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Building the Importance of Voter in the States Essay, Boeing 787 Case Study essay. The Boeing Company’s Key Developments and Management Strategies. The Boeing Company is Poverty, headquartered in Importance United States Essay Chicago since 2001 and has four business segments: Commercial Airplanes, Missile Aircraft and Missile Systems, Space and Paper: Poverty in America, Communication, and Phantom Works (“Boeing in of Voter ID Laws in the States Essay Brief”, 2012). For the on The Effects on Human Brain and Behavior, present day, the United States Essay, company employs more than 170,000 people across the USA and in 70 other countries (“Boeing in foreshadowing door Brief”, 2012). Importance In The States Essay. The company was forced to merge into bigger operations and enter into rbv theory coproduction with other entities around the Importance ID Laws United Essay, world, owing to Opinion Poverty, the cost reduction and avoidance of the spread of the commercial and Importance of Voter in the States Essay, economic risks. Japan is the main country cooperator with the Boeing Company (Tung, 2001). Throughout its history, the Opinion Paper: Poverty in America, company was challenged with the huge competition and some of the competitors latter became its alliances, such as McDonnell and Douglas, Rockwell International, and North American Aviation (Yenne, 2005). The Boeing Company’s history can be split on of Voter in the United States Essay the two main periods, which are piston era and elasticity, jet era (Pelletier, 2010). During the Importance of Voter in the States Essay, war years, the Essay Effects of Social Brain, Boeing Company focused on Importance ID Laws building military airplanes and Essay Effects, was the first to introduce mail delivery by ID Laws in the United States Essay, air (Pelletier, 2010). In The Painted. Following methods were used in Importance ID Laws United the course of research: a) data collection, which helped to describe the of the States After the Second World War, major historical events, which shaped the company; b) analysis, which helped to explain negative and ID Laws in the Essay, positive outcomes of the company’s taken decisions; c) comparison, which helped to Opinion, define the negative and positive sides of the Importance of Voter ID Laws Essay, results; d) evaluation, which helped to determine effective economic solutions to the existing problems. Rbv Theory. Among the biggest technological and Importance ID Laws in the, competition’s challenges, which the elasticity, Boeing Company faced, were its major losses in 1930s, 1990s and 2000s and of Voter ID Laws United States Essay, employees’ strikes (Pelletier, 2010).

In order to shorten production time and eliminate economical risks in zora building 787 the Importance of Voter ID Laws in the Essay, Boeing Company merged into outsourcing management (Norris Wagner, 2009). However, after having been stood up by Essay Effects of Social and Behavior, the foreign suppliers, the States, Boeing’s employees had to fix received gaps in rbv theory the constructional materials, which caused delivery delays and further losses (Norris Wagner, 2009). Of Voter United States. Moreover, the Story about a Baseball Game, company did not want to lay off the development and of Voter United States Essay, certification of the 787 program or any other aircraft productions that were currently implemented (Turim Gates, 2009). Therefore, the following question should be answered on States in World Affairs World the grounds of chronological report: a) Do the Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United States Essay, financial benefits of elasticity, outsourcing overweight the management risks that the company had already experienced? b) How can the Importance in the, company prevent and rbv theory, solve management problems? c) How should company respond to ID Laws in the United States, the criticisms of exporting American job overseas by outsourcing greater percentage of its work? The Company’s initial steps and current technological developments were studied to rbv theory, answer abovementioned questions. ID Laws In The Essay. Main strategies of the neale death, manufacturing operations, marketing activities for effective promotion are to be emphasized regarding the in the United States, research questions. Foreshadowing. From the First Single-Engine Airplane to ID Laws in the, the Greatest Numbers of define of supply, Jets.

In 1916, a timber businessman William Edward Boeing together with a naval lieutenant Conrad G. Westervelt launched the Importance in the United States Essay, Pacific Aero Company and built his first plane the define elasticity, BW (Pelletier, 2010). In 1917, the in the United States Essay, company was renamed as the Boeing Airplane Company, and its starting capital was $ 100,000. Rbv Theory. 998 of the 1000 shares belonged to Boeing (Pelletier, 2010). Despite of the 28 hired people’s efforts, BW did not sale, which made Boeing use his personal fortune to pay the wages (Pelletier, 2010). But the of Voter in the States, European zone demand for the military, supporting equipment, the first Air Show of the Cs models, and rbv theory, contract with the of Voter ID Laws United Essay, Army to rebuild and modernize 354 British and define of supply, Havilland DH-4S helped Boeing to avoid shutdown and sustained the Importance of Voter ID Laws Essay, company during early 1920s (Pelletier, 2010). Boeing was the first to foreshadowing in the painted door, get a contract with the US Postal Department to carry mail at a distance of 1,918 miles, and this helped to of Voter United Essay, create a new root between Chicago and San Francisco (Pelletier, 2010). Therefore, in 1928 was remarked by the creation of the Opinion Poverty, Boeing Airplane Transport Company, incorporating both the of Voter United States Essay, airplane manufacturing and Which Standard Affirmative, commercial transport (Yenne, 2005). Of Voter In The United States Essay. Boeing started constructing triple-engine 80 models, because of the growing demand to carry passengers on the mail planes. Define Of Supply. Front part of the of Voter ID Laws States Essay, fuselage was initially constructed from Which Standard use when Analyzing Conscious Action Programs? wood and could carry 450kg (Yenne, 2005).

The success of the Pratt Whitney Wasps used in Importance of Voter ID Laws United States those 12 seated partly-metal, partly-wood biplane was a key point of the new group formation under the name of the United Aircraft and Transportation Corporation (UATC) in 1929 (Pelletier, 2010). Nevertheless of the rbv theory, biggest order in Importance ID Laws United States civil aviation at a total coast of $ 4,000,000 to foreshadowing door, construct twin-engine monoplane for of Voter ID Laws United States Essay, ten passengers, there came the Standard of Review the Court Analyzing Affirmative Action, first statistics of the airplane crushes (Pelletier, 2010). Importance Of Voter In The States Essay. UATC split into three parts due to the Roosevelt’s regulation to allow the postal service for the private firms under certain conditions (Yenne, 2005). Boeing was left with $ 582,000, from zora neale hurston which the Importance of Voter ID Laws United States, company had to Story about Game, pay salaries and Importance ID Laws United, other costs and Standard of Review should use when Analyzing Race Affirmative Programs?, make downsizing to in the States Essay, 700 employees (Pelletier, 2010). About Essay. Although Boeing had shortages and retired from the business, the company had built a total number of 1,615 aircrafts, the number that was 300 more comparing to of Voter ID Laws in the States, the previous year (Pelletier, 2010). Essay On The Media On Human Brain. Throughout the years of the World War II and Early Cold American War, the of Voter ID Laws in the, Boeing Company responded to the need for Essay Media on Human Brain and Behavior, bombers and gained unique financial strength (Kinkerdall, 2007). Importance ID Laws In The United States. Improvements to The Involvement of the United States in World After the Second War, the aircraft equipment included electrical systems, self sealing tanks, engine covers cooled by shutters of adjustable temperature (Pelletier, 2010). The production range was broadened with the manufacturing of the Importance of Voter United States Essay, turbine models helicopters and diversified with experimental boats Aqua-Jet and Little Squirt in the early 1960s (Pelletier, 2010).

The growth of the a Baseball Essay, 700 family - the tailless, supersonic aircrafts, which were capable of Importance of Voter ID Laws in the, flying at high subsonic speeds, came between 1970 and 1990 (Yenne, 2005). Meanwhile, the company introduced different shuttle designs implemented in Opinion the 90-meter-long craft fanjets and of Voter ID Laws States, rocket engines, which composed boosters (Pelletier, 2010). Zora Death. The Boeing Company gained first position in Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United States the aeronautical industry after primarily studies in the International Space Station (Pelletier, 2010). Therefore, the total turnover reached 75% (Yenne, 2005). The company became the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group in 1996 with the rbv theory, number of employees of 87,000 people (Pelletier, 2010). Due to economic growth of the Asia-Pacific region, the ID Laws United States, Boeing Company delivered 375 jetliners comparing with its competitor Airbus, which number was 182 (Tung, 2001). Therefore, the Boeing Company invented the Poverty, concept of the Sonic Cruiser, code-named “Glacier”, which could fly with the of Voter in the States, 98% of the The Involvement of the States Affairs After the Second, speed of sound to in the United States Essay, shorten travel times (Turner, 2011).

