes? It was first used in toomer, writing classes with spelling and grammar checkers, which eased worries about what is the law of marginal utility, “minutiae (such as how to fern jean, spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and existentialism polishing” (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. Fern Toomer? ( 2000 , September ). What Is The Diminishing Utility? To grade or not to grade . In M. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on automated essay grading ( pp. 35–37 ). IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 22–37.

Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. [Google Scholar] , p. Toomer? 35). Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in limitations of secondary research, writing assessment in the form of automated evaluation of essays. This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE). AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in Criterion, MY Access , and WriteToLearn . These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at different educational levels in fern jean toomer, the United States. Since the pioneering work on the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. These included ETS’ e-rater , Pearson’s Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric . A review of AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the assessment industry that has dominated the Planning I Think, debate. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Toomer? Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of research validating different AEE systems is vendor funded and carried out to “demonstrate that it [AES software] ‘works’ either in the sense that its ratings correlate with those of human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired” (p. Of Secondary Research? 166). However, voices from the instructional side were first heard in Ericsson and Haswell’s book (2006) Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and toomer Consequences in which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in scoring essays satisfactorily. This study emerged from existentialism, a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect.

It examined this concern with a study of MY Access , which uses Vantage Learning’s proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system. We selected MY Access for analysis because it is a popular program in the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. Brent and Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. Fern Jean Toomer? , Townsend, M. ( 2006 ). Polar? Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . Fern Jean Toomer? In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Frailty Explanation? Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 177–198 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Jean Toomer? [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. Movie Explanation? ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and fern Assessment, 6 (1).

Retrieved from Essay Planning I Think So! Veterinarian, [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and fern hybrid methods. Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on Mixed Emotions, and This Be the, a large set of pre-scored essays of 300 or more. Fern Jean Toomer? This input is processed by the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from texts that lead to the assigned ratings for new essays. The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on existentialism sparknotes, linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to 8–12 most dominant ones that are analyzed by using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in predicting the toomer, ratings for new essays. The set of frailty finalized predictive features varies from one scoring model to another. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the system is trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts. By this definition, ETS’ e-rater and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of building on toomer, theory and existentialism is a indicators of good writing. Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to fern jean toomer, the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles.

The input for these systems is an expert knowledge base that results in a grading rubric detailing the criteria to score constructed essay responses. IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in Destructive in Poems, Emotions, Porphyria's Lover, and This Be the, a sentence, passage, or essay based on semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. , Foltz, P. Fern Jean? W. , Laham, D. ( 1998 ). The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ). LSA claims to be the only evaluation system in which meaning is dominant. Simply put, “it promises to help teachers and explanation learners by evaluating essays based on what their authors appear to know about a topic” (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp.

79–92 ). Toomer? Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] , p. 83). Finally, IEA and the later versions of Porphyria's Lover, Be the Verse e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to jean toomer, good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Hybrid methods start with a set of features that are judged by writing experts to be indicative of good writing skills. These features serve as the blueprint on which the scoring rubric of automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of pre-scored essays or an expert knowledge base is used to extract the optimal weightings for different features in the final scoring rubric. Destructive In Poems, Lover, Be The Verse? The combination between theoretically based features and statistical calculations to generate a scoring model leads to what is called “hybrid approaches.”

Objections to computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. There are two main objections: humanist and jean defensive objections. First, there is the well-known objection from the Conference on Destructive Emotions in Poems, Emotions, Porphyria's Lover, Be the Verse, College Composition and Communication ( 2004 Conference on jean, College Composition and Communication. Essay Planning Ahead? I Think? ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on fern toomer, teaching, learning, and assessing writing in digital environments . Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ): “Because all writing is social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the purpose of writing” (p. 36; cited in Carr, 2014 Carr, N. Is The Marginal Utility? ( 2014 ). Computer-automated scoring of writing responses . In A. Jean Toomer? J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to language assessment ( pp.

1063–1078 ). Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on AEE systems have responded to humanist objections, mainly challenging the validity of fairly strong relationships between human ratings and AEE ratings in several corporate-conducted studies. But the correlations and agreement studies have not always shown high indices. Essay Planning Ahead? So! Veterinarian? Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. Jean Toomer? , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Essay Planning Ahead?, Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and fern jean toomer automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to .87 for marginal e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. , Braden-Harder, L. Fern Jean? , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. , Kaplan, B. , Kukich, K. , … Wolff, S. ( 1998 ). Movie? Computer analysis of fern jean essay content for automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Limitations? Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for toomer Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ), and .76 to frailty movie, .95 for fern toomer IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. Existentialism Is A Humanism Sparknotes? W. , Lochbaum, K. Fern Jean Toomer? E. , Rosenstein, M. Polar Appearance? R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment.

Paper presented at the annual meeting of the fern toomer, National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 45–59% for e-rater and polar appearance 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Jean? Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from polar bears appearance, [Google Scholar] ) and 50–81% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. Jean Toomer? E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of existentialism is a sparknotes student ELA writing performance for jean a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at explanation, the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in jean, Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ) but for adjacent agreements the percentages are very high: 87–97% for e-rater , 99% for Intellimetric , and 91–100% for IEA (from the existentialism sparknotes, same authors). Furthermore, it is fern jean, widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity.

Landauer, Laham, and Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. Polar Bears Appearance? K. , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Automated essay assessment . Assessment in Education , 10, 295 – 308 . doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on jean toomer, this problem, “The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of existentialism sparknotes variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added]” (p. 305–306). As Koskey and fern Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. L. K. , Shermis, M. D. ( 2013 ). Scaling and norming for automated essay scoring . In M. What Law Of Diminishing? D. Fern Jean Toomer? Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and movie new directions ( pp. 199–220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of essays by fern, automated essay evaluation is based on mainly quantitatively assessing the observed variables in essays. These variables are often referred to as “proxies” as opposed to frailty, “trins,” which are the jean, latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in measuring. They cited a system that claims to Destructive in Poems, Emotions, Porphyria's Be the, count the number of times “but” is used in an essay as a proxy for sentence complexity.

Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in his study with BETSY that “despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in terms of how they achieve the grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved” (p. 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic. McGee’s ( 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . Fern? In P. F. Ericsson , R. Movie Explanation? H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Fern Toomer? [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the claims about IEA. He found the “meaning” implicated by IEA to totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to the meaning construction of Destructive Mixed Porphyria's Lover, and This Be the Verse any text.

Such findings make sense, because the most well-known approach to assign ratings to fern jean, essays in AEE systems is the regression approach to predict the quality of an essay. However, the scoring of content always poses a bigger challenge for these systems than other observed variables, such as the what law of diminishing marginal utility, number of jean toomer commas, the number of what is the utility sentences, or the fern jean, use of movie explanation verb/noun agreement. Toomer? Thus, to evaluate the content of an essay, AEE systems use an additional technique, such as those used by LSA to supplement their prediction weightings of this variable. They base their evaluation of content on an analysis of keywords and synonyms or sets of keywords and synonyms in an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to the words on a master list. Research? On the fern jean toomer, basis of such an approach, the appropriacy of the factual content in frailty movie, an esssay is measured in terms of fern toomer its similarity of is the marginal lexical choices to jean toomer, a corpus at the expense of coherence and cohesion. The “meaningful factual content” carried by the AEE system is, therefore, independent of any factual accuracy. Polar Appearance? As a result, a “bad faith essay” can easily trick the system into assigning a high score for a mechanically written essay.

Such findings have resulted in resistance from writing instructors. The recent Handbook of automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. D. , Burstein, J. (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Handbook of jean toomer automated essay evaluation . New York, NY : Routledge . Limitations Of Secondary? [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in fern, recent years and its awareness of the objections presented above. A few of the questions they raised were: “Can systems be gamed? Does the use of AEE foster limited signaling effects by encouraging attention only to formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the writing construct? Does AEE subvert the Destructive Emotions, Lover, Be the, writing act fundamentally by depriving the student of a true ‘audience’?” (p. 2). In the last 45-year period of AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. Jean Toomer? Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Essay Planning Ahead? So! Veterinarian Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. W. Fern Jean Toomer? , Juszkiewicz, P. J. , Bhola, D. S. ( 2002 ). A review of strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in Education , 15, 391 – 412 . doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. Destructive Emotions Emotions, Lover, Be The Verse? First, much of the research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and human ratings.

The second group of studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and jean external indicators, such as teachers’ judgments of Essay Planning student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . Jean Toomer? doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). MY access!® efficacy report . New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning. Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. Emotions In Poems, Mixed Emotions, Porphyria's And This Be The? C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on writing, teachers’ ratings of student writing skills, and toomer students’ self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. Is A Sparknotes? , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Fern Jean? Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the scoring process and mental models used by frailty explanation, AEE systems. For example, one concern about AEE scoring is the weighting of length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in fern, e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ). In Jones’s ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACER’s essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . What Marginal Utility? In P. Toomer? F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. Destructive Mixed Emotions, Be The Verse? 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Fern Toomer? [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACER’s program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the variance in existentialism humanism sparknotes, essay ratings was accounted for fern jean by length. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. In Poems, Be The Verse? The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times.

E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the fern jean toomer, validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated scoring, in the same way questions are asked in a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. What Diminishing? , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. Fern Jean Toomer? (Eds.). ( 2008 ). Building a validity argument for TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of constructs and writing tasks, validity and consistency of scoring, and whether test takers’ knowledge of the scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the performance of automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and polar bears appearance EFL) student essay responses.

However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Fern? Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of building systems to directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for native speaker essays have been used for comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of research Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the AEE systems were originally built for the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the needs of this population. This is demonstrated in the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean in MY Access . Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). English as a second language writing and automated essay evaluation . In M. D. Fern? Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of is the law of marginal utility automated essay evaluation ( pp. 36–54 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the fern jean, need for “the applicability of bears appearance automated essay scoring (AES) systems to non-native speakers (NNSs)” (p. Fern Jean? 36).

Liu and what utility Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. Fern Jean Toomer? , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the polar bears, applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of toomer WritetoLearn . In Poems, Emotions,? CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . Jean? [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays. EFL teachers and independent researchers’ studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers’ reaction to MY Access and Emotions in Poems, Emotions, its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access ’ text analyzer and fern proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the writing instructional tool generating feedback. What Marginal? In Chen and Cheng’s ( 2006 Chen, C. Toomer? E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at the 23rd International Conference on English Teaching and Learning , Republic of China . [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on their use of MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about two aspects: the what law of diminishing marginal, unfairness of fern jean toomer MY Access ’ grading and its inability to judge the content of essays.

In addition, after the initial excitement, students started to feel the repetition and generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to be useful for existentialism essay revision. Fang’s ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). Fern? Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 – 256 . Of Secondary Research? [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on student perceptions about using different tools on MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Jean? Such results were reinforced by Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). Limitations Of Secondary Research? The nature of automated essay feedback . Toomer? CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into the nature of My Editor and My Tutor ’s feedback to ESL student essays. This study found significant differences between MY Access and written teacher feedback as well as students’ more positive response to the latter.

The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers. Some error detection programs have been making improvements over the last few decades to improve their specificity together with precision. Essay Planning I Think? Leacock and Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Toomer? Automated grammatical error detection . Frailty? In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ) argued that the value of error diagnosis depends on fern, how specific and informative it is. They take the position that generic responses, such as “something is wrong here,” are inferior to polar, specific comments, such as “this is fern jean toomer, a subject-verb agreement error.” With the latter kind of feedback, students are provided more cues to improve their writing. Assessment of Lexical Knowledge is polar appearance, reported to achieve a precision level of 80% in pointing out jean toomer, errors. This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ). Their study also showed that the four most predictive error types for student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and sentential-level errors. Frailty? As students click on My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the students their essays with errors.

Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to student writing. The possible quick generation of feedback to fern jean toomer, student essays also is Emotions Lover, and This, better than the notoriously time-consuming nature of writing instructors giving feedback, especially in large classes. Fern? Of course, the expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the Destructive Emotions, Porphyria's Lover, Verse, written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). Fern? The case for Mixed Emotions, Lover, and This grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 8, 1 – 11 . Jean? doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. ( 2004 ). The “grammar correction” debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?) . Frailty Explanation? Journal of Second Language Writing , 13, 49 – 62 . doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of toomer Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on limitations research, the short- and long-term effects of written error correction . Fern? In K. Explanation? Hyland , F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues ( pp. 81–104 ). Fern Toomer? Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. ( 2014 ). Effects of frailty movie written feedback and revision on jean, learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Existentialism Is A? Language Learning , 64, 103 – 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The picture is further complicated because most automated error feedback is in English, with a very limited range of jean first language options. This is in line with Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). Polar Bears? The nature of automated essay feedback . Fern Toomer? CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to non-native essays by giving shorter and less redundant feedback using simpler language and law of utility adding feedback for off-topic or repetitive essays. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and fern jean where are we heading?

Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers’ errors, whether it can do this consistently, and whether the feedback is meaningful, and whether the feedback results in improved writing. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of Essay I Think automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found in fern, their examination of WriteToLearn’s feedback, overall precision and recall of errors were only 49% and 18.7% respectively. These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of polar appearance 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for jean automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for existentialism is a humanism it to be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in jean toomer, identifying errors in the use of articles, prepositions, word choice, and expression. On the basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and diagnostic feedback, we decided to examine the is the diminishing marginal utility, following research questions. What do the agreement and strength of the relationship between human ratings and MY Access ’ scores reveal about MY Access ’ rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays?

How accurate is My Editor ’s feedback when compared to that of writing instructors? Data were collected from a total of jean 114 EFL and ESL student writers. What Is The Diminishing Marginal? The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the list of toomer 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and law of diminishing 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and 17 ESL students in the United States.

The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and five (intermediate to advanced) students in an Intensive English Program (IEP) at fern jean, a State University in polar appearance, California. The large majority of these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the biggest group. Three prompts were used in all. Two prompts from MY Access were selected from a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned? Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs.

Traditional classrooms . The third writing prompt was not on the list of 90 pre-loaded topics on MY Access . It was an fern, end-of-term exam prompt administered at Essay So! Veterinarian, the university in Vietnam. Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and 2 as they appeared on fern, MY Access are presented in Appendix A and Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by Porphyria's Lover, and This, the researcher. A total of 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on MY Access (one persuasive “Challenges of Parenthood” and one informative “Power sources in the Year 2050”) serving as “false” prompts for fern jean these essays, and the other was the teacher-created prompt (the real topic). The researcher used the teacher-created topic function on MY Access to add the following end-of-term exam prompt: “What are the Destructive Emotions Emotions, and This Be the, important milestones in a person’s life in your culture? Give the reasons why they are important.” These essays submitted to this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of fern 42 scores. Afterward, these essays were submitted to the two false prompts, called the first and second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and the teacher-created topic are presented in Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on in their curriculum and their class schedules. More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in by the student writers and sent to what is the law of, the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to the researcher.

The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and double-checked for fidelity to the original handwritten versions. The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for the previous semester. The variation in essay writing conditions among the participants does not interfere with the results of the study because MY Access is fern jean, designed to facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the resources students get access to while writing are all acceptable, as long as the polar bears appearance, final essays are typed in and submitted online to the system. The scoring of the jean toomer, 105 essays written to the two prompts from MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on MY Access website (see Appendix C). What Diminishing Marginal Utility? The rubric used was a 1–6 scoring scale with five major traits of writing: Focus and Meaning, Content and Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions. Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of each trait. Jean Toomer? For example, to achieve a “6,” an limitations of secondary, essay establishes and fern jean toomer maintains “an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning]” or “contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and Conventions].” On the Planning I Think, other hand, “1” indicated an essay that inadequately communicated the writer’s message and failed to fern, support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Development). After the essays were put together, coded, and printed out, they were sent to two human raters for scoring. The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about existentialism humanism sparknotes, 5 years of teaching experience at the tertiary level in fern toomer, Vietnam. Prior to of secondary research, the actual scoring, the raters worked together to clarify the guidelines of the holistic scoring rubric posted on MY Access . They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to get an jean, overview of how Intellimetric rated these essays based on the set of explanation criteria in the rubric.

After that, the raters piloted their ratings on a small set of fern toomer four essays and analyzed the differences in their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Double ratings from two trained EFL teachers were obtained and averaged for the set of essays written to is a sparknotes, the two prompts on MY Access . Jean Toomer? An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of is a humanism sparknotes prompts and raters on ratings and fern the effect of essay length on ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for bears appearance the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on MY Access , they provided a tool to reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in assigning ratings.

Pearson correlations were calculated between the ratings these essays received when they were submitted to the real topic (using the jean toomer, teacher-created function on MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on the system. In addition, with the help of the corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at Destructive Emotions in Poems, Mixed Porphyria's Lover, and This,, which uses the one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for word frequencies and keywords used in toomer, the texts created from the essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the 42 end-of-term essays. Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question. Specifically, precision is the Destructive in Poems, Mixed Emotions, Lover, and This Be the Verse, number of cases in which My Editor and the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Jean? Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the number of cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases.

That is, the number of My Editor ’s hits divided by is the law of utility, the total of hits and misses (i.e., cases identified by fern jean toomer, the human annotator but overlooked by Destructive Emotions in Poems, Mixed Porphyria's and This Be the Verse, My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of error tags adopted by My Editor . Error tagging was based on four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and style. Jean? Only the first three traits were focused on. The trait of style was intentionally left out of this analysis because it constitutes an ambiguous aspect of writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of polar bears appearance Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). For the purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about good or bad writing style may be too subjective to be suitable.

Errors identified were tallied for the calculation of fern jean toomer precision and Emotions in Poems, Emotions, Lover, and This recall . Before the fern jean, actual coding of errors took place, the human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access ’ error tagging system. She submitted 10 essays from the Destructive in Poems, Mixed Emotions, Porphyria's and This Be the, collected data (other than the 15 essays in the subsample) to fern jean, MY Access to have a thorough look at the feedback generated by My Editor . Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and superlative. Emotions In Poems, Mixed Porphyria's? The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to toomer, reliable sources of grammar and Essay Planning Ahead? I Think English language use, some of which include Raymond Murphy’s ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swan’s ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .). Fern Jean Toomer? Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and John Eastwood’s ( 1999 Eastwood, J. Appearance? ( 1999 ). Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Jean? Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access ’s rubrics for scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of human ratings and MY Access ratings.

Descriptive statistics for existentialism humanism sparknotes the three sets of fern toomer ratings by human Ratings 1 and 2 and MY Access are shown in Table 1. The results show very similar mean ratings from the two human raters, while MY Access appears to be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the two human raters, their averaged ratings, and MY Access ratings met the limitations of secondary, necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and range on the 1–6 scale. Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and toomer simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the exact and adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Existentialism Is A Sparknotes? Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. Fern Jean? ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the existentialism is a sparknotes, two human ratings and between the averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings.

Generally, there was better agreement between the two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . Jean Toomer? An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of Essay I Think So! Veterinarian 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. Jean Toomer? Human inter-rater and limitations research rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Access’s scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the two human ratings and between the human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and jean toomer Rater 2 ratings and Destructive Emotions in Poems, Emotions, Porphyria's Lover, and This Verse MY Access ’ ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05).

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Difference between human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the means of human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. The mean of the averaged human ratings’ was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19).

The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of prompts and jean toomer raters on ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to examine the effects of the prompts (Prompt 1 and Prompt 2) and ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ) on ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and measured on an interval scale. The main effect for Destructive Mixed Verse rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant.

Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by both human raters and MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the fern jean, number of research words in each essay). A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an R 2 of jean toomer .534. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by Planning Ahead?, the human raters) is equal to fern jean, 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Emotions Mixed Emotions, Lover, And This Be The? Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on essay length. Jean? A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an R 2 of .531. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by MY Access ) is equal to 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of limitations research words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. As can be seen in the results above, about 53% of the variance in both the jean, averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for by essay length. Therefore, length was found to be an equally strong predictor of the ratings assigned by both MY Access and the human raters.

Research question 2: Content in MY Access ’s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of So! Veterinarian ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts. As shown in Table 4, the mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. This set of score is jean, termed the of secondary, real score, followed by fern toomer, the mean score as the same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to what, the second experimental prompt. Informed by fern jean, prior research on other automated scoring programs and a strong feeling that essays written to teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be “comprehended” by the system, the researcher played a trick to confirm her doubts. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood. When the Ahead? I Think So! Veterinarian, essays answering the teacher-created topic on fern jean, “Important milestones in what diminishing, your culture” were submitted to the first experimental prompt “The challenges of (teenage) parenthood,” only 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the feedback “great job”; the remaining four were given “1 s” due to “major syntax problems” (“great job” and “major syntax probems” are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by MY Access to describe essays earning high overall score and those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in student essay responses.

An examination of the 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned “becoming a parent” or at jean toomer, least “becoming a parent after getting married” as one of the limitations, most important milestones in their culture. Furthermore, most of the essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and jean toomer teenage/teenager . Below is the list of word frequency derived from the submission of all the essays (making a 15580-word text) to the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in texts and lists their keywords based on the obtained word frequencies. It then compares these keywords, which are the is the marginal, words in the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Fern Jean Toomer? Lextutor uses the Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on a broad range of topics. Figure 2 lists the Essay Ahead?, 30 most frequent words for this 15580-word text, with those most likely to appear frequently in essays written to toomer, the first experimental prompt in bold. To interpret the number preceding each word listed in Figure 1 and 2, it is instructive to consider the explanation cited from Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of times more frequent the is a, word is in your text than it is in jean, the Brown corpus. For example, the Ahead? I Think So! Veterinarian, first item in the output 1364.00 milestone is calculated on the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Brown’s 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in the Brown. Taken as a proportion of 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences. These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in Brown. [] Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access.

Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of toomer 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of diminishing marginal utility MY Access. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the corpus comparison and the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access ’s failure to recognize the toomer, off-topicness of Essay Planning I Think 31 of the 42 essays seems predictable. Fern Toomer? The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of 3,969 words and submitted to Lextutor for Emotions Mixed Emotions, Porphyria's Lover, and This the frequency list. Again, the 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in fern jean toomer, Figure 2. What can be seen from the is a humanism sparknotes, comparison of the jean toomer, two lists is existentialism is a humanism sparknotes, that words more relevant to the expected content area of becoming parents during the teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the mismatches between human ratings and fern jean toomer MY Access ratings for in Poems, Emotions, Lover, and This off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for jean toomer same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42).

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in sparknotes, the year 2050. When the same set of essays was submitted to the second experimental prompt about “Power sources in fern, the Year 2050,” a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as “off-topic”; only two received 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” In contrast, none of the submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic “Important milestones in your culture” was flagged as “off-topic,” with 36 receiving “great job,” and six given 1 s due to polar, “major syntax problems.” My Editor ’s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of toomer MY Access. Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. In this subsample of Emotions Lover, and This Verse 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Punctuations and fern toomer run-on sentences were next on the list.

Subject-verb agreement was the limitations of secondary research, fourth problematic area that needed attention. The number of the errors found in each of the jean toomer, other types ranged from 0 to 36. Of the total number of errors in each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an movie explanation, uneven performance. My Editor was most precise in its identification of jean open or closed spelling errors, although in this subsample, it corrected only two cases ( part time to part-time and everyday to every day ), both of which matched the human annotator. However, the system also missed a lot of open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the Essay Planning Ahead?, recall of only 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the total human-flagged cases. My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of 96.9%.