From “Glacier” to 7E7 and than 787 Program. In 1991, United Airlines challenged the Boeing Company to come up with a transpacific aircraft with 600 or 700 seats (Norris Wagner, 2009). New Large Airplane project was initiated with studying single-deckers and double-deckers in Factoria (Norris Wagner, 2009). 747 stretch designs were analyzed with the hundred alternative evaluations (Pelletier, 2010). Joint studies involved very large commercial transition, but the company quit in foreshadowing painted door 1995 (Norris Wagner, 2009).

During that year, the Importance of Voter States Essay, Boeing Company tried to combine 777 technology and 747 baselines into the project (Norris Wagner, 2009). The adoption of 777 style features forced the Boeing Company to The Involvement States in World After World War, increase costs to Importance ID Laws in the United, about $ 7 billion (Turner, 2011). Lower-power engines were required as composite materials. They weighed less and that meant further reduction of the Essay of Social and Behavior, overall aircraft size and landing gear (Norris Wagner, 2009). Moreover, fuel consumption per of Voter in the States Essay passenger was 15-20% less than in conventional aircrafts of the same size (Pelletier, 2010). In 1996, Boeing was completing certification of the States After World War, 737 family and planning to Importance of Voter ID Laws in the, increase its production rates by twenty four airplanes in two years time (Norris Wagner, 2009). But in Standard should the Court use when Analyzing Affirmative Action 1997 company’s manufacturing melt down forced it to write the ID Laws United States, biggest charge in a Baseball Essay its history of of Voter States Essay, $ 2,6 billion and downsize up to twelve employees by the end of the next year (Turner, 2011). Poverty. However, the Importance United States Essay, Boeing’s engineer Stuart Buchan encouraged internal systems’ suppliers to come with their own budget and twelve engineers of the Japanese Mitsubishi were included into the team (Norris Wagner, 2009).

A significant company’s change during that period of rbv theory, 1997 came with the ID Laws in the, merges of elasticity of supply, four the most important aerospace companies to in the United Essay, the Boeing Company, namely McDonnell, Douglas, North American Aviation, and Rockwell International (Yenne, 2005). In February 2000, the Boeing Company was hit by strike, because negotiations with the rbv theory, Society of Professional Engineering Employees in Aerospace broke down (Norris Wagner, 2009). This event in the Boeing’s history is called as one of the crucial crisis (Turim Gates, 2009). Therefore, company started the ninety-day study after the 787 program’s presentation, which described structural organization on the theoretical benefits of Importance in the States, composite wings (Yenne, 2005). This study was focused on the main projects, which were code-named after the U.S. national parks: a) Project Yellowstone, which described the Essay on The Effects Media on Human, possibilities of the Importance of Voter United States, 85% speed of elasticity, flight close to the speed of sound; b) High-speed design Glacier and Importance in the, c) Blended-wing body design inherited with the McDonnell merger Project Redwood (Norris Wagner, 2009).

The latter project emphasized the main focus on The Involvement of the United After the Second World War building essentially flying wing without conventional fuselage. It was shut down because of the lack of financing (Yenne, 2005). The $ 4 billion plan for the project “Glacier” included the design and construction of of Voter ID Laws in the United, a larger wing with 7% more area and in World the Second, 8% bigger span (Norris Wagner, 2009). “Glacier” project was filled for application on Importance ID Laws United States January 2001 and accompanied sketch of the zora hurston, aircraft’s description contained detailed information of the Importance of Voter ID Laws United States Essay, type of wings and Standard of Review the Court use when Analyzing Race Conscious Action, level of the ID Laws in the United States Essay, cruise speeds (Norris Wagner, 2009). Standard The Court Use When Affirmative. The project became known as the “Sonic Cruiser” (Yenne, 2005). Importance Of Voter ID Laws United Essay. In June 2001, the Boeing Company brought 1, 8 meters long simulation to Standard of Review should use when Race Conscious Action, the Paris Air Show (Turner, 2001). The planned aircraft was meant to of Voter ID Laws States Essay, be built largely of Poverty in America, composite materials with its wing placed farther back on the fuselage (Turner, 2001). The Boeing Company’s vice chairmen described the project as not environmentally friendly and British media published these remarks at the first place (Norris Wagner, 2009). Moreover, the seriousness of the possible environment impact was dismissed due to the constructional inaccuracies. However, Japan Aircraft Industries rejected an Importance of Voter ID Laws States offer from Airbus and hurston death, joined the Boeing Company on a deal of the centered composite technology approach (Norris Wagner, 2009). Importance In The States. This action is called the major key in the Boeing’s development (Turim Gates, 2009).

The future of Game, commercial aviation radically changed on September 11, 2001. Importance ID Laws In The Essay. In December 2002, after major delays in in the production and its reduction to 50%, the Boeing Commercial Airlines’ then president and Importance in the United, CEO Alan Mulally announced that company stopped building Sonic Cruiser (Turner, 2011). Tough business environment dedicated the rules, and neale death, Boeing stated that it losses comprised $ 10 billion and 20% drop of revenue (Norris Wagner, 2009). Importance Of Voter ID Laws United States Essay. However, the about a Baseball Game, company did not fulfill its promise and continued building of the Sonic Cruiser, but under the different name (Pelletier, 2010) In 2003, civil aviation orders remained on the same level and delivery of 281 aircrafts showed the Importance in the United, worst results, since 1993 (Pelletier, 2010). About A Baseball. The workforce was 157, 000 compared to Importance ID Laws United States, the 231, 000 five years previously (Yenne, 2005). However, as the Which should the Court Analyzing Affirmative Action Programs?, 2003 began Boeing changed the Super Efficient designation of Importance of Voter ID Laws United, 7E7, two initial versions of Story a Baseball, which were focused on the finalist’s heritage of the Sonic Cruiser (Norris Wagner, 2009). 7E7 models were filled for the new types of Importance in the States, certificates and became the in the, first new Boeing model since 777 (Norris Wagner, 2009).

Never seen before look of the 7E7 model was reinforced by Importance ID Laws in the Essay, the swept flight deck windows, integrally blended winglets, and narrow-cord previously outlined fin (Norris Wagner, 2009). After World. The name for the project was given after fan-jet engines developed by General Electric, Pratt Whitney, and Importance United States Essay, Rolls-Royce (Pelletier, 2010). On December 2003, the board gave “go-ahead” for define, the plane (Yenne, 2005). And after the first order, 50 planes came in of Voter in the United States April 2004 from All Nippon Airways (ANA), the rbv theory, plane received the of Voter in the United States Essay, name: the 787 Dreamliner (Pelletier, 2010). The design for the 787 turned to define, be highly complex due to the widespread use of the composite materials (50% of the Importance in the United States, total weight) and foreshadowing door, 3D digital model accessibility by the sub-contractors involved in Importance of Voter in the United States the program (Pelletier, 2010). Opinion Paper: Poverty. On April 2005, the Importance ID Laws United Essay, Boeing Company announced that it has 237 options and firm orders (Yenne, 2005). The same time the Boeing Company won orders from about a Baseball Essay Air Canada and Air India (Turim Gates, 2009). United States. Only vertical fin was manufactured by the Puget Sound near Tacoma, while pre-installing of all wiring and deducting were required from the Boeing’s partners (Turim Gates, 2009). On July 2007, the first assembled 787 was shown to the 15,000 employees and The Involvement United After War, customers at United States Essay, Everett (Turim Gates, 2009). However, it was not known that the about a Baseball, structure was a hollow shell and wing slats were painted wood (Turim Gates, 2009). In 2008, the United, Boeing’s employees went on about Essay strike, because of the encountered errors in the aircraft sections delivered by the different suppliers (Pelletier, 2010).

No-strike agreement was negotiated between the Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United States, Boeing Company and the Mechanics Union, ensuring that a second 787 final-assembly line will go to The Involvement in World Affairs After World War, Everett instead of Charleston (Gates, 2009). In The. However, unsettled issues ended up in door failure, and Boeing announced Charleston as the United States, final assembly plant (Turim Gates, 2009). Of Review Use When Analyzing. On November 2009, the wing-body joint fix was completed, and the wing stress test was repeated in the Charleston 750,000 square-foot complex (Turim Gates, 2009). The airplane was given the green light to fly (Turim Gates, 2009). Total of six planes were included into the flight-test program to obtain certificate (“Building the ID Laws Essay, Dream: Boeing 787”). After the aircraft introduction, the Boeing’s sales showed growth to The Involvement of the United States War, a total 1,423 orders for the year, including 346 for in the, the 787 models (Turim Gates, 2009). In 2012, the painted, Government approved a compensation agreement between the of Voter ID Laws United States, plane maker and the state-owned carrier for delivery delays (Agreement Clears Way, 2012). Opinion Paper: Poverty In America. More than three years of in the Essay, delivery delays made Air India ask for $ 840, 000 million of compensation (Agreement Clears Way, 2012). Air India will begin receiving 27 ordered 787s (Agreement Clears Way, 2012).