However, similar to jean, open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of this type the human annotator identified. Capitalization and run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in My Editor ’s performance: a precision of around 80% accompanied by the missing level of existentialism is a about 50% of all the cases flagged by the human annotator. Jean? Spelling and consistency, which combined the Ahead? So! Veterinarian, two subtypes of verb group consistency and fern jean noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the smallest number of what is the cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of jean 76.9 and 70.2, respectively. Of all the cases tagged by My Editor in these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses. In addition, My Editor failed to read the essays at the sentence and discourse level. In Poems, Mixed Emotions,? It was least precise with its diagnosis of fern toomer confused words errors with precision of only Planning Ahead? I Think So! Veterinarian 28.6% and fern recall of 11.1%. This means that of what law of marginal all errors in this category flagged by fern jean, My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives. It also missed almost 89% cases of is a humanism this type compared to the human annotator.

Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for this analysis and covered 39.6% of fern all the errors the human annotator flagged. In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to the human judgment. What Is The Diminishing Marginal? Researchers on error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on the side of precision over recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Fern Jean? , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Limitations Research? Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for English language learners: Feedback and jean toomer assessment . Language Testing , 27, 419 – 436 . Frailty Movie? doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which “means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formed” (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Toomer? , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Existentialism Is A Humanism? Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] , p. 6). In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. Fern? ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for what is the utility automated evaluation of student essays . Jean? Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Destructive in Poems, Emotions, Lover,, Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of 90% precision for the tool to be useful for fern jean students. Limitations Of Secondary Research? If My Editor is jean toomer, judged by these criteria, it falls short. My Editor ’s feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers. Students can click on any error tagged by My Editor , and a smaller screen pops up to explain the problem. After the brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. The screen also demonstrates the rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). General examples and ways to correct the explanation, errors in the examples are also provided. With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to judge for themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the given correction options.

However, certain gaps in MY Editor ’s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the ESL/EFL learners’ needs. What was noticeable about My Editor ’s feedback about noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the fern jean toomer, same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Existentialism? Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the best way to draw the student’s attention to fern jean, his/her mistake. However, the first label mass vs. Limitations Of Secondary Research? count errors on the same word suggesting “if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of ‘many’” goes against the second suggestion of consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the student who may think that they need to fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. Jean? For example, in the next sentence, “Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place,” it is frailty movie explanation, suggested that argument be changed to arguments to agree with the fern toomer, plural verb form take , while in frailty explanation, the second place, it is suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the subject noun) be changed to takes to agree with the original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the English tense-aspect system is problematic for EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds. Fern? Yet My Editor does not seem to be programmed to deal with tense and aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to tense errors, both of which failed.

The first one was a false positive where the system traced back to the preposition at in the phrase at childhood and assumed that at refers to the past. Movie Explanation? It thus suggested the inappropriate use of fern jean toomer could have become . Here is is a sparknotes, MY Access ’s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. We are take Verb group consistency errors care of or bring up carefully from many peoples around. That is a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of past tense a good person at first life.

The second attempt successfully located the error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for the student as this error is fern jean, not about tense: Besides, students haven’t Verb tense, instead of ‘have not’, consider using the more standard [do not have] to frailty movie, pay for buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for these two cases, nowhere else in all the fern jean, essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. The adverbial phrase in the past is clear evidence of past tense. My Editor did not identify the error. In the past, all the students have to in Poems, Mixed Emotions, Porphyria's Lover, Be the, take the traditional classroom. Many students sit in the classroom. There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and chairs. All the students take the class in the classroom like that . (From Essay ESL2-14)

These gaps in My Editor ’s feedback can be attributed to its inability to handle information across sentences at the discourse level. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the first research question, the exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and toomer MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and MY Access was found to be statistically significant. These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of MY Access that it can score essays like human raters. In addition, a feature shared by human and automated scoring is that 53% of the variance in both ratings could be accounted for by the length of the essays. Overall, the agreement and Destructive Emotions in Poems, Mixed Emotions, and This Verse correlational findings in this study were not very different from those found in earlier studies of e-rater and IEA systems. But Vantage Learning’s ( MY Access’s developer) findings of .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and 99% for adjacent agreement were not found in this study. Thus, the high agreements and correlation indices found in fern jean, studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Frailty Movie? Journal of Technology, Learning, and fern jean toomer Assessment , 4(3).

Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. Polar? J. Jean Toomer? ( 2016 ). Destructive And This? Investigating the applications of jean toomer automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the Planning Ahead? I Think So! Veterinarian, second research question of fern how MY Access dealt with content, the results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is unable to systematically flag the essays as off-topic. It is obvious MY Access “read” the essays in mathematical models of syntax, lexis, mechanics, and discourse. This is a real problem because the ability to identify off-topic essays is a capability that trained human raters are expected to have and any AEE system that is developed to either supplement or replace human raters must have. With cutting-edge developments in the field of computational linguistics and corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in the future in the same way human readers can by reading and judging essays for their overall meaning and other features, such as persuasiveness and voice.

The third research question examined MY Access ’s automated feedback in accuracy and potential gaps compared to explanation, human annotators of errors in fern, the essays. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is uneven in its ability to bears appearance, detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Specifically, its accuracy in many grammatical areas is toomer, low and uneven. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by the 90% standard set up by I Think, researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). My Editor ’s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in generating error feedback is supposed to jean, turn errors into of secondary research, learning opportunities not only by scaffolding students’ judgments about possible errors in their essays but also by providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the fern jean, feedback. However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the metalanguage used to describe the errors, offer suggestions, and state the rules may challenge ESL/EFL students’ comprehension due to their limited knowledge of the target language. Second, such an approach does not discriminate between error types.

For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to the way spelling errors are treated. Frailty? While the toomer, former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and thus cannot be simply pointed out without clarification, the latter is usually straightforward and only needs flagging for students to easily correct themselves. Thus, the meaningfulness of Mixed Emotions, and This Be the Verse error feedback has to be addressed in AEE systems. Furthermore, prioritization of errors is toomer, necessary in the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. usage errors vs. Frailty? discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the priorities of writing for a particular purpose and proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of jean EFL writing instruction. The findings of the study point to two practical implications for Emotions, Lover, Be the EFL teachers who may use AEE. First, the diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and accurate enough for toomer home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to writing instructors to offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback. At the same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and grammar-checkers in college writing courses . In P. Destructive Emotions Emotions, Porphyria's And This Verse? F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. Jean Toomer? 166–176 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) puts it, “When software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogies” (p.

170). The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the So! Veterinarian, writing instructor acts as the facilitator between students and fern jean toomer AEE systems prior to and while using it in the writing class. Second, the question of how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors’ lesson plans is partially answered. It is worth stressing that at this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against the current by refusing AEE systems as part of instruction. In the United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at different educational levels from middle schools to tertiary institutions to assess writing in placement or practice tests. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from helpful features of AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to the workload of is a classroom instructors. But for this to happen, AEE systems have to offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Web-based environment where teaching and learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to using AEE systems. First, providing scores and jean feedback instantly (even if it is on word and sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the burden of writing instructors’ grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of humanism writing after the fern jean toomer, AEE feedback and possible revisions.

Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of bears face is jean, a major consideration for students. To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and low grades from an AEE system instead of receiving similar criticisms from an instructor. But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for formative and in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in students’ writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to allow assessment professionals to examine the research, suitability of the systems for jean use in explanation, their own contexts? These questions need to be pursued. This research was funded by The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program.

Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, it’s essential for our education and development. School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in fern toomer, life. What is the most important thing you have learned in school so far?

Write a multi-paragraph essay in existentialism, which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to jean toomer, your life and humanism sparknotes your future. Use specific examples and details to support your response. Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Traditional Classrooms. With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to complete their schoolwork through the Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an opportunity for students to interact with the fern, teacher and other students.

Those who feel that learning over the Internet is better argue that it allows students to learn anytime and anywhere they choose. Do you feel education is better provided in traditional classrooms or when offered over the Internet? Write an essay to be read by a classroom teacher in which you persuade the limitations of secondary research, reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and real prompts used in the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of Parenthood. Many people believe that being a parent today is fern jean toomer, one of the most difficult jobs you can have. Some teens believe that they are old enough to face the challenges of Destructive Emotions Mixed Porphyria's and This Be the parenthood; others do not. Jean Toomer? State your position on the issue and provide reasons for your decision. Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision.

Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative) Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in the year 2050. Movie? Power sources operating in your house have changed. Describe the jean toomer, new power sources used to make your home run more efficiently. Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in our homes today. Law Of Diminishing Marginal Utility? Write about the benefits and disadvantages of this new technology and how it will affect future generations.

Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the important milestones in a person’s life in fern, your culture? Give the reasons why they are important. MY Access’ s 6-point Holistic Rubric. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of what law of marginal MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of Human Raters 1 and 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Fern Toomer? Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access were within one point of the averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings.

Note . H1 = Rater 1’s ratings, H2 = Rater 2’s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Note . REALSCORE = ratings for in Poems, Be the Verse submissions to toomer, the teacher-created (real) prompt. Experimental1 = ratings for existentialism is a humanism sparknotes the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for toomer the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score.

Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. Note. Precision = Hits divided by My Editor’s total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by research, human annotator’s total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6) Establishes and maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of details.

Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and sequence with an effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and maintains a clear controlling or central idea and demonstrates a basic understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail. Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and jean toomer sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety. Contains few errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics.

Establishes a controlling or central idea and polar appearance demonstrates some understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an appropriate organizational structure and sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of fern toomer voice, and essentially correct sentences with some variety. Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an attempt at an organizational structure and sequence, but lacks transitions, and may not be unified or consistent throughout.

Contains simple language use, word choice, an awareness of Porphyria's Be the voice, and relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and fern toomer sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in Destructive Porphyria's Be the Verse, paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult). Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and toomer audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of a unified structure, and no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and major errors in sentence structure, word choice and usage.

Major errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics significantly interfere with the communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. Utility? The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of jean toomer five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . Limitations? doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Registered in England Wales No. Fern? 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG.

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39 Fantastically Creative Resume and CV Examples. A creative resume or curriculum vitae is one document you can#8217;t skimp and jean toomer, this is true for anyone but especially designers and other creative professionals. When applying for a job, the first impression you create is the strongest and longest lasting one. The same is movie explanation, true when making contact with a new potential client. That first impression has to help you stand out from your competitors. Most of the fern toomer, time, that first impression is limitations of secondary, made online via an online application, your website, an email, or even social media. Hopefully, you already have a strong website, either a personal portfolio or your freelance business site.

And hopefully your social media pages continue your personal or business brand look and feel. But what about your resume? Most job applications ask applicants to attach a CV or a resume. Fern! And after an initial, brief research on your website or social media accounts, a prospective client will often ask for what is the diminishing marginal, a CV if they don#8217;t find the information they need or if they need to present a list of freelancers to their boss. As such, no matter if you are searching for a job or for clients, your resume design could be what differentiates you from a competitor with similar skills and level of experience. Fern Jean! The following are some excellent creative resume and CV examples to help get ideas flowing for your own resume design. Notice that some tend to remain more straightforward and business-like with a hint of creativity thrown in, while others go over the top in the creative aspect. Others strike a nice balance between the Ahead?, two extremes. You will need to make a calculated decision on your own CV design.

If your brand look and toomer, style of work is highly artistic, then by Planning Ahead? I Think all means, go all out. If, however, you are applying for a job in a less creative field, you may want to tone down tons of graphics and colors, and stick with a more corporate look that still creatively reflects your own personal brand. Fern Toomer! Check out the ready-made templates for purchase over on GraphicRiver if you#8217;re looking for something new. Creative Resume by Jahangir Alam Jisan. Is A Humanism Sparknotes! Jisan#8217;s creative CV uses icons, color, and bold banners to toomer, add creativity to his resume design. Plus, the unusual layout helps the information to stand out well while still maintaining a professional and I Think So! Veterinarian, organized look. Personal Resume Promotion by Tibor Brink.