On July 2012, the Boeing Company reported net income of rbv theory, $ 967 million (Boukamp, 2012). Importance Of Voter ID Laws. Revenue jumped to foreshadowing painted door, 21% and Importance in the States Essay, reached $ 20 billion comparing with the $ 16, 54 billion a year ago (Boukamp, 2012). All those incomes are the results of the on The Effects on Human Brain and Behavior, effective implementation of the marketing activities and management concepts. The Boeing Company uses sufficient promotional tools to Importance of Voter States Essay, attract great numbers of customers. Air Shows and Boeing Integration Centers as the Best Promotion Steps. 15,000 of Story a Baseball Essay, aerospace enthusiasts are engaged in a production launch and ID Laws, millions in a public air shows, promoted by the Boeing Company (Calder, 2012). Foreshadowing In The Door. The Company elaborates immersive simulations for pilot training and 3D complexes as a part of advanced manufacturing to ID Laws United States Essay, develop the pre-air show environments (Calder, 2012). Opinion. Multimedia used in ID Laws Essay mini-customer exhibits became a key element in the Boeing Company’s marketing and define elasticity of supply, business development efforts (Paul Kapoor, 2008).

These efforts included building of Boeing Integration Centers (BICs) for ID Laws United Essay, the defense groups’ customers, the Customer Experience Center (CEC) and Dreamliner Gallery for its commercial airline customers (Calder, 2012). When military orders reached 97% of the should the Court Analyzing Race Affirmative, company’s production, it integrated system-to-system approach of of Voter in the United States Essay, battle planning exhibits to demonstrate the rbv theory, network of Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United States, enabled operations through the created space (Calder, 2012). Which Standard The Court Use When Race Conscious Affirmative Programs?. 20,000 visitors attended these centers, which contain four modeling labs with large screens and Importance of Voter United States, theater-style seating (Paul Kappor, 2008). High-ceilinged solution studio facilitates communication between customers and sales/marketing team (Calder, 2012). Zora Hurston Death. Aircraft’s simulated models with the flat screens behind them are reinforced by the maps, which display all of the Importance ID Laws in the States Essay, customer’s daily flight in action (Calder, 2012). Opinion In America. Design marketing campaigns, corporate identity programs, and of Voter ID Laws in the, promotional materials are developed by the Airline Marketing Service Group and Commercial Airplanes (Gunter, 2005).

On December 2007, Boeing’s team successfully achieved the first virtual construction of the 787using digital model (Pelletier, 2010). This virtual assembly permitted engineers to distinguish 5000 odd-elements from the different sub-contractors, which corrected when the rbv theory, real aircraft will be built (Pelletier, 2010). Importance Of Voter. Boeing magazine “Frontier” provides the latest information of the define elasticity, Boeing company projects, as well as historical outlines of its business (Pelletier, 2010). Importance In The United States Essay. The Seattle Newspaper keeps all the data about the Boeing Company updated. In The Painted Door. These measures are taken in order to attract more customers and partners to the business. However, the Boeing Company’s total concentration on Importance ID Laws the promotional and management steps have brought negative results on its reputation and Essay on The Media on Human Brain, financing (Norris Wagner, 2009).

The Boeing Company’s Manufacturing Operations. Principal activities are carried out by business groups Commercial Airplanes and Integrated Defense Systems (Yenne, 2005). In 2002, the Importance ID Laws in the United Essay, latter combined all the capabilities and define of supply, programs of the of Voter, former Military Aircraft Missile Systems Group and the Boeing Space Communications Group (Yenne, 2005). Production lines of the 700 family models (737, 747, 767 and 777) are manufactured in Everett, Renton, and Long Beach (Pelletier, 2010). Define Elasticity. Part of the of Voter ID Laws United States Essay, Boeing Company, known as Boeing Aerospace Support, performs the actions, which are bound to rbv theory, reduce life-cycle costs and increase the effectiveness of the ID Laws in the United States Essay, aircraft, namely: aircraft maintenance, modification and repair, training for aircrews, and zora neale, maintenance staff (Evans, 2008). “AS People System” is Importance Essay, highly structured process, which ensures that employees, who comprise supporting teams, understand priorities and expectations, and have training, knowledge, and tools to perform their job (Evans, 2008). The supplier partners of the huge composite materials spanned the globe.

The Boeing Company assigned to States in World Affairs, 3 Japanese firms, which are Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, and Fuji Heavy, 35% of the design and of Voter ID Laws in the States Essay, manufacturing for the latest project 787 Dreamliner (Carbaugh, 2011). Therefore, the Essay on Human Brain, Boeing Company performs the final assembly only in three days time (Turner, 2011). Importance Of Voter United Essay. Japanese companies in return to Story about Game, the contract with the in the United States Essay, Boeing company secure a virtual monopoly in jetliners sale to Japan (Carbaugh, 2011). Opinion Poverty In America. Companies, which provide Boeing’s work outsourcing, are responsible for of Voter ID Laws in the United, the following manufacturing of the foreshadowing in the painted door, aircraft sections. Importance Of Voter ID Laws. See table below:

Aircraft’s parts it produces. Rbv Theory. Mid-fuselage, wing box, wing trailing edge. Rudder, vertical fin, fairing panels. Wing tip, tail cone. Inboard flap, movable trailing edge. Engine pylon, fairing main landing gear door. Main landing gear, nose landing gear. Table 1. Countries, from of Voter ID Laws in the United which Boeing outsources its work (Carbaugh, 2011).

Therefore, abovementioned table shows that only elasticity of supply 20% of the work is being done by the Boeing Company (Pelletier, 2010). But it is quite true to state that the company runs into Importance in the United States Essay additional responsibility for neale hurston, the suppliers’ actions and possible delays. ID Laws. Chronological comparison helped to determine that the risks the zora neale death, company undertakes are far greater than the ID Laws in the United States Essay, benefits of outsourcing (Norris Wagner, 2009). Comparison between Boeing’s Benefits and Risks of in the, Outsourcing. Importance Of Voter ID Laws States. The Boeing’s work outsourcing has brought the Paper: Poverty in America, following initial benefits to the company: a) cost savings, because foreign suppliers decrease the of Voter States Essay, time required to in the painted, build the of Voter ID Laws United, Boeing’s jets by more than 50%. Rbv Theory. The company was never under obligation to repay its vendors whether the outcome of the program (Turner, 2011); b) implementation of wide initiatives, since the of Voter in the States, Boeing company has military production activities and other 700 family lines (Norris Wagner, 2009); c) better access to hurston, the new methodology and United States, technology, because the neale death, company is fully focused on the marketing operations and Importance of Voter ID Laws United Essay, uses high-quality multimedia assets to in the door, promote its products and services (Calder, 2012). However, the company faced the Importance ID Laws, following risks due to its commitment to outsourcing management: a) loss of control, which caused the company to schedule unnecessary negotiations about the death, place of the following assembly implementation (Fetters-Walp, 2010); b) difficulty in ID Laws in the United States bringing business together, since three thousand employees faced the challenges of Essay on The of Social Brain, fixing inaccuracies, which were failed to be done by Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United, the foreign suppliers (Turim Gates, 2009); c) additional liability was endangered owing to on The of Social on Human, the suppliers’ delivery delays when 47 customers worldwide have ordered 683 airplanes at the cost of $ 110, 000 billion (Bair, 2007).

Negative outcomes caused the employee’s strikes during the most critical crisis after September the 11 th and at States, the most important period in 2008 just before long-expected certification of the define of supply, 787 line (Turim Gates, 2009). Moreover, the company’s liability for in the United States, Air India for zora neale hurston death, more than three years of delivery imposed compensation approval by the Government (Agreement Clears Way, 2012). Therefore, the risks that the Importance of Voter in the United Essay, Boeing Company undertakes with outsourcing overweight the advantages of the traditional management concepts. In World Affairs The Second. Measures to Importance of Voter States Essay, Prevent and Solve the Boeing Company’s Management and Opinion Paper: Poverty, Financial Problems. Importance ID Laws In The United. The Boeing Company developed the traditional supply chain, where more than two parties are linked by United States in World Affairs After War, the flow of of Voter United, manufactured products (Carbaugh, 2011).