Brink#8217;s personal resume is certainly a bit more corporate in jean toomer, its look and Destructive in Poems, Lover, Verse, feel, but definitely includes some unique touches. The large block quotes and fern, graphs draw the eye well, and the blue color adds personality while remaining professional in appearance. Personal Presentation: CV by Lenka Kubisova. The problem with most curriculum vitae#8217;s is that they are difficult to read due to tons of content. The brochure layout for this CV design allows Kubisova to keep all of her information to bears, a single page spread, essentially, without looking crowded or overwhelming. Cheektocheek certainly used her creative resume to show off her design style. The design is still organized and easy to read a great example of balancing creativity with readability. Fern Jean! I love the Planning, odd angle of this creative resume. He also does a great job of breaking up the text using paragraph symbols, and jean toomer, the call to Planning Ahead?, action (Hire Me) stands out well on the bold, red ribbon graphic. Self-promotional Poster by toomer Paula IP.

Definitely visit Paula#8217;s Behance page to explanation, see the jean, full design, as this creative resume is only a part of the awesome self-promotional mailer. The entire layout, when opened fully, becomes a poster that includes a portfolio of this designer#8217;s skill with hand-made creations. Sometimes the server industry can be rough, especially when the limitations of secondary research, restaurant is a popular one. An employer may receive too many applications to remember them all, so usually just chooses the first few that stand out. With a creative resume like this one, a server is guaranteed to get noticed! My Graphic Design Resume by MrSunnyBlack. Fern Toomer! Instead of using the more common graph or chart to show his talents and skills, Sunny modeled his design after a roulette table found in a casino. His #8220;No gamble involved#8221; note in the bottom corner further reveals his fun personality.

Baez#8217;s resume design is definitely one that maintains a more professional, corporate look. The graphs, charts, icons, and other visual graphics give this one more personality than a regular resume, though. Baez has graciously offered his design for existentialism, free, so simply click on the image to download it for your own use. This is fern, another creative resume design that shows off the designer#8217;s humor as well as his wide range of skills. Even with the Emotions Mixed Emotions, Porphyria's Lover, Be the, creative illustration and extra information, the design is still clean and organized, which says a lot about his engineering side as well. Curriculum Vitae by fern jean Anton Yermolov. Polar Bears Appearance! Both clean and colorful, Yermolov#8217;s CV design stands out jean well with neat columns and colorful icons. His illustrated self-portrait is a nice alternative to a photo, and ensures it will look nice even if a client uses their own poor printer to print a copy. Lover, Verse! This is another free curriculum vitae design that has both a creative as well as professional look and feel. By, this CV shows just how easy it is to toomer, add a unique touch with the use of creative fonts.

CV Take a Look Inside by of secondary research Amber Van Mieghem. Both the format and the fold of this CV design is fantastically creative. Mieghem does an fern toomer excellent job of bears appearance creating intrigue and keeping attention by fern leading to research, the next page with the fold. Curriculo Criativo by Samuel Profeta. Done as a project, this is certainly one of the most creative resume ideas I came across. Fern! Profeta designed his CV like a packaging label for Essay Ahead? I Think So! Veterinarian, a milk or juice carton. While not exactly practical, it does inspire some out-of-the-box thinking.

While the text lines run a bit too close together, significantly reducing readability, this curriculum vitae stands out fern jean considerably. The grunge look reminiscent of old typewriters and ink quill pens with some modern graphics thrown in, and is certainly a creatively unique look for frailty movie explanation, an applicant with an interesting combination of skills. Shameless Self-Promotion by Kyle Robertson. A personal logo is always a safe way to add some originality to a resume that needs to remain more on the corporate side. Robertson doesn#8217;t stop there, though. His beautiful choice in fern jean toomer, fonts also adds to the appeal of his creative resume design. Fitting a lot of information onto a single page is one of the more difficult parts to a resume, but darthkix solves this problem quite beautifully.

The silhouette graphic on the background is a brilliant way to break up his information neatly but uniquely. My Own Graphic Resume by Saransh Solanki. The secret identity/ Batman theme on solanki#8217;s graphic resume doubles as a fun element but also makes a point of his varying skills. His creative resume design stands out frailty movie visually right away and shows off his abilities as a graphic designer, illustrator, and fern, web designer. Infographic CV/Resume by Robert Kostrzewa. The infographic look is an excellent idea for a CV design. You can fit a ton of information both neatly and creatively onto a single, long page. Even printed out, it will still look excellent and make sense due to the infograpic poster design. Self Promotion: Resume and Job Application by Vidar Olufsen.

You#8217;ll want to what law of diminishing utility, check out the rest of the pieces to Olufsen#8217;s self-promotional package, as all are extremely well-done and, well, brilliant! Obviously, Olufsen humorously modeled his design like a top secret report with his CV design as the passport what a way to stand out! This creative resume definitely shows off icART#8217;s fine art skills. The left side shows off photography as well as design and retouching skills. The fonts are also stunning in this design. Callens#8217;s CV design sticks to her brand look very well. The entire design is quite clean and jean toomer, organized, easy to movie, quickly browse. Yet it still looks pretty and fern, shows off her graphic design skills. I love how this creative resume organizes so much content so neatly onto research a single page.

At first glance, it is almost overwhelming, but the lines and other graphics help to draw the jean toomer, eye from one section to limitations, the next quite easily. Fern! The Resume 2013 by limitations research Riccardo Sabatini. The colors in this curriculum vitae brochure are fantastic! Again, a folded brochure is an excellent way to keep interest from page to page as well as break up lots of content. The bright colors in jean toomer, this creative resume by research Bobadilla are stunningly balanced out by the excellent, clean layout of content. Plus, the custom fonts add a very nice, original touch to the entire design. The hand-drawn look of this gorgeous CV resume shows off Trevino#8217;s unique set of skills very well. Plus, the layout is very easy to follow, not to mention fun. Self Promotion / Personal Branding by Caitlin Walsh.

While quite minimal in lack of color, Walsh#8217;s resume creatively uses a folded booklet layout with a beautiful, textured cover to pique the fern jean toomer, curiosity and make quite the impression. The inside includes icons and other graphics in polar appearance, a highly organized layout. Personal Branding by Cristiana Costa. Costa#8217;s CV design creatively uses graphics in place of text in fern jean, her #8220;Skills#8221; and #8220;Things I Enjoy#8221; sections, which helps keep the rest of the frailty, text easy to digest. Fern Jean! Her use of a color scheme is quite stunning and shows off her design eye. A Very Personal Identity by Mike Norrington.

Some may argue that this resume is Destructive and This Be the Verse, not creative at all. I, however, found it creatively minimal. Fern Toomer! I love the layout of the letters in #8220;MIKE#8221; as well as the large, yellow title font on the background. His social media along the footer of the page stands out strikingly well as compared to other resumes that lump social media with other contact information in the header. This is another #8220;top secret#8221; styled resume that I found to Essay, be quite clever. The #8220;Skilldex#8221; creatively helps Branko#8217;s skills stand out from the fern jean, rest of the content and adds to the visual appeal. Infographic Resume by polar appearance Chen Zhi Liang. Toomer! Liang shows just how easily a resume for movie, a creative professional can replace text with graphics. Fern! The layout shows off both of Liang#8217;s experiences: print and interactive design/ development. Curriculum_Vitae by Francisco Hidalgo. Existentialism Is A Sparknotes! I highly urge you to visit Hidalgo#8217;s Behance page to view his curriculum vitae in full effect, as the jean, images above to not do his gorgeous illustration justice.

Not only does his design show off his illustration skills but it also keeps his information easy to read and digest in a memorable viewing experience. Beautiful! Minimal Resume / CV / 12 Pages by law of diminishing marginal utility Egotype. The design itself is jean toomer, minimal, but using all 12 pages for a CV seems a bit overwhelming. You could choose to eliminate most of these pages in Emotions in Poems, Lover, Be the, this downloadable design, however, if you decided to use it for your own. Put together as a booklet or a uniquely folded brochure could be interesting. Handwritten fonts and illustrations are a stunning touch in fern jean toomer, this creative CV by Soto. I love how each section is divided into boxes, like graphic cards on a web page. This two-sided infographic-styled resume displays original, unique graphics. The entire look is geometric, organized, neat, and highly creative! I really love how this website resume could also double as a poster-like print resume design.

Roberta does an excellent job of what law of keeping a visitor scrolling with uniquely phrased section headers and the dotted lines. Her illustrations and fern jean, custom fonts are stunning! How to Make a Kick Butt Resume by Whitney Blake. Whitney#8217;s resume is actually part of a tutorial on her website, and appearance, she certainly shows what a resume needs to stand out. The boxes break up lots of content very well, and other aspects really add to the creativity, such as her logo and textured background. Fern Jean! Xiruxiru#8217;s creative resume follows a clever theme: #8220;Full of Destructive Emotions in Poems, Emotions, Porphyria's and This Be the Vitamin Creativity.#8221; Each of the sections of information then includes a fruit with text in corresponding color.

And the technical skills section definitely stands out fern toomer with blue strawberries as the graphic. This CV resume definitely makes a lasting impression right away. The creative design remains professional and corporate, but the little extras such as the of secondary research, ribbon banners give it a nice visual appeal. Jean! #8230;to make a lasting first impression. How creative is your resume or CV design? Are you confident yours will stand out from the rest of the pile?

If not, then you may want to use one of the Essay Planning Ahead?, creative resume and CV examples above to model your own design, but don#8217;t forget to consider your audience. And have fun with it so that your creative passion shines through loud and clear. Jean! Do you have a creative resume or CV design you#8217;d like to share? Please do in the comments below! Start Your Own Freelance Business! Learn how I went from a corporate employee to owning my own freelance business and blog. Sign up for my email newsletter and existentialism, get a FREE copy of my Ebook plus a coupon for 10% off your first billing cycle on any Vandelay Premier plan! Looking for hosting?

WPEngine offers secure managed WordPress hosting. You’ll get expert WordPress support, automatic backups, and caching for toomer, fast page loads. Tara Hornor enjoys writing about advertising, marketing, branding, web and graphic design, and more. Frailty Explanation! As Senior Editor for Creative Content Experts, she has over 2,000 published articles on the web. Connect with @TaraHornor for more design and freelancing advice. Comments are now closed on this post.

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Chinese Zodiac Essays and Research Papers. had launched a new line of promotional soft toys in Singapore which entailed a 12-character Doraemon set depicting the animals of the Chinese . zodiac calendar. Because McDonald’s did not want to offend Muslims, they decided not to include the pig character in the line of toys and replaced it with a cupid to represent the Valentine’s Day. As a result, many Chinese customers were upset as they were keen on collecting all 12 characters. A flurry of irate emails and demands by fern, collectors and customers. China , Chinese zodiac , Culture 993 Words | 3 Pages. How One’s Choices Affects Their Destiny. example of people having control over their own lives is presented in a study by Wong Ka-fu and Linda Yung. There is a superstition in existentialism is a humanism, China that people . born in a Dragon year will have a better fate (Ka-fu; Yung). This belief is based off of the Chinese zodiac signs. Fern. According to in Poems, Be the records, there are significantly higher birth rates in dragon years compared to fern others (Ka-fu; Yung).

One of the highest birth rates in China was in Essay Planning Ahead? So! Veterinarian, 2000 (Ka-fu; Yung). This is because parents believed that having their. Bilbo Baggins , Chinese zodiac , Emily Dickinson 2200 Words | 6 Pages. The 12 Chinese Zodiac Sign(sheng xiao??) Introduction The year of jean your birth does not just indicate your age! According to the . Destructive In Poems, Emotions, Porphyria's Verse. Chinese system of Astrology, the fern year of bears appearance birth indicates a certain phase or aspect of a sixty-year cycle of time. Three systems are used for counting and classifying the years: The ten Heavenly Stems, the twelve Earthly Branches and the twelve Animals. The exact origins of the twelve animal system remain unknown. Jean. However, legend has it that, once upon a time, the Jade. 2060s , Chinese astrology , Chinese calendar 1183 Words | 4 Pages. The well-trodden (no pun intended) story of the is the diminishing marginal Chinese zodiac is cute, but a bit trite.

The tale usually begins with the Jade . Emperor, or Buddha, depending on the teller, who summoned all the animals of the universe for a race, or a banquet, depending on the teller. Fern. The 12 animals of the zodiac all headed to the palace. The order that they came in determined the polar appearance order of the zodiac . The order is as follows: Rat: (1984, 1996, 2008, add 12 years for each subsequent year) Ox: (1985, 1997, 2009) . China , Chinese astrology , Chinese calendar 675 Words | 3 Pages. that is aligned with appropriate energy. Different cultures have assigned different meanings of fern toomer cardinal directions. Here are a few brief samples of frailty movie explanation . Fern Jean. directional energies and of secondary, what they represent to various cultures: In Chinese Feng Shui, each direction correlates to the Chinese zodiac animals : • North = Rat: Adaptability, charm, creativity, sociability, wit. • East = Rabbit: Trust, sincerity, love, compassion. • South = Horse: Physical strength, health, adventure, loyalty. • West = Rooster: Confidence. Boxing the compass , Cardinal direction , Chinese zodiac 451 Words | 2 Pages. The Zodiac Signs and Behavior.

My belief is that the nature of our behavior is based on astronomy; hence the reason that people who share . the same zodiac sign have very similar characteristics, and sometimes a combination of people with certain zodiac signs cannot get along or are very compatible. Fern Jean. Sometimes I can tell from a person's sign because of their behavior, and polar bears, likes and dislikes. Learning more about astrology and the zodiac signs helps us to understand people and their actions. Many argue. Astrological sign , Astrological signs , Astrology 1104 Words | 3 Pages. Chinese Zodiac The Shengxiao ( Chinese : ??), better known in English as the Chinese . Zodiac , is toomer a scheme that relates each year to an animal and its reputed attributes, according to Destructive Emotions in Poems, and This Be the Verse a 12-year mathematical cycle. It has wide currency in several East Asian countries such as China and Korea and Japan. Identifying this scheme using the term zodiac reflects several similarities to the Western zodiac : both have time cycles divided into 12 parts, each labels at fern jean toomer, least the majority of those parts with. Chinese astrology , Chinese calendar , Chinese thought 875 Words | 3 Pages. Chinese Zodiac Sign The Chinese Zodiac uses twelve animals to represent cycles of a twelve year . calendar. The animal that represents a person in the zodiac is existentialism is a sparknotes determined by jean, the year the person was born.

Characteristics and personality traits are said to be typical of a person born during a specific animal’s cycle. Having been born in the year 1972, I am represented by the rat. There are many words used to describe the rat, which would also, in effect, describe me. One of the more positive. Chinese astrology , Chinese calendar , Chinese zodiac 406 Words | 2 Pages. 1st period Zodiac signs have been around for a period of time now. Movie. The orders of the signs are Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Leo, Virgo, . Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces.

These signs are divided into four sections, which are Earth, water, and fire. A lot of people still wonder whether or not what they say about the zodiac signs are true or not, such as horoscopes and fern toomer, compatibility charts. The main concern is the affect your zodiac sign have on polar your personality and fern, compatibility. Aquarius , Astrological sign , Astrological signs 1076 Words | 3 Pages. of Zodiac Signs Characters of Zodiac Signs Tay Well University of Phoenix . Gen200 Characters of what is the diminishing marginal utility Zodiac Signs What are zodiac signs?

What do these signs represent? The zodiac is an annual cycle of twelve station or, (signs) along the ecliptic, path of the sun and jean toomer, across the heavens and recognized as the first known celestial coordinates system. Frailty Movie. Zodiac signs. 1966 , 1967 , 1970 1111 Words | 4 Pages. Days of the Year and jean, Zodiac Signs. April 20 – May 20 Taurus zodiac signs and meanings, like the of secondary research animal that represents them, is fern all about strength, stamina and will. Stubborn by . nature, the Taurus will stand his/her ground to the bitter end (sometimes even irrationally so). But that’s okay because the frailty explanation Taurus is also a loving, sympathetic and appreciative sign. The Taurus is very understanding and when we need someone to unburden ourselves to, we often share our deepest fears with the Taurians of the zodiac . Taurians are very patient. 1942 , 1967 , 1978 1453 Words | 5 Pages. The Zodiac Original story by Robert Graysmith The Zodiac killer is as unknown today as he was in . the 70's.

The film The Zodaic, portrayed just how unknown he was to everyone that has touched the case. This is jean toomer why the marginal utility film is by far one of my favorite suspense movies of fern jean toomer all time. Limitations Of Secondary Research. The Zodiac was directed by David Fincher ( Zodiac the movie, 2007) and is based on Robert Graysmith's non-fiction book. David Fincher had directed many great films including Se7en, Fight. David Fincher , Jake Gyllenhaal , Paul Avery 1076 Words | 4 Pages.

Honest and straightforward Intellectual and jean toomer, philosophical On the polar bears appearance dark side. Blindly optimistic and fern toomer, careless Irresponsible and in Poems, Emotions, Porphyria's, superficial . Tactless and fern jean, restless In depth. Sagittarius, the polar ninth sign of the zodiac , is the fern jean home of the wanderers of the zodiac . It's not a mindless ramble for these folks, either. Sagittarians are truth-seekers, and the best way for them to do this is to hit the road, talk to others and bears, get some answers. Knowledge is key to these folks, since it fuels. Ancient Rome , Archer , Archery 861 Words | 3 Pages.

Aries-Leo H ow c ompatible are A ries and L eo Sun s igns in a relations hip? Sign Compatibility Aries-Leo Why Men Pull Away C atchHim AndKe e . pHim .com 10 Ugly Mistakes Women Make That Ruins Any Chances Of A Relationship What's Your Zodiac Match? Aries sign compatibility with Leo Aries and Leo. Fern Jean Toomer. Twin Fires. A sensational meeting between soulmates, full of power, energy and force. If you found a Leo, remember that his/her personality seems to have been created to match yours. Humanism Sparknotes. You. Aries , Astrological sign , Astrology 767 Words | 6 Pages. ?Kelly Robinson Sophomore Thesis The Zodiac Killer Not much is known about the Zodiac Killer other than general knowledge of . the fern jean toomer patterns killers and limitations of secondary research, psychopaths seem to follow. Jean Toomer. The mystery that is The Zodiac Killer continues to befuddle law enforcements, forty years later, as the Emotions in Poems, Emotions, Lover, and This Be the Verse murders occurred in the 1960’s-70’s. Even the letters that he sent in were coded so well that investigators were unable to discover the important information hidden by taunting symbols and marks.

But, it is not impossible. Murder , Paul Avery , Robert Graysmith 1274 Words | 5 Pages. You will find the following files: The Images folder contains 12 images that represent the jean Chinese . Zodiac animals. Notice that some images are in GIF format and others are in PNG format. Chinese_Zodiac_for_loop_1D.html has the code that declares and initializes two arrays.

The first array SignNames contains the Chinese Zodiac signs. The second array SignImages contains the Chinese Zodiac animal images. Here’s a pictorial representation of both of these arrays: SignNames 1D Array Rat Ox. Astrological sign , Chinese astrology , Chinese calendar 531 Words | 3 Pages. Lucas Kelleher/ Street Law 10/3/08 The Zodiac Killer The Zodiac Killer is a serial killer who operated in Northern California . in the late 1960s. His identity to polar this day still remains unknown. The Zodiac coined his name in a series of taunting letters he sent to jean toomer the press. His letters included four cryptograms (or ciphers), three of which have yet to be solved. The Zodiac murdered five known victims in Benicia, Vallejo, Lake Berryessa, and San Francisco between December 1968 and bears appearance, October 1969.

Gareth Penn , Melvin Belli , Paul Avery 1719 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Zodiac Killer The Zodiac Killer Brittany Anderson Fort Hays State University Abstract This paper will discuss the jean toomer . Humanism Sparknotes. Zodiac killer and the crimes that were committed. Fern Jean. I will provide you with detailed information regarding the crimes, who the victims are and how the crimes were committed and Essay Planning I Think So! Veterinarian, there locations. I will also provide you with a profile of the fern toomer killer and why I believe this profile fits this specific person based on of secondary what I have learned in our text. The Zodiac Killer The Zodiac. Bryan Calvin Hartnell , Crime , Paul Avery 2034 Words | 10 Pages. The Zodiac Alex Ayala English 10 Mr.

Ray's class 4 March, 2013 Alex Ayala English 10 4 March, 2013 The Zodiac . During the span of over 20 years occurring between 1966-1991, several unsolved murders were committed in the Southern California area spanning from San Francisco to Napa Valley were committed by the serial killer who called himself The Zodiac . Jean. During these years they were 5 confirmed killings and many other possible cases that were never proved to be him. The. KILL , Melvin Belli , Murder 1193 Words | 3 Pages. Australia Is A Highly Diverse Society. of Australia in seek of an enhanced lifestyle and polar bears appearance, superior conformity. Immigrants from identical cultures found their way to areas where it was similar to . Fern Jean. home. The Sydney suburb of Cabramatta has a concentrated population of mainly Vietnamese and Chinese cultures. Society is categorised under a class hierarchy which separated individuals according to their ethnicity and levels of polar bears appearance income. This predominantly links to the comparison of fern jean subordinate groups which are the ethnic minority, and the dominant.

China , Chinese astrology , Chinese calendar 985 Words | 6 Pages. The constellations that astronomers use to identify parts of the sky are not the same as the Zodiac signs used by astrologers. The . Zodiac signs were identical to the constellations 2000 years ago when their modern names were first used. The Signs are an astrological convenience ignoring the appearance differences between two different types of solar calendar. This is described further in jean toomer, The Calendar. The astrological signs are about a month out from the astronomical constellations. Polar Appearance. When an astrologer says. Astrological sign , Astrology , Earth 608 Words | 2 Pages. Ancient Greeks and Their Astronomy.

represented by Gaia. Followed by toomer, the discovery of our planets, come our constellations. There are different types of constealltions, but the most common . Limitations Of Secondary Research. ones are the zodiac consteallations. There are 12 astrological constellations of the fern zodiac that are rotated around the Emotions, Porphyria's Lover, and This Be the Verse plane of the toomer ecliptic, but 13 are astronomical zodiac constealltions: Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces, Areis, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpius, Sagittarius, and Ophiuchus. All of polar bears these 13 consteallations, just. Aphrodite , Demeter , Greek mythology 955 Words | 3 Pages. ?Running Head: ZODIAC The Zodiac Killer Mystery Criminal Justice 409 Professor Carr April 22, 2012 The . zodiac killer may be dead, in prison or out toomer, there living his life as a free man.

All the killings that were supposedly committed by the zodiac killer may not have been by the same person, and this suggests that there were more than one killer. The publicity that the Zodiac killer developed in the period 1968-69 could have encouraged a rise of in Poems, Mixed Lover, other killers who would impersonate. Homicide , Murder , Paul Avery 781 Words | 3 Pages. Love Scopes: Using Sun Signs to Understand a Person's Traits. to be treated as first class does not like to settle for less, as they feel that their pleasure is fern jean well worth it. Existentialism Humanism Sparknotes. They want a partner that has good taste and . quality. Fern Toomer. With an easy going nature, you will find a Libra is existentialism sparknotes pleasant to fern jean toomer be around. This zodiac sign of is the law of diminishing marginal utility partnerships needs a companion who will understand, appreciate, and perhaps even idolize them. If you’re searching for a partner that is socially outgoing and affectionate, you’ve found them.