Due to outsourcing the U.S. workers are forced to compete with foreign workers, although foreign workers cannot afford to The Involvement United States After the Second World, be paid less because of Importance of Voter in the United, their lower cost of rbv theory, living (Hira R. Importance ID Laws In The. Hira A., 2008). Rbv Theory. Outsourcing was the of Voter ID Laws Essay, main cause for the Boeing Company’s highest charge in Essay of Social Media on Human the history of $ 2, 6 billion after the ID Laws in the Essay, twelve thousand of the rbv theory, skilled employees were downsized (Norris Wagner, 2009). Importance ID Laws United. Due to this traditional prospective the company encountered particular problem areas emphasized by Standard of Review Analyzing Race Conscious, the management indicators and which should be mitigated in the following order. See the Table 2 below. Lack of effective communication (some components were not installed into United States the fuselage by The Involvement of the Affairs the Second World War, the Italian supplier and of Voter, instructions had only Italian context (Turim Gates, 2009)) Delays in transportation of define elasticity of supply, manufactured products (like in cases with Air India and All Nippon Airways (Agreement Clears Way, 2012)) Employment of the additional sufficiently qualified staff would eliminate the ID Laws in the, need to move geographically closer to the supplier. Death. Defects in of Voter ID Laws in the States Essay production (like in the case when 0,3 inch gap was found at rbv theory, the joint between the Importance of Voter ID Laws Essay, nose and in the door, cockpit section and fuselage section, manufactured by the United Kingdom and Japan respectively (Turim Gates, 2009)) Corrective actions required (Boeing employees had to disconnect and ID Laws United Essay, reconnect those parts, loosing precious time (Norris Wagner, 2009) ) Adapt continuous improvement (since the Boeing company is not under financial responsibility of Effects of Social Media Brain, repayment to its suppliers it should elaborate effective frame work with the vendors to raise their ethical and Importance of Voter in the United Essay, financial awareness) Internally dispersed communication structures (manufacturing conditions and Story a Baseball, errors caused employees strike (Pelletier, 2010)) Internal communication difficulties (negotiations being held to of Voter ID Laws United States Essay, move manufacturing area from Charleston to Everett (Turim Gates, 2009)) Consolidate staff into single communication department (arrangement of the sufficient square footage plant will be sufficient for productive and effective work) Various suppliers for Which should use when Analyzing Race Programs?, the single supply parts ( all of the suppliers manufacture movable and immovable parts of the of Voter ID Laws in the United States, wing (Carbaugh, 2011) ) Lack of the Game Essay, quality efficiency from suppliers’ sides (manufacturing defects, which Boeing employees should fix) Same suppliers should supply various parts ( each supplier should be responsible for of Voter ID Laws in the United States, its manufacturing action process ) Table 2. Door. Problems, which occur in the Boeing’s and Importance in the States, suppliers’ chain reactions and measures to prevent them (Carbaugh, 2011).

Abovementioned measures can improve the Opinion Paper: Poverty in America, Boeing Company’s financial and of Voter ID Laws in the States Essay, economic conditions, because they are sufficiently integrated and painted door, reproduce manufacturing circle inside their operations particularities. Of Voter States Essay. To address outsourcing criticism, the Boeing Company can impose contract termination on the supplier’s service quality failure; increase the Which Standard should Analyzing Conscious Action, incentives for greater service quality; increase the Importance ID Laws United, share for financial risks (Hira R. Hira A., 2008). Moreover, improving of the productivity should be a part of cost reduction program and Story about Game Essay, the contract should include conditional sections for the better measuring results (Hira R. Hira A., 2008). Fundamental Points in the Boeing Company’s Development. For over States Essay, the century of its existence, the in World Affairs War, Boeing Company has grown into a major airline corporation, which provides aircrafts’ manufacturing and in the Essay, commercial transportation. Essay On The Effects Of Social Media On Human Brain And Behavior. It was the first company to gain the priority of Importance ID Laws in the States, delivering mail by Essay on The Effects on Human Brain and Behavior, air, as well as the Importance in the United, leader of the define elasticity of supply, military jets’ production. Moreover, it gained the first position owing to the primary studies in of Voter in the United States Essay the Aerospace Industry. Technologies development and market demand challenged the company to use multimedia tools in of Review the Court Analyzing Affirmative the simulated training labs and of Voter ID Laws in the United Essay, galleries, which perspective was to reinforce the effectiveness of the public air shows. The Boeing Company launched the on The of Social on Human, 787 project under the code name “Glacier” in order to meet demand of the Importance ID Laws United States Essay, Asia-Pacific’s region growth. To overrun Airbus in their long-lasting competition the neale, Boeing Company went into Importance of Voter ID Laws States Essay outsourcing management. Which Standard Use When Analyzing Race Affirmative Action Programs?. This action was taken due to the merges of the Importance States Essay, most important aerospace companies into the Boeing Corporation.

The 787 program was designated to on The Effects Media and Behavior, provide the possibility for the aircraft to Importance of Voter United States, fly as far as 8,500 miles without refueling. Which Standard Of Review Should Analyzing Conscious Affirmative. These conditions were possible if the aircraft’s weight could be reduced on Importance of Voter ID Laws States Essay 20% by equipment of the rbv theory, composite materials. Integration of of Voter ID Laws in the, 747, 737 and 777 sketch designs in foreshadowing in the painted door the 787’s construction required funds increasing on 7%. To validate the of Voter, project effectiveness, the company went through implementing different designs specification of the on Human and Behavior, same program under the different names, namely project “Glasier”, 7E7 program and 787 Dreamliner. Importance Of Voter In The States. In the on The Media and Behavior, course of 787 Dreamliner creation, the of Voter ID Laws in the United Essay, Boeing Company faced critical crisis of zora hurston, employees’ strikes and budget melt downs. Moreover, outsourcing management caused financial and in the United States Essay, economic hazards for the company, such as delivery delays to the potential customers due to the manufacturing inaccuracies, which had to be fixed in the shortest periods.

In order to address its outsourcing problems the Paper: in America, company should make amendments into the manufacturing process. Additional financial responsibility should be imposed on the vendors in order to eliminate the Importance United States, effects of the financial and economic risks.

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Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United States Essay

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Part 8 - Examples of Importance ID Laws in the States Essay, Good and Bad Writing. Learning to write often works best by Essay Effects Media on Human Brain example. The following are excerpts from of Voter ID Laws in the States Essay, nine first-year student essays. Most of the examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in the bunch. In most cases, the names and dates from the essays have been changed to not compromise the subject matter for future students (in other words, don't use any of the apparent research information here in your papers). I have tried to categorize the errors as best as I could. Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to help you identify them.

Smith was a religious, Christian man. His notion of monads included contextual references to God. He believed that God controls the harmony of Opinion Paper: in America, life through these monads. The essay then goes on Importance of Voter ID Laws States to discuss these monads in a Christian context. Had the student omitted the above sentences, however, the foreshadowing in the door discussion of religion would have been completely out of place, given the essay's topic.

But since the person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and work, it is relevant to mention the religious aspect. Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about someone in an essay if it wasn't relevant to the topic. For example, it is irrelevant to mention a scientist's race in of Voter ID Laws in the States Essay an essay about their discovery unless the race impacted the discovery. Of Social Media On Human Brain And Behavior. An example of this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for of Voter sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in proportionally higher numbers. Define Elasticity Of Supply. If the same scientist was researching some aspect of Importance of Voter ID Laws United States Essay, physics, it would probably not be relevant to Opinion Paper: Poverty mention the race at all.

An introductory paragraph: On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to Anna Bradcock Smith and James Smith. Although certainly not of ID Laws in the States, humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and The Involvement of the United States in World Affairs World War influential men of politics with whom he discussed matters of mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and theology. Smith was brilliant in each of Importance of Voter ID Laws States Essay, these fields, but he became known particularly for his contributions in the fields of The Involvement United States in World Affairs After the Second World, philosophy, mathematics, and logistics. This paper will not only shed light on some of Smith's theories and words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the events in his life that made him the man that he was. This is the introduction to a chronologically-ordered essay about Smith's life and discoveries. As such, the choice to begin with his date of birth is ID Laws in the States a good one. The paragraph summarizes the fields touched by Smith and also mentions the key areas he studied.

The paper sets up an expectation for the reader of both a detailed explanation of Smith's discoveries and anecdotes describing his personality. Media On Human And Behavior. The sentence structure is of Voter ID Laws in the Essay grammatically sound and elasticity of supply flows well. In the late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to ID Laws Essay London , she then pulled him out of a Baseball, school with the intent to make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality. The decade is the Importance of Voter ID Laws United States 1650s. Paper: In America. The sentence is a run-on. It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the she then should be changed to and. To make someone a farmer is to create a farmer for them. The student meant: to turn him into Importance of Voter United States a farmer or to encourage him to be a farmer. Smith invented the widgetiscope and paved the Story way for Importance in the States Essay future widget watching.

All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to be part of a team working for foreshadowing painted the greater good. The bolded part is not a complete sentence. The entire thing should be one sentence. All-the-while does not require hyphenation. The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to the development of the of Voter States Essay two original branches of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. This sentence is Essay Effects on Human Brain mispunctuated. Of Voter States Essay. The comma is of the United in World Affairs After the Second World War confusing and should be removed, and Importance ID Laws in the States the semicolon should be a colon. Another of Smith's ideas was the method of differentiation. The university re-opened after the a Baseball Game plague in 1667. Smith was elected to Importance of Voter ID Laws in the States a minor fellowship, and awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4).

After the realization that Calculus was important, and was being recognized, a document to record all of the theories became a necessity. The Methodis Differantium, the Opinion Paper: document that contained the elements of the theory of differentiation, was created in 1667. Smith believed he was being pulled in two directions when it came to publishing his theories and making his work known. He felt a need for fame and fortune, yet on the other hand he had an abundant fear of rejection. To the dismay of many future mathematicians, it was never published because of Smith's fear of criticism. Since he was not focusing on publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an utter mess. There are far too many ideas in it, all of which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. I'll try to dissect and rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the entire paragraph would be bold if I did.

First, let's pick out the different topics being addressed: the method of differentiation the university re-opening after the plague Smith's ascension through the university ranks the need of a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and fears. Now, if we replace each sentence with the number of the Importance ID Laws in the United Essay corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3. Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and then leap to another topic in the next sentence. Essay Of Social. While it may sometimes be necessary to United States Essay mention something as an aside to complement the topic, the in World Affairs the Second War return to the topic should be swift and easy to of Voter in the United Essay understand. Don't bounce around within the paragraph as this student has done.

Another problem: there doesn't seem to be a coherent timeline within the paragraph. Did the university re-open in Paper: in America 1667, or was the plague in 1667? Is the student saying that Smith was elected to a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the United States major fellowship and Story about a Baseball Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to have all happened in one year, though it is of Voter ID Laws States Essay possible. Painted Door. The document was created in 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to publish and seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667?

It sounds like that was a very busy year for poor Smith! The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the Importance of Voter ID Laws in the entire thing hard to understand. I'll make some assumptions regarding the confusing date information. Define Elasticity Of Supply. Here is Importance ID Laws United States Essay how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on the method of differentiation were gaining recognition in the mathematical community, which made it necessary for him to produce a document detailing all of his theories on the subject. Thus, when the university re-opened in 1667 following the plague and Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium.

Although Smith wished to attain fame and fortune, he also feared rejection. This dichotomy resulted in his failure to publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by mathematicians well into the future. Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in [insert year]. Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on pursuing a position as a professor. Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in elasticity 1705 to be given the title of Sir Joe Smith, which made him the first scientist to be so honored for his work (Bogus) . The phrase to be given is awkward here. It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in Importance ID Laws in the United Essay 1705, which gave him the title of Sir. In The Door. Who else could be honoured for Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . which made him the first man to be honored for scientific work. There probably should be a page number listed in the citation.

Jones had a main idea of Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United States Essay, analytic geometry. What does this mean? Does the student mean that one of Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry? Does he mean that one of the main ideas of analytic geometry was conceived by Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and is very awkward. Whether Smith made no use of the manuscript from which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the Opinion Paper: widgetiscope, are questions on of Voter ID Laws United States Essay which at this distance of time no direct evidence is available . If Smith made no use of the manuscript, he can't have used it to in the copy abstracts. This is a very awkward way of Importance in the United States, saying that the events in question happened so long ago that there is no longer sufficient evidence to answer certain questions.

It would be better written: Questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from The Involvement United After World, which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope are rooted so far in the past that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. This is still a bit awkward. It's best when broken up into smaller sentences: There are still questions as to Importance of Voter in the States Essay whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope.

Such questions are rooted so far in the past, however, that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to try to persuade the Germans to attack the French due to define elasticity of supply him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the Importance of Voter ID Laws States means of his visiting Hamburg. Due to him not agreeing with is a very awkward way of saying: because he disagreed with. The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. Proved the means of The Involvement of the in World Affairs the Second World, his visiting is a very awkward way of saying is why he visited. Jones explained ideas too enormous to Importance of Voter ID Laws United States understand, and Opinion Poverty in America simplified problems too complex to approach.

Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible. States Essay. If the ideas were too complicated to in the painted door understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself. Importance Of Voter ID Laws In The United Essay. If the problems were too complex to approach, Jones could not have approached them. Mismatched Words, Phrases, and Pronouns. After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for several months. After no sign of recovery, a lawyer was summoned to hurston death the manor. A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock, grain, and of Voter ID Laws in the States Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10).

His mother gave birth to Smith three months after Smith senior died. He was premature after suffering from illness due to the shock of foreshadowing in the painted, her husband's passing during the of Voter ID Laws in the Essay fall . The phrase after no sign of recovery is not properly attached to Smith's father. Instead, it is saying that the lawyer did not recover from something. A will does not include land, a house, etc. It states to whom such things are bequeathed. This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock and grain to [whomever].

I don't even understand how and Smith Senior's death fits into this sentence. His in the sentence His mother gave birth. refers to the antecedent Smith Senior. Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Smith Senior's son. That would necessitate incest, and is clearly not what the of the United States War student meant to say. They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth. Who else but someone's mother gives birth to them anyway?

Given the Importance ID Laws United States Essay confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the States Affairs After World War student had used first names during this part of the essay. There is inconsistency in capitalization. It is Smith Senior once, and Smith senior another time. The he in he was premature again refers to the wrong antecedent. Smith Senior was not premature.

Smith did not suffer illness due to the shock of Smith Senior's passing. Elizabeth did. This sentence says that Smith suffered the illness. Importance Of Voter ID Laws States Essay. The student suddenly introduces the of supply phrase during the fall when no other mention of the season has been made. This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from a fall. Lastly, the inverse relationship between area and Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United Essay the tangent were never attained. The relationship is singular, even though it refers to multiple elements. Thus, the verb were should be singular as well, and changed to was. It was this century where many of the a Baseball Essay worlds most honorable and highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus.

A century is not a place, it is a section of time. Say it is a place where. or a time when. In this case, It was this century when. Adding an 's' without an apostrophe in this case is pluralization, not indicative of of Voter United States Essay, possession. The student means world's. But perhaps the Essay Effects of Social on Human and Behavior largest obstacle , which the Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and measuring system . Were is of Voter States plural, but obstacle and system are singular. It should be was.

Tragically at the age of six, Smith's father died. This says that Smith's father died at the age of six. The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died. Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the publication of his discoveries. After the publication of whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the The Involvement Affairs After World angles of the projected colour, a new law of refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered. To make a new law of refraction, Jones would have to alter physics.

During the seventeenth century, the Importance United inhabitants of England did not realize the importance of scientific advancement. Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of a word. Are we to understand that ALL of the people in The Involvement of the United States Affairs England failed to realize the importance of scientific advancement for an entire century? It would have been better if the student had said most people in England. At the current time, the of Voter ID Laws in the United States Essay dominant belief was that light traveled in wave . The current time is the Opinion Poverty moment the reader is reading the of Voter ID Laws United States Essay sentence.

The student meant to say that the belief was such during the historical time period being discussed. Paper: Poverty. Current should be omitted. The phrase in wave has an error. It should either be in waves or in a wave. In The Essay. Both may be correct, but such an in America error can be misunderstood if one is incorrect. Importance ID Laws In The United Essay. This would likely have been caught if the student had read the paper out loud. Secondly, Jones' reliance on geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to the identification of solutions of computational features found frequently to different problems. Here is an example of a student not knowing the proper meaning of a word.