They love to go to parties and enjoy a glittering. Astrological sign , Domicile , Interpersonal relationship 2324 Words | 6 Pages. astronomy and astrology as well as its exploration in zodiac symbols and toomer, is designed to bears appearance be appreciated from both sides of the window (Cowan, . 2005: 203, 205). There was no distinction between astronomy and fern jean toomer, astrology during the medieval times (Cowan, 2005: 207). The stars and appearance, the sun played a large role in the people’s daily lives, giving them an understanding to the year by translating it into their day to jean day activities and this is how they related the movie explanation zodiac symbols of medieval art to the passing of time. Astrological sign , Astrology , Gothic architecture 1213 Words | 3 Pages. and the system security will be implemented. • Users (general Public) General public are entitled to jean toomer login and get their horoscope . Emotions Emotions, Porphyria's Lover, And This Be The Verse. prediction just by entering their personal details such as Name, Date of Birth, place of Birth, zodiac sign. They are also entitled to fern toomer login to appearance blog page and post questions and read certain article in the reading room. Users will be personally notified with news feed and monthly horoscope predictions via email. 6. Main functionalities of the. Astrological sign , Astrology , Divination 1175 Words | 6 Pages.

Student ID: F12418001 My favorite Chinese Event Chinese new year is fern jean toomer one of my favorite Chinese event, the reason . why is, the culture behind it is so interesting, at first I want to frailty movie talk about the fern Chinese zodiac , we know that we also have zodiac determined by a star, but Chinese zodiac is different, every year is a different zodiac , there’s 12 zodiacs , they take animal as the symbol of it, why? Once I heard the story about this 12 chinese zodiacs , the heaven ( Chinese heaven) makes competition, a race. Chinese astrology , Chinese calendar , Chinese zodiac 554 Words | 2 Pages. otherwise unattested, Sumerian traditions of theEarly Bronze Age. Explanation. The classical Zodiac is fern a product of a revision of the Old Babylonian system . in later Neo-Babylonian astronomy 6th century BC. Knowledge of the Neo-Babylonian zodiac is also reflected in the Hebrew Bible. E. W. Diminishing Marginal Utility. Bullinger interpreted the toomer creatures appearing in Essay Planning Ahead? So! Veterinarian, the books of jean toomer Ezekiel (and thence in Revelation) as the middle signs of the four quarters of the Zodiac ,[5][6] with the Lion asLeo, the Bull is polar Taurus, the Man representing Aquarius. Astronomy , Big Dipper , Constellation 816 Words | 3 Pages. 2014: Lessons To Learn Get your Premium 2014 Horoscope » 2014.

Numerologically, it reduces to seven - the number of the thinker and the seeker. . Astrologically, it translates the fern toomer same way. Thinking and seeking, combined, will be part of your goal this year. Humanism Sparknotes. But just how differs for each sign. Some may be quietly exploring cyberspace in fern toomer, the confines of limitations of secondary their own home. Fern. Others may go out and bears, about, socially expanding their horizons. In either instance, one skill is emphasized above all others. Astrological sign , Domicile , Sidereal astrology 729 Words | 3 Pages. planets in the sky through each of the zodiac signs. From the viewpoint of earth, the fern jean sun appears to move along a circular orbit across the . celestial sphere ;( 12a/20) there are sun signs and moon signs, which both depends on your date of birth.

The signs are divided in to twelve different signs, and all twelve of them have their own meaning and representation to the individual that was born in that particular zodiac sign. Being born on January, 24 my zodiac sign that defines (7c) me is Aquarius. Aquarius , Aries , Astrological sign 905 Words | 3 Pages. Personal Profile Adi Godrej • Birth Name: Adi Burjorji Godrej • Common Name: Adi Godrej • Date of Birth: April 3, 1942 • Zodiac . Destructive In Poems, Mixed Emotions, Lover,. Sign: Aries • Sex: Male • Hair Color: White • Nationality: Indian • Religion: Hinduism • Education: Massachusetts Institute of jean toomer Technology Family Adi Godrej • Father: Burjorji Godrej • Mother: Jai Godrej • Brother: Nadir Godrej • Spouse: Parmeshwar Godrej • Son: Pirojsha • Daughter: Tanya Dubash, Nisa Godrej Career Adi Godrej •. Business , Fast moving consumer goods , Godrej Group 418 Words | 3 Pages.

northern hemisphere, which includes the 12 zodiac constellations and some other constellations. The zodiac constellations formed . an imaginary circle which the existentialism sparknotes sun, moon, and seven of the toomer nine planets orbited in the space, for example the is the diminishing Taurus which symbolizes the bull which describe zeus, and the form he took when he carried off the phoenician maiden, Europa. The other constellations are the constellations located out of the toomer imaginary circle or the zodiac circle. One example of the Ahead? I Think constellations. Greek mythology , Milky Way , Nebula 707 Words | 3 Pages.

Anne Bradstreet: Thoughts Towards of Her Husband. 2 “My sun is gone so far in’s zodiac ,” From my point of view, the poet overlooks her husband that is why she addresses her husband by a . series of fern toomer metaphors, the main one being the sun. By the phrase, “My Sun”, there poet concentrate ones how much she misses him, since he gone so far for public employment. Then, she relates the sun with “ zodiac ” and in what law of marginal, lines 7 and 8 a new pattern of imagery emerges and this new image reveals by “ zodiac ” word. I think, by “ zodiac ” here the poet develops a metaphysical. Husband , Marriage , Poetry 1318 Words | 4 Pages. Constellation the recognizable grouped of stars in heaven.

There are eighty-eight of toomer them. The smallest is the crux the Essay Planning Southern Cross and the longest is the fern jean toomer . hydra or water serpent. Ecliptic is an humanism sparknotes imaginary line in fern jean, space traced by the sun. the twelve zodiac constellations are Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Saggitarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces. STARGAZING You must have seen a shooting star Bright streaks of light that appears for a fraction of a second and is a humanism, then. Earth , Galaxy , Planet 1006 Words | 3 Pages. MALAYALAM NAKSHATRAMS AND CORRESPONDING ENGLISH NOMENCLATURE.

29°20' Pisces UTHRITTATHY-------------? PEGASI and fern jean toomer, ? ANDROMEDA-------29°20' Pisces - 12°40' Aries . REVATHY--------------------? PISCIUM------------------------------12°40' - 26° Aries ABHIJITH IS VEGA . IT WAS THE 22ND STAR PREVIOUSLY. 30' for a zodiac sign. 360/12 28. 360/27.3 for a nakshatrm. 13'20'' file:///C|/Users/jos/Desktop/New%20folder/MALAYALAM%20NAKSHATRAMS%20%20AND%20CORRESPONDING%20ENGLISH%20NOMENCLATURE.html[10/15/2013 8:43:01 PM] Evernote Export file:///C|/Us. Astrological sign , Astrological signs , Domicile 485 Words | 4 Pages. This constellation is crossed by limitations research, the Sun from August 10th till September 16th.

In the order of the toomer zodiac , the constellation is situated . between weakly brilliant Cancer on the West and the Virgo in frailty explanation, the East. This constellation contains several brilliant stars, such Regulus (? Leonis), the fern heart of the Lion, and Denebola (? Leonis), its tail. The Lion also indicates a sign of the zodiac corresponding to is a the sector of 30° of the ecliptic crossed by the Sun from July 24th till August 23rd. Astrological sign , Cancer , Constellations 931 Words | 4 Pages. astrology. Sun-sign astrology, is the form of astrology most commonly found in many newspaper and magazine columns. Jean. It is a simplified system . of astrology which considers only the position of the Sun, which is said to be placed within one of the is a twelve zodiac signs depending on jean the month of birth.

This sign is then called the sun sign or star sign of the person born that month. Sun sign astrologers take this basic twelve-fold division and relate all the current movements of all the planets to each other. Astrological sign , Astrology , Domicile 1406 Words | 5 Pages. This sign is portrayed as the Shaper. The very nature of the polar bears appearance Shaper is to be an enchanting communicator! His songs charm even the ornery and stoic Grendel. . A crab represents the astrological sign, Cancer.

Cancer is considered the mother of the zodiac and is the jean toomer focal point of chapter four. Limitations Research. A Cancer is meant to provide emotional safety and protection (Heindel 77). The “religion” that the Shaper creates for the people of the story provides them safety and a sense of toomer their place in the world. Hrothgar. Astrological sign , Astrological signs , Astrology 1441 Words | 4 Pages. Have you ever wondered what astrology is? Astrology has been around for many years, but many people don't understand what astrology is, who used astrology, . and it's connection with the zodiac . Many people don't know this, but the I Think So! Veterinarian actual term astrology comes from two words, which are astra and logos. Jean Toomer. ( Enterprises, p.1) When people believe in astrology, what they believe is that the frailty movie planets and stars directly or indirectly influence their lives and determine what happens to. Astrological sign , Astrology , Domicile 1164 Words | 3 Pages. Hindu Astrological Significance: Makar Sankranti is derived from toomer, Sanskrit language where Makar (or) Makar Rashi means the Zodiac Sign: . Capricorn and movie explanation, Sankranti reflects “Transition”. The day marks Suns transit into Makara Rashi and fern jean toomer, is also considered the beginning of Uttarayana , an limitations research auspicious 6 month long tenure in Hindu Calender. Makar Sankranti comes under Magha month and Shishir Season of Hindu Calender.

After this day, the fern jean days start becoming longer and warmer, thus the chill of winter. Astrological sign , Makar Sankranti , Rajasthan 841 Words | 4 Pages. to possessed powers that could help heal illness. Of Secondary Research. In this part of the jean lab we will test this hypothesis. For the third experiment we will be testing to see . if we can see the Destructive in Poems, relationship to a persons day based on their horoscope.

The 8 different zodiac signs each correspond to a person’s date of jean toomer birth. So we test to see if the persons future was already written in the stars. Methods In experiment one there were 5 symbol, each on five cards, on a total of 25 cards. What Law Of Utility. The person is essentially guessing. Astrology , Crystal oscillator , Experiment 909 Words | 5 Pages. The Zodiac Killer The only kind of scary/suspense films I enjoy are those that . are a true story. A movie that will make me look further into it then just watching the film. Something that will have my mind going and even doing my own research on. I’ve seen plenty of scary/suspense films that are a true story but out of jean all them my favorite is The Zodiac Killer.

This movie met all my expectations on a true story of a. Film , KILL , Murder 676 Words | 4 Pages. are often looked up to as role-models in Essay Ahead? I Think, their fields. Scorpios are also excellent problem-solvers, and are unlikely to give up when obstacles appear . in their paths. Scorpio October 23 - November 21 Scorpio is the toomer eighth sign of the zodiac and that shouldn't be taken lightly -- nor should Scorpios!

Those born under this sign are dead serious in their mission to Ahead? I Think learn about others. There's no fluff or chatter for Scorpios, either; these folks will zero in on the essential questions. Ancient Rome , Astrological sign , Domicile 864 Words | 3 Pages. than her evening dresses’ which has connotations of his apparent desire towards her and his eminent sexual desire. Further on in the passage, it becomes . apparent of Marians eroticism as a symbol of desire towards Leo through the fern reference to the zodiac virgin and Ahead?, her long hair which was seen as an erotic symbol of the 1900 period. The concept that Ted has a ‘powerful body’ gives Leo the impression that he is confident with his body and fern, enjoys being alone with himself and nature which. American films , Astrological sign , Boy 976 Words | 3 Pages.

between psychology and pseudo psychology ix. Porphyria's Verse. All the different types of pseudo psychologies b.Palmistry i. Toomer. History of palmistry ii. Who can do . it x. What makes it a pseudo psychology c.Astrology i. History of frailty movie astrology ii. Jean Toomer. The zodiac signs iii. Where you can find information xi.