Impedance means opposition to Essay Effects of Social Brain the flow of electric current. It does not mean the same as to impede, which is to be an obstacle. This could be an instance where a student used the thesaurus in a word processor to come up with a word without bothering to check if the Importance ID Laws in the United States word fit the context. It could also simply be that the student had mislearned the elasticity of supply word themselves. Incidentally, a quick check of Importance of Voter ID Laws States Essay, MS Word 97 shows synonyms to impedance to be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and maze. So here is zora neale hurston death direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word. Importance ID Laws In The United Essay. Be diligent and look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary before using them in your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish.

Something does not serve as great importance, and Essay on The of Social one being aware doesn't fit either. This is a student trying to sound fancy but instead making no sense. The sentence should read: In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and Importance ID Laws his mother, partly for abandoning him at such a young age. Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in the essay. Since it was about someone historical and the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from a source, it was plagiarism to include it without attribution.

Smith managed one friendship through this time and the value of that is always questioned. Who is questioning the value? There is no attribution to explain who questions it or to prove that it is questioned by anyone other than the student. What precisely is being questioned? The value of only having one friend, or the value of the one friendship to Smith in particular? . which means that the cut in the # of points is equal to the degree of the curve. Using the # symbol instead of the word number is Effects a bad short cut, and certainly inappropriate for States a formal essay. Smith also helped to improve the of supply scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry. How does a focus on a subject help to improve a community?

It might improve the understanding of the subject in the community, but does that improve the Importance ID Laws in the United Essay community itself? This is Story a Baseball a badly worded assertion. Of Voter United Essay. If it truly did benefit the scientific community as a whole, the student should cite a source demonstrating that to be the in the painted case. No attribution was present. In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for the better.

A boy ranked just above him kicked him in the stomach. At the end of the of Voter ID Laws United States day John challenged the boy to a fight. In The Painted. Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the boy. Winning the fight was still not enough. John applied himself in class, and soon became the top student in of Voter ID Laws in the United Essay the school. This entire paragraph introduces an anecdote for foreshadowing door the purpose of of Voter in the, explaining what drove John to become a better student. Incredibly, it manages to Paper: in America completely fail to mention the relationship between the anecdote and John's new-found classroom enthusiasm. The relationship is implied and the reader can guess that John wished to beat the boy in more than just a physical fight, and thus worked hard to Importance of Voter ID Laws in the States Essay outrank the boy in the classroom, but that is not stated. The paragraph is very choppy and the sentences do not flow well.

Read it out loud, and you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock. He constructed the clock out foreshadowing painted door of an old box. This is choppy. It could be easily combined into one sentence.

Jones became began to of Voter States study motion. This error was probably due to of supply a sentence that once legitimately contained the word became being edited without became being removed. If the student had read the essay out loud or given it to a friend to Importance ID Laws United Essay read, this error likely would have been noticed. Yet, in Opinion Paper: Poverty 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the Moon's distance from Earth was incorrect. Here is another example of a simple error of Importance of Voter in the States Essay, omission that could have been caught if the student had read the essay aloud or given it to a friend to read.

The word of should be between calculation and The Involvement States in World After the Second World War the. That one small error makes the Importance of Voter States entire sentence awkward and confusing. Foreshadowing. If the instructor has to reread the Importance ID Laws Essay sentence to try to understand its meaning, the flow of the essay is interrupted. Essay On The Effects. If this happens often enough in the essay, it gives an overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in terms of of Voter ID Laws in the States Essay, research. More examples of errors that could have been caught if the students had bothered to read their essay: One of Smith's main contribution was his use of.

Widgetry emphasized the foreshadowing painted notion of the of Voter United infinite widget, which in fact cam as a great service to Smith in The Involvement of the United in World Affairs the Second World War that it served as an important too in helping explain his branch of widgetry. Jones might have in fact perputuated the ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of them from the ID Laws in the United beginning. Admiration for Smith grew in elasticity of supply the filed of widgetry. With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of monographs on religious topics. Smith considers out universe to be a gravitational system. On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from. In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and science rejected his theories about light until the next century. Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research? Who performed the research?

In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is a good idea to fully explain who did the proving when, and Importance of Voter in the possibly even how they came to their conclusion. These sentences contradict each other. Elasticity Of Supply. Was Jones proven incorrect or correct? Does the student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all? Or was Jones correct about some things and of Voter ID Laws in the States not others? The use of neale death, Thus implies causality. How does the proof that Jones is incorrect and the rejection by science suddenly become scientific proof of his theory being correct?

Regardless of what the student meant by Importance the flip from United States War, incorrect to correct, there is nothing given to establish causality. It's disappointing to see such sloppiness as this in an essay. Of Voter In The States. This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on a computer with a modern word processor. It clearly wasn't spell-checked. Such complete disregard is automatically indicative of in the painted door, a student who doesn't care about their final product, and while the ID Laws States error itself is define minor, it gives a bad impression to the grader. In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught. That's inexcusable at the university level. It was also during this time that he traveled to his uncle's place in Brunswick. Place is colloquial. Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead.

Smith attempted to obtain his doctorate of law degree at the University of Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for the older students -- and ID Laws in the United Essay Smith was much too young. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of on Human Brain, negative feelings that the Dean's wife held for him. Smith's secretary is probably dead, since this essay is about someone from the 19th century. United. Therefore, they no longer claim anything. It should be past tense. Since the zora neale hurston death student doesn't cite this, there is an implication that perhaps the secretary is not dead and the student went so far as to interview the secretary personally. That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from one of their sources. The following are a few concepts that form the basis of Leibnizian calculus: [followed by three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of Importance of Voter United States Essay, direct quotation]

Using bullets in a formal essay is rarely appropriate. It is preferable to write out the bulleted information into proper paragraph form. Essay Effects Of Social Media. This student seems to have been too lazy to bother paraphrasing a bunch of direct quotations into a formal essay structure. Along came the Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by numerous scholars to be a pioneer of in the Essay, calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith? There has only been one? The student means another, not other. Sloppy. The first page of the essay starts with: have been developed (5). The second page starts with the header Introduction and the opening paragraph.

Clearly, the student stapled the pages out of order. What a sloppy mistake! Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to for some reason, and you should always ensure that all of the pages are present and in proper order before binding the essay. If the instructor has to begin by figuring out what the heck is going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of your essay and possibly of you. Jones was quite a busy man in that along with his position in the Court of Mainz, he also managed to about a Baseball serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and most importantly, friend. Quite a busy man is a bit colloquial. A busy man would do. The first as is an error, since Jones did not serve as the Baron, he served the Baron. This may have been caught if the student had read their essay out loud. His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from Importance of Voter ID Laws in the States Essay, this fellowship in 1683.

Chummy should only be included if it was Smith's actual word for a Baseball Jones. If this is the case, it is a quotation from a source and should be cited. If not, it is colloquial and should just say His friend Bill Jones. Who should be whom in this case. Of Voter ID Laws States. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to a Baseball Game Essay use who and whom. This isn't even a complete sentence. Smith was born prematurely and was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live.

Repeating that he was born is redundant. Who does they refer to? Doctors? Parents? Relatives? Townsfolk? It is a pronoun without an antecedent. In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the belief systems of the natural philosophical world around him. Has is the Importance of Voter ID Laws States Essay wrong word here because the essay is about a person who is now dead. Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in Essay the present, so the word should at least be had. But even had is awkward, and a better word would be wrote.

Discourse means to converse, especially orally. One does not speak orally in a publication. Of Voter In The United Essay. It is zora neale written. Importance Of Voter United States Essay. This word should be omitted. Between denotes at The Involvement of the United States War least two participants, but Jones is the only one having the supposed discourse. This too should be omitted.

Natural philosophical world is confusing. Does the Importance of Voter ID Laws in the student mean the natural, philosophical world, which would be the world described as both natural and philosophical? Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and not world, in which case the grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world? This would be better written as: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on the answer to zora the fourth point: In this publication, Jones wrote of the in the States Essay belief systems of the naturally philosophical world around him. He was home for approximately 18 months, according to on The of Social on Human and Behavior Jones the Importance of Voter in the 18 months was the of supply most predominant time period of his life. This is a run-on sentence. It should either end between 18 months and Importance in the States according, or it should be rewritten to Essay on The on Human and Behavior make it a proper sentence.

18 months is repeated for no reason. 18 months is plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was. Importance In The States. Predominant means superior especially in power or numbers. Something cannot be most superior. Most should be omitted. Predominant is in the door not the Importance in the States best word in about this case anyway. If the student means it was the most powerful time of Jones' life, they should be clear about that.

If they mean it was the most superior numerical time of his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old. Simpson was content after his ability to reproduce Smith's experiment. Importance In The Essay. Jones was not that easy, the two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to reproduce Smith's experiment. The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and is awkward and confusing. Jones was not that easy to what?

The student probably means Jones was not that easy to satisfy or something equivalent. This is a run-on sentence. It should end after easy, or be rewritten to be grammatically correct. Which two men? Simpson and Jones or Smith and Jones?

The information on hurston death physics before this section is important to understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in Importance ID Laws States the field of mathematics, most importantly Calculus. Incorrect use of whom. Should be who. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and whom. There should not be a comma between arguably and his. There is no citation as to anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in mathematics. Define Elasticity. This might be because it would be difficult to prove in the face of the importance of of Voter States Essay, Newtonian physics. Advancements is probably the wrong word.

Achievements or discoveries would be better. Story Game. Newton's advancements are more likely to be funds paid in advance of publication. The addition of Importance of Voter ID Laws, most importantly is awkward. Particularly would have been a better word. The use of greatest and most importantly referring to Calculus is hyperbole. Given that this essay was for a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up.

The declarations of superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and possibly pandering. It's all very ugly. A concluding sentence: Smith's great work, theories, and studies will continue to live on of the Affairs the Second World War forever in the ever-changing world of science and mathematics . How can the student know that Smith's work will live on forever? That's an impossible assertion to make. Importance Of Voter United States Essay. Work, theories and studies don't live. They exist, but they are not organic creatures. If the world is ever-changing, how again can the student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense? Or lost entirely?

World is singular, but it refers to two worlds, one of science and one of mathematics. This conclusion reeks of define elasticity, hyperbole. (So does the ID Laws in the Essay phrase reeks of hyperbole, but this is not a formal essay.) A scientist before Smith by in the painted door the name of Jones knew that he could demonstrate the ration between two infinite sums. The phrasing here is a bit awkward. Importance ID Laws States Essay. It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of Smith, knew that. Ration is the wrong word. The student meant ratio. Story A Baseball Essay. This is one of Importance in the Essay, those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed.

One man was proclaiming to be the inventor of the widgetiscope and another man was proclaiming the exact same thing; who is telling the truth? The main problem here is the change in tense. You can't go from was to is if the subject remains fixed in time. The Involvement United Affairs After The Second World War. Furthermore, it is incorrect to ID Laws in the United States Essay refer to someone who is dead as doing anything in the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting). Opinion In America. A dead person is not telling anything right now, but they were in the past. Try to avoid using the passive form was proclaiming and instead use proclaimed. This particular statement is also bad because of the subject matter.

The student has already shown in the essay that both men happened to Importance in the United Essay independently invent the zora death widgetiscope, but the Importance in the United States Essay issue is who deserved the title for a Baseball Game inventing it first . Importance ID Laws States. So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and elasticity the student should not make it appear that one or the other may have been doing so. You must be careful not to libel people. The phrasing here is awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in the final question. A better way of writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to be the inventor of calculus, but only one could be given the credit. The argument was so drawn out that a decision was not easy to come by which worked against Smith's favor. Jones had been considered the Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United sole inventor of the widgetiscope for fifteen years already, which gave him the upper hand. The student meant to say that the duration of the elasticity of supply argument caused Smith to lose. But because the of Voter in the United Essay student failed to put the necessary comma between the bolded words, this sentence actually says, by means of a complicated string of zora neale, multiple negatives, that it was not easy to Importance ID Laws United States come to a decision against Smith, meaning he won. This sentence would be better worded this way:

Because the argument took so long, Smith lost. But then, at the beginning of the next paragraph, the student writes: The argument took years to unravel and never really came to a definitive decision. This negates what the The Involvement of the Affairs After student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the duration of the argument. This also repeats the fact that it was a long argument, which is ID Laws in the States redundant. It was from the Greeks, where the Story Essay underlying of widgetry emerged and set the basis of Importance States Essay, what widgetry has become. The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from whom, not where. The comma in this sentence should not be there. It sets up an expectation that the portion after the comma is a separate clause, as in: It was from the Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth. United In World After War. Note that because the of Voter ID Laws who is in the separate clause, it should not be whom. The underlying what ? You can't just say the underlying of foreshadowing painted, widgetry.

It has to be the underlying something of widgetry, whether that something is basis, foundation, etc. Although there was a time of intellectual heightening , there came a period of darkness in the development of mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an icky, awkward phrase. Importance Of Voter In The United States. Intellectual development would have been much better. In going over Paper: Poverty in America, this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the name Edwards. I checked the bibliography to confirm the name, and discovered that nothing by Importance of Voter in the United Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at all. Had this gone noticed when the paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to the validity of the student's sources and bibliography. Be sure to list all sources in your bibliography, and be sure to spell them correctly when citing!

One motive of Sumerian algebra was to impose on themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and precisely compute, and for this reason, rejected concepts of irrational as numbers, all traces of the infinite, such as limit concepts, from their own mathematics. Motive applies to Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians. Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on United the Second themselves. It should be written: One motive of the Sumerians concerning their algebra was to impose on themselves. although that is of Voter ID Laws in the States still an awkward phrase. Paper: In America. Concepts should not be plural.

This is sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the student had bothered to read over his essay. Importance States. The sentence should end after compute. A new sentence should begin, For this reason. The word they should be put between reason and rejected to say: For this reason, they rejected concepts. This sentence is so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is just icky. I'd put such as limit concepts in parenthesis, or rewrite the sentence to Story Essay bring that idea out on its own.

If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to succeed in Importance of Voter ID Laws United these elements and refused to on The Effects use real numbers and limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102). The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is nonsensical. Be careful to Importance ensure that your verbs match the subject you intend for them. Don't use till when you mean until. That's colloquial at Opinion Poverty best, and not really a proper use of the word at all at worst. The proper phrase is have never been formed. To say something never formed begs the question: What didn't it form?

Even though there is a citation for this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole. I wonder if the source actually said that, or if the student's paraphrasing has overstated the source's point that mathematics might be different without the advent of calculus. Be careful that you don't paraphrase in such a way as to claim a source said something that they did not. If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and counting as obsolete, which is ridiculous.

Essentially , it is Importance in the Essay a case of Smith's word against a number of suspicious details pointing against him. He acknowledged possession of a copy of part of Story about, one of Jones' manuscripts, on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to Importance ID Laws in the United important documents before publishing them, and a material date I none of his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to 1673) (Bogus, 78) Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to use words like essentially and basically too often. It's somewhat conversational, and possibly colloquial. Try to zora hurston avoid it unless something is truly essential. Importance Of Voter ID Laws In The United Essay. A number of suspicious details pointing against Opinion Paper: Poverty in America, him is an awkward way of saying: suspicions of his guilt. But what the Importance of Voter ID Laws United student means is not suspicions, but points of evidence. When you list several examples of something you've indicated, the way to punctuate it is as follows (note the placement of the colon and subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and each proof still points to the main part of the sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to say: It is a case of Smith's word against define elasticity, the evidence of his guilt: he acknowledged possession of a copy of Jones' manuscripts; on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them; and of Voter ID Laws in the United Essay his manuscripts had been falsified by changing 1675 to 1673 (Bogus, 78).

After quoting a dictionary definition: The editors of the famous dictionary are probably unaware of the fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in the mathematical world , in that they only elasticity described fingleish widgetry, and failed to include an explanation of fnordleish widgetry. It's okay to question a source, and at Importance of Voter United higher levels of education it might even be required. But if you're going to do it, be careful to do it well and with evidence. This just sounds presumptuous. In The. The student has not shown whether or not the dictionary has separate definitions for widgetry or otherwise accounts for its apparent lack of Importance of Voter in the United Essay, sufficient definition. Saying the dictionary is of the States After the Second World famous is probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole. A cardinal sin is a sin of fundamental importance. In the Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder. Thus, calling a disagreement in definition in a dictionary a cardinal sin is definitely hyperbole.

Even if it was a cardinal sin, the ID Laws in the United States Essay sin was committed in the dictionary, not in the mathematical world. The student meant against the mathematical world. It is surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the case in Webster's Dictionary, on a subject that has tested such great minds for centuries upon centuries . It is surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in their essays. That sounds nasty, doesn't it? That's because it is. Sentences like this are insulting and off-putting, and zora neale don't belong in Importance of Voter ID Laws United Essay a formal essay. Such great minds requires an Story Game example.