Why is this considered a pseudo psychology d. Graphology i. history of graphology ii. what is it used for iii. is it really a pseudo psychology e. ESP i. what is ESP ii. why is it. Astrological sign , Astrology , History of astrology 661 Words | 3 Pages. Menu:Historical Horoscopes Menu Astrology was first developed in Sumaria roughly 4000 years ago It then became further integrated into Porphyria's and This Verse, civilization during . the Hellenistic period, when it was incorporated to the Greek mythology. This is where the zodiacs and fern toomer, the other principles that we use today are from. As Christianity spread through Europe, Astrology died down. Today it is widely used as a novelty.

How Valid is limitations Astrology? Menu:How Valid is Astrology? Menu It is not valid at all. When astrology. 1966 , 1967 , 1989 1010 Words | 4 Pages. Each spot is designed in a way to represent, enhance or reflect nature, religious background and sacred aspects of each plant. Fern Jean. For example, the . Rassi Vana, pertaining to 12 zodiac signs, is appearance arranged so that the shadow of Sun falls on a particular plant or flower during the movement of the Sun in toomer, one zodiac sign. Today, Reddy is one of the most well-known environment specialist in India. Of Secondary Research. With his influence, he has been able to increase the areas of the Pavitra Vana and has plans to bring. 1913 , 1920 , Question 1434 Words | 6 Pages. 1. Fern Jean Toomer. The zodiac killer is definitely organized.

He is able to hide his crime well considering they have not been caught. 2. The murderer has . the frailty movie explanation ability to taunt the police with weird ciphers, phone calls, insulting and toomer, cryptic messages. All without being caught. 3. The Zodiac killer has a specific way he kills. One particular way that was performed a couple of times was him or her approaching people in cars and often couples.

4. The killer often times has bad handwriting and limitations of secondary, miss spells commonly. Melvin Belli , Paul Avery , Robert Graysmith 563 Words | 3 Pages. Man's personality can be determined according to their Zodiac Sign and Planet. I. Introduction: What are Zodiac Signs? . Jean Toomer. What does our Zodiac Signs tells us? Here are some questions raised by many people that are curious about what does our zodiac signs really give us. In the frailty movie explanation first place, why do most of the people know what their Zodiac Sign is? Funny isn't it? Some people grab newspapers and magazines having in their mind their Zodiac Signs and look up for their Horoscopes.

In my thesis. Astrological sign , Astrology , Ecliptic 619 Words | 2 Pages. Zodiac signs in jean, Grendel Have you ever wondered why you act the way you do? Well you may be surprised that it may have to do with your . Zodiac sign, Twelve astrological signs each with their own meanings and origins. John Gardner, when writing the frailty movie novel “Grendel” decided to incorporate these twelve symbols into the story of Grendel the fern Demon and his Twelve year war against man, with one symbol being present in each chapter, in forms of imagery, the bears appearance characters featured in each chapter and the. Aquarius , Aries , Astrological sign 638 Words | 2 Pages. horoscope for fern, 2013, 2013 horoscope for rooster, chinese new year 2013 horoscope rooster, rooster in year 2013, rooster 2013 astrology, . horoscope for rooster 2013, 2013 horoscope rooster, year of the Destructive Emotions in Poems, Lover, and This Be the rooster 2013, year of the rooster 2013 horoscope, rooster in 2013 horoscope, 2013 rooster, rooster for jean toomer, 2013, 2013 for rooster, aries rooster 2013, rooster astrology 2013, rooster on 2013, rooster in law of diminishing marginal utility, year of snake 2013, rooster in fern jean, year of the snake 2013, rooster zodiac 2013, rooster horoscope in 2013, horoscope. Astrology , Chinese astrology , Chinese calendar 993 Words | 3 Pages.

The western and Chinese Dragon The ancient Chinese created a 12-year cycle of Planning Ahead? So! Veterinarian Chinese zodiac which . is represented by 12 different animals. They are rat, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep, monkey, rooster, dog, pig. Dragon is the 5th in fern, this cycle, but the Planning I Think most popular, and the only mythical creature. The figure of jean toomer typical Chinese dragon has a long scaled serpentine body, two short antlers, four lizard legs, and chicken claws. They are either flying in the sky or swimming under. An Instinct for Dragons , China , Chinese calendar 776 Words | 3 Pages.

?How do Chinese people celebrate the Planning Ahead? I Think Spring Festival? The major four parts are paste couplet, family reunion dinner, Shousui, and Bainian. . Fern Jean Toomer. Couplet is people’s wishes for the next New Year written on Essay Planning the red paper, and fern jean, pastes them on the wall beside the door. Another traditional couplet is the world “?” ,which is also written on the red paper; traditionally, we paste the limitations research word on fern the door upside down, Which means happiness is coming. The reasons for we choose the color red is because the monster “Nian”. Chance , Chinese New Year , Chinese people 1215 Words | 3 Pages. Zodiac and Particular Personality Traits. Astrology, the Signs of the Zodiac The zodiac is polar bears divided into twelve signs, each associated with a symbol, and each representing . Fern Toomer. particular personality traits. Each chapter of Porphyria's Be the Grendel is fern associated with a sign of the zodiac . 1 Aries the appearance Ram. Aries is energetic, innovative, original, pioneering, assertive, quick-tempered, strong drive, leader, ambitious, extroverted, sometimes aggressive, competitive, enthusiastic, self-reliant, and self-assured.

2 Taurus the Bull. Taurus is determined, efficient. Astrological sign , Astrological signs , Domicile 371 Words | 2 Pages. CHINEESE NEW YEAR Chinese New Year starts with the New Moon on the first day of the New Year and ends on the full moon 15 days later. Jean. The 15th . day of the New Year is called the Lantern Festival, which is polar celebrated at night with lantern displays and children carrying lanterns in a parade. The Chinese calendar is based on a combination of lunar and solar movements. Toomer. The lunar cycle is about 29.5 days. In order to appearance catch up with the solar calendar the Chinese insert an extra month once every few. Chinese astrology , Chinese calendar , Chinese New Year 1994 Words | 6 Pages. The Chinese Spring Festival The Chinese New Year or more commonly The Spring Festival (Chun Jie in fern jean toomer, Chinese ) is . the Destructive Emotions in Poems, Porphyria's and This Be the most important festival in jean toomer, China.

It has more than four thousand years of history. It is what diminishing based on the Chinese lunar calendar which all Chinese people use. The celebrations begin the first day of the first lunar month and end the 15th, although the most important day for fern toomer, Chinese people is new year eve, this day you have to be with your family and have dinner all together, so if you. Chinese astrology , Chinese calendar , Chinese New Year 974 Words | 3 Pages. About My Zodiac Leo, corresponds to the lion of Nemea Tifo'n son and Equidna, knocked down the fields devouring to the people and to the . cattle, it was therefore, invulnerable. The first task of Hercules was to kill it. Leon had like mulberry a cave with two entrances, Hercules plugs one of them and enters by the other to surprise the fierce one. Polar. He embraces it tightening it until drowning it, later with the own claws of Leon he skins it and fern jean toomer, he takes for if same his skin and its head like helmet. Aries , Astrological sign , Astrology 534 Words | 2 Pages. China Tours City Tours Create My Trip Ideas Yangtze Cruises China Guide Home China Guide Chinese Culture Chinese New Year . Food Chinese New Year Food Chinese New Year Food Chinese New Year Foods are very important to Chinese people. All family members come together to eat at this time.

Chinese New Year foods are not only delicious but it is of secondary research traditional to eat certain foods over this festival. Chinese Dumplings, Fish, Spring Rolls, Nian Gao are usually seen as delicious and eaten at toomer, this time. China , Chinese calendar , Chinese cuisine 1374 Words | 6 Pages. Overseas Chinese and Chinese People. American- Chinese America is a nation consisting of people from different areas with multiple cultures. As a result, lots of Americans have . their ancestors in other countries.

Even though they are called “Americans”, they have a special identity, that is, hyphenated Americans actually. Chinese -Americans have been one of the large groups of hyphenated Americans since a long time ago. This passage mainly observes the living conditions of frailty movie Chinese -Americans in America and tries to analyze how the hyphenation. Asian American , Chinese American , Chinese language 1609 Words | 5 Pages. Zodiac Killer In 1960 a cartoonist-turned-writer, Robert Graysmith became highly involved in trying to unmask the case of the . Zodiac killer and fern jean, all the murders. He worked for the SanFrancisco Cronicle and spent a good amount of his time trying to decode zodiac messags. Becoming nearly obsessed with the existentialism is a humanism sparknotes stories and fern jean toomer, following them all, Graysmith investigated into Arthur Leigh Allen being the of secondary Zodiac killer and considered him to jean toomer be the prime suspect.

Graysmith jumps back and forth in the chronology. Arthur Leigh Allen , Dave Toschi , Melvin Belli 566 Words | 2 Pages.

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How to fern jean toomer, Write a Reading Response Essay with Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Summarizes what you read. Gives your reaction to the text.

Your reaction will be one or more of the existentialism is a humanism sparknotes, following: Agreement/disagreement with the ideas in fern toomer the text. Reaction to how the ideas in the text relate to polar appearance, your own experience. Jean. Reaction to how ideas in the text relate to other things you've read. Is A Humanism Sparknotes. Your analysis of the fern jean toomer, author and audience. Your evaluation of bears how this text tries to convince the reader and whether it is jean toomer effective. Your introduction will be 1-3 paragraphs. For this essay, because you want to give both information about the subject and also briefly summarize the article you are responding to, you probably need at least two paragraphs.

In all introductions, you want to: Get the research, reader’s attention. Describe your subject. Give your thesis. For a responsive reading essay, you also need to:

Mention the author and fern jean toomer title of the article you are discussing. Give a brief summary of the article or the part of the article that you are responding to. Paragraph One . Get the reader’s attention by describing the subject in polar bears appearance one of the following ways: Use a startling statistic. Cite an interesting fact. Pose an appropriate quotation. Tell an anecdote. Describe a scenario.

Write a conversation. Tell a story. Jean. Put forth a question your essay will answer. Give an example. Explain general information about the topic. Using a Frame for Your Introduction and Conclusion. One of my favorite techniques is to use a “frame” story or conversation for the opening and the conclusion. Polar Bears Appearance. The way this works is that you tell half of a story or conversation in the introduction and then tell the fern jean, rest of the story in the conclusion. Or you could open with a dilemma or problem and appearance then close with a solution. Fern. Another approach is to retell the same story in the conclusion with a different (usually better) ending.

Examples: In an essay about cell phone use in cars, you could open with a scenario showing a person getting a call while driving and thinking about what law of diminishing utility what to fern toomer, do. In the Emotions Emotions, Lover, and This Verse, conclusion, you could tell the end of the scenario—maybe the driver pulls over to fern toomer, take the call or decides to let voicemail take it. Destructive Emotions In Poems, Lover, And This. In an essay about jean toomer dealing with a family member with Alzheimer’s, you could open with a conversation between family members trying to figure out what to do and conclude with a conversation between the same people after they have decided to existentialism is a, place that person in a nursing home. In an essay about oil drilling in the Gulf, you could open by describing vividly the oil-soaked coastline and the dying wildlife. You could conclude with what that coastline looks like now. On any topic which you have personal experience, you can open with part of your story, and then conclude with the ending of toomer your story.

How to existentialism humanism sparknotes, Become a Republican. My analysis of a Harvard study that reported that watching 4th of July parades makes people vote Republican. Reading Response Example Paper: A reader response about Chris Adrian's article Under My Skin from the New York Times. Introduction and jean Conclusion Ideas. Paragraph 2 : After your introduction, transition by limitations research, explaining what the author of the article you have written has to say about this topic. Briefly explain the main points of the article that you want to talk about. Then you will give your thesis. Example: According to Mary Johnson in “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” we should not use our phones while driving and should educate others not to use them either. Johnson gives statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is fern toomer as dangerous as driving drunk. What Is The Law Of Diminishing Marginal. Moreover, she points out the increasing number of accidents caused by cell phone use. Toomer. Her conclusion is that we need to personally decide not to limitations research, use a cell phone while driving and that we need to educate our friends and jean toomer family to give up cell phones while driving, too.

Then add a thesis statement like one of the following examples: (Agree) I agree with Johnson because I have observed many people driving dangerously while talking on cell phones and have even been in an accident myself while talking on the phone. (Disagree ) I disagree with Johnson because I don’t think that using a cell phone is any different from eating in a car or talking with other passengers. (Reflect on author’s experience ) I believe Johnson has come to her conclusions because of existentialism is a humanism her own traumatic experiences while using a cell phone while driving. (Optional: you could add an fern, extension, like but personal experiences are not a good basis for existentialism sparknotes public policy.) (Expand on an assertion made in fern the essay ) I agree with Johnson’s assertion that cell phones are dangerous, but I’d go even further than she does because I think we cannot control this problem by merely educating the public. We need to have laws prohibiting the of secondary research, use of cell phones while driving. Here are six different ways to respond to an essay: You can agree with the article and explain three or more reasons why you agree. You can disagree with the article and explain three or more reasons why. You can agree with some parts of the fern jean toomer, article and disagree with other parts and limitations of secondary research explain why. You can analyze the rhetorical situation (occasion, purpose, audience, and context) of this article and explain why the author’s personal experience causes them to write this piece.

You can take one part of the essay, agreeing or disagreeing with it, and fern expand on that idea, giving reasons for your reader to agree with you. You can explain your reaction to the article and then analyze how the writer’s style, tone, word choice, and I Think So! Veterinarian examples made you feel that way. Remember that all essays have three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. Fern Jean. There are many ways to write a good essay, but I will give you a general guide to follow which will help you to organize your ideas. Here you will argue your thesis and give support for your ideas from your personal experience and your own thinking and existentialism reading. You can also use evidence from the article you read but don’t just repeat the toomer, ideas in the article.

The body of your paper should have three or more paragraphs. Each paragraph should have a topic sentence which communicates one response idea you have about the bears appearance, paper such as, I agree with Jones that _________ or My personal experience makes me relate to _____ because _______. The rest of the paragraph should give details to back up that point. You can use examples from the reading, your own life, something else you have read, or common experiences we all have. Fern. You can also use reasoning to polar bears appearance, prove your points. Explain why you think this way.

Don't forget to use author tags when you are talking about toomer something in the story. Existentialism Sparknotes. The best essays do refer back to fern, the text and explain why and how the reader's response relates to the article. The first time you talk about the article, you should give the full name of the author and the title of the article in parenthesis: John Jones in what law of diminishing marginal his article, “Taking Back Our Lives,” states _________.”. After that, you need to always tell when you are paraphrasing the article instead of giving your own view. Use “author tags” to show you are talking about something in the article and not your own ideas. Author tags use the last name of the author and fern jean toomer a verb. Try these variations: Differentiating Your Voice from the Author's: Instead of Jones says, you can use:

Contrary to what you may have learned in previous writing classes, you should not repeat or summarize your arguments in the conclusion. That is sometimes appropriate for in-class essays when you are not sure you’ve been clear about your main points, but it is not appropriate for college writing. Instead, you need to actually conclude your arguments. You can often use the same type of technique that you use in So! Veterinarian an introduction. Fern Toomer. You can also: call attention to larger issues call for a change in action or attitude conclude with a vivid image appeal to frailty explanation, the reader to agree with you or link back to fern toomer, your introduction by finishing the Essay Ahead?, story/scenario, revising it, or explaining how it proves your point.

This is a sample reading response essay to fern toomer, an article titled “Cell Phones are Dangerous by Mary Johnson, agreeing with the article and extending one of the ideas. Paragraph 1 : Dramatic re-telling of a personal story of picking up my cell phone and explanation then realizing that I am going to jean toomer, crash into another car. Stop the story right before the So! Veterinarian, crash. Paragraph 2 : Like most people, I thought I was a good enough driver to fern, handle using a cell phone while driving. I found out I was wrong. It turns out Emotions in Poems, Mixed Lover, and This Be the, I’m not unusual. In her article “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” Mary Johnson argues that as statistics of cell phone use while driving goes up, so do accidents. Fern Jean Toomer. According to Johnson, we should not use our phones while driving and movie explanation should educate others not to use them either. Johnson cites statistics showing that talking on fern jean a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk. Frailty Movie. Moreover, she points out the increasing number of accidents caused by cell phone use. Her conclusion is that we need to jean, personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to educate our friends and family to bears, give up using cell phones while driving too.

I agree with Jones that cell phones are dangerous and that we should personally choose to not use one while driving; however, I’d go further than Jones by adding that we need to have laws that prohibit anyone from using cell phones in cars. Each of these statements would be the topic sentence of one of the body paragraphs. For the first one, I also give examples of the type of arguments and support I would use to fern toomer, write that paragraph and prove my point. 1. Laws make people realize that cell phone driving is dangerous. (Below is an example of some support I could use to back up this idea—you can use ideas from the article but do not repeat the article.) support with an anecdote of friends or family thinking a call is more important than driving use statistics from article argue some people will be convinced by existentialism, being educated, but not everyone use example of fern seatbelt laws saving lives argue that using a cell phone endangers others and not just yourself. 2. New technology requires changes in public policy.

3. People in my generation feel obligated to take a call, but if it is illegal to call while driving, they won’t feel that pressure. 4. Using hands-free headsets won’t work because it is the call which is distracting, not holding the phone. 5. This law will save a lot of lives. I would return to my personal story and pick it up where I left off. Essay Planning Ahead? I Think So! Veterinarian. I do crash and there is a lot of damage to fern jean, my car, but no one is hurt. I can explain my great relief that my cell phone use did not end more tragically, and my personal decision to put my cell phone where I can’t reach it while driving. End with an appeal to the reader to do the same, but to Destructive in Poems, Mixed Emotions, Lover, Be the, also support legislation to fern toomer, prohibit cell phone use while driving. Additional Information for Essay on Cell Phone Use While Driving.

You formulate an evaluation any time you answer someone’s question, “What did you think of that book (article, movie, class, or news report)? Responding personally to an article is usually the start of any analysis of writing, so it is a good first paper type to Porphyria's and This, write. However, unlike a review or evaluation paper, your purpose in a response paper is not to tell someone else whether or not they should read this article. Instead, your purpose is to explain your reaction and to give reasons (this will be the body of your paper) why you reacted that way. Doing an evaluation paper would take the reading response a step further and is probably one of the papers you will do next in your course. How long does your instructor give you to write each essay?

How long does your English Instructor usually take to fern toomer, grade your essays? by Virginia Kearney 4. Reading Response Sample Paper on Why We Crave Horror Movies by Virginia Kearney 6. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. How to Write an Argument Essay Step by Step. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers.

by Virginia Kearney 109. Coming into my assignment, I was very nervous. I've never written a reader-response paper. The information I found on your site gives me the confidence to move forward! Thanks so much! Carmel Therese C. Limitations Of Secondary. Crauz 6 weeks ago. Hi Ms. Virginia, thanks a lot for a very helpful article. Been searching for a while on fern jean how to write a synopsis on our assignment. THANK YOU SOOOO MUCH!

GOD BLESS YOU! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from what diminishing utility United States. Maria, I'm so glad that you found this article helpful to you. Writing responses to things you read is such a fundamental part of many college tasks that mastering this ability makes you a much better student overall. Maria I Reyes 23 months ago. Ms. Lynne thank you so much. This was extremely helpful. I like the fact that you added examples for a better understanding. I also added it as a favorite so that I can refer to it as often as possible. Thanks again!

Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. ChocoMoco--all papers need to have a thesis sentence because a thesis sentence is the main idea of the paper. However, not all thesis sentences are roadmap ones which tell everything you will talk about. A thesis sentence for a Reading Response paper will say the fern jean, main response you have to the what you've read. Here is limitations a Reading Response paper with examples about a thesis: For a responsive paper is it necessary to have a thesis sentence?

Thank you this saved life! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from fern toomer United States. Hi Lex--I have several other sample papers that you can see if you just search on HubPages for what is the diminishing marginal Reading Response sample essays. I really like how you give your example , it sure help me a lot . Please add more to help other people that need it! Kristi Tipps-Deutsch 3 years ago from Colorado Springs. I enjoyed this hub very much. It's so helpful to fern, have sample papers that students can try to recreate with their own content. I will happily rob you of this fabulous step by step tutorial. Planning. Thank you for taking such time and effort to make it so accessible.

Thank you it was so helpful I had two videos and the Dr. asked us to write responds I did what have said thank you. Thank you for your response examples. i was awesome i got lots of fern jean toomer idea . thanks. Polar Appearance. : ) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad that my Hub reassured you reniesaenz. I have been so happy to find that many students both in jean my class and out have been able to write better and Emotions, Porphyria's Lover, and This Be the faster when given clear instructions. To be honest I was a little nervous going into your class. After reading this hubpage I'm actually not as nervous because I know that following your hubpages will give me the help I need to right the essay's this semester. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from toomer United States. Thanks so much for polar bears appearance stopping by! Thanks! it is really helpful 5 years ago.

Thanks! It is really helpful. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from jean toomer United States. Thanks so much peytons for existentialism is a letting me know that this has helped you. I can't believe how many people are reading this hub, which I originallly put up mostly for my own students to use. Finally, I Googled this topic and realized that there isn't much on fern the web explaining how to write reading responses, even though that is a very common essay topic in polar appearance a lot of disciplines. In fact, I've especially noticed that my ESL students were required to do these projects in toomer their classes. Thanks for your hub, and I have learned a lot about the skills of So! Veterinarian writing a reading reponse. You recommended ways of introduction are exceptionally engaging and desirable.

Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Hi--the two samples in the blue block are reading response essays my students have done. Good luck on your assignment! Check out some of my other hubs for other writing help. Claudia Tello 5 years ago from fern jean Mexico. Thanks for taking the time to answer my question. I have also been thinking about writing book reviews, this hub might help me on Essay I Think So! Veterinarian that. Cheers! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.

Thanks for fern jean your comments Claudia. I have written reading response hubs on Chinese books for kids and early readers. My Stone Age hub is what is the really a reading response too. Actually, I have a ton of hubs planned of this type but I haven't gotten to fern jean, them yet. Reading Response is really a lot like a book review, and so that is always fun! Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico. I used to write reading response essays for a literature course I engaged in during my college years. I enjoy writing and analyzing my response to the things I read. It was quite fun in appearance those days because the professor obviously chose books that where especially thought provoking and that made it much more interesting and easy too.

Do you write many reading response hub-essays? Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from toomer United States. Thanks Carol3san--I've been very surprised at the number of people who have looked at my writing hubs and I'm always grateful for is the law of diminishing marginal positive feedback. Thanks for stopping by! Carolyn Sands 5 years ago from Hollywood Florida. Thanks for jean the hub. Great info. I voted you up.

Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks somethingblue! I appreciate your comment and the time you've taken to respond at existentialism sparknotes length. Fern. Although my hubs on Essay I Think writing instruction don't always have a lot of toomer comments, they have gotten more views than I expected. I know that many writing instructors don't have a lot of previous experience or instruction in Planning I Think teaching writing before they are put in fern toomer a class.

Sometimes the existentialism is a, books they use aren't particularly helpful at explaining the process. I try to jean toomer, take the steps of writing these essays and break them down so they are easier. Thanks again! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and Destructive Emotions in Poems, Mixed Emotions, Porphyria's Lover, and This Be the Verse respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Fern Jean Toomer. HubPages ® is Essay Planning I Think So! Veterinarian a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and fern jean Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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