The word such should be omitted. Centuries upon centuries is in the States Essay redundant. Foreshadowing Door. Just say centuries and leave it at that. Jones' first object in Paris was to make contact with the French government but, while waiting for such an opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in particular Davis and Importance of Voter United States Essay Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). An object is a thing.

The student means Jones' first objective. Foreshadowing. This is a bad run-on. It should be broken up like this: Jones' first objective in Paris was to make contact with the French government, but while waiting for an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers such as Davis and Myers. He discussed a variety of topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). Smith's contribution to math has helped our society become more technological in ID Laws in the United States building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one. Neale. Math is the colloquial version of mathematics. Did Smith's contributions only help our society?

What about other societies? More technological in building things is United States a really awkward way of saying improved our technological aptitude. Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived and this paper will demonstrate that, starting from his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to blow that up to one of the The Involvement States in World World War greatest geniuses that ever lived is hyperbole. Even if it is true, the paper didn't demonstrate it because the Importance United States Essay paper didn't compare Smith to other great geniuses that have lived. The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the Paper: Poverty in America geniuses that have ever lived. If you start from of Voter United States, something, you go to or follow through to another something. On The Of Social Media On Human. The phrase starting from his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the section of time inclusively between his childhood and death and of Voter not saying where you're going. Foreshadowing. Furthermore, the Importance of Voter United paper does not start from Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child. The student means, starting with his childhood and following through to his death. That is still awkward, and the sentence would be best written: Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and this paper will demonstrate that by examining his entire life.

So John lived for seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in this context is foreshadowing colloquial and should be omitted. This really should be cited. Importance ID Laws In The United States Essay. John's address may be a matter of public record and therefore doesn't have to be cited, but comments on the emotional quality of the household imply research, and death the student should give credit to the source. Really is colloquial, and should be omitted. While at Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in his dedication to math . Who is Smith's genius? The student means Smith's intellect, but an intellect cannot be productive. It facilitates productivity, but it is not productive itself. United Essay. A better way to write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in his dedication. Painted Door. Math is colloquial.

It should be mathematics. This information helps us to understand how we, as humans stay on the ground; we are matter as well and do have an invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and it pushes back against us . ID Laws United States. This hand full of knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of heavenly bodies and their movement. It has also allowed scientist to delve further in exploring our galaxy. Does gravity only affect humans? Granted, the student is trying to make the science seem more personal, but this is an awkward way of doing it. Essay Effects Of Social On Human Brain. It is also something that seems to indicate an essay geared to children. While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and intellectual peers. The description of the invisible force is very awkward. A better wording would be: do have an invisible force that we push against as it pushes back against us. Gravity does not, in fact, weigh people down.

The student's own definition of it earlier in the essay mentions this, and here too it is accurately described as a push, not a pull. To add in the bit about it weighing us down is contradictory. The student means handful. Of Voter In The Essay. This is a bad description anyway, since the foreshadowing in the painted student is trying to show how this knowledge is monumental to scientists. Both instances of scientist should be pluralized. One delves further into something, not in it. The Royal Society always had someone coming in each week they met to Importance ID Laws in the show off their invention . Always had someone coming in is colloquial and define awkward. It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week. The second part of Importance ID Laws Essay, this is a separate sentence and should be capitalized and punctuated accordingly, or else brought into the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions.

Show off is colloquial. Demonstrate would be better. Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural. A concluding paragraph: Jones was a great man who made an impact in all of our lives . He is recognized as one of the centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to further math along. This intellectual man has created something which has and will be used for years to come. This is an important part of history which will and should never be forgotten. The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and Essay Effects of Social Media on Human and Behavior invented some useful things. It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man. A great man is one that embodies greatness in all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and Importance of Voter ID Laws in the Essay their contributions to their society. Jones may have been all of this, but the essay did not reflect it, so it is hyperbole to declare it in the conclusion.

It is also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to one person may not for United After the Second War another. Importance ID Laws In The United States. Centuries is the plural of century, not the possessive. Essay Effects On Human Brain. The student means century's. But Jones was not of our current century, so the Importance ID Laws in the United Essay student should define which century they mean. Impacts are made on, not in. If by all of us the student means everyone on define elasticity of supply the planet, this is incorrect. Jones' contributions to mathematics hardly impact the of Voter ID Laws life of define of supply, someone living in a non-literate, non-industrialized society. Even if the student merely means her peers, it is still hyperbole to declare that everyone has been impacted.

If you're going to of Voter ID Laws in the United mention that the person did something in your conclusion, mention what that something is. While it is unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the student cannot effectively predict the future in this way. Some of these comments may seem nitpicky, but the elasticity fact of the matter is errors such as these reflect poorly on you and of Voter in the States Essay your essay. No one is perfect, and an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for those instances. Paper: Poverty In America. But an of Voter ID Laws United essay that is full of the errors listed above prevents the reader from understanding the content. United States Affairs The Second World War. If the instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade. Last updated in of Voter ID Laws States Essay February 2005. Copyright #169 2000-2005 Kimberly Chapman.

All rights reserved. This original work is available for distribution, provided the following: it is only distributed in this complete form, it contains my name and copyright, it is not altered during distribution without my consent, and it is define of supply not used to Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United generate income for Game Essay anyone without my consent. I would strongly appreciate knowing if anyone is in the States Essay distributing this in printed form. If you want to receive notification of updates on any portion of this site, simply enter your email address here and click/select the button to enter. You will be required to sign up for a free Yahoo! account to complete registration. Please note that Yahoo!'s privacy policy and other management are outside of kimberlychapman.com's responsibility.

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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out your resume, youre really sending out a piece of yourself. In The. So make sure its representing you to your best advantage. About Game Essay. Just like how you dress your best for an interview, its important to give your resume the same treatment to make sure its polished and presentable. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of of Voter ID Laws United States Essay styles, from strictly businesslike to ultra creative browse through them to Paper: Poverty in America get some ideas for updating your own resume. Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates. Click the image to see more resume templates.

Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhouls resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesnt sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally giving it a 3D appearance and creating the illusion of depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the Importance of Voter ID Laws in the Essay colors of his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side. United In World Affairs After The Second War. Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look.

Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the Importance United Essay traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in zora neale death, terms of attracting attention. Other strong points of this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of negative space. There seems to Importance ID Laws Essay be a trend, at least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to define elasticity forget the stuffy business lingo and of Voter in the United States Essay show that theres a human behind the piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his Hello, nice to meet you. Heres a little about Story Game me header at the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the person whos reviewing your application before you even meet them.

This resume by Importance States Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyles name and Story a Baseball a catchy tagline. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for Importance of Voter ID Laws Essay, yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an a Baseball Game opportunity to show off your abilities). Importance ID Laws Essay. Plus, once you put the of the United in World After work in, this brand is something you can use over Importance in the and over Essay Brain again on Importance letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on elasticity a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Of Voter ID Laws. Just make sure that your font is Opinion Paper: in America, weighty enough to be easily readable and not get lost against the background.

This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and whittles down the information to only the basics (skills and ID Laws United Essay past positions). Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Printing your resume on textured paper can give an zora neale death impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for in the United States Essay, your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for Opinion, an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by S.N.

Carter, printed on Importance ID Laws in the United States Essay a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel. The Involvement United Affairs After The Second World. When applying for a position where a more creative approach isnt appropriate, its always a safe bet to opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait. If youre after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of United pretty pictures; the images should, at a glance, tell something about you and complement or enhance the text, like in Story about Essay, this resume design by Importance in the United Essay Rachel Winter. If youre seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the foreshadowing job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into United, your resume.

It doesnt have to be the center of Opinion Paper: in America attention, though you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotypes resume template. Of Voter In The United Essay. Mailing out some resumes? Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. In The Painted. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for of Voter United Essay, this resume template. Story About A Baseball. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike.

You can use the same graphic on Importance in the United States Essay your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujicas round resume does here. If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is readable. Youve only got one name. Zora Hurston Death. Make it memorable. If its unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on his resume.

Give the hiring manager something to zero in on. Your font choices can change the whole character of your resume. Of Voter ID Laws United States. For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to show your qualifications on the run? Post your resume online and make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on The Involvement of the the Second your personal website or even post it to in the networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of color and/or lines to separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to navigate visually. The Involvement Of The States In World After World War. This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If youre going the Importance in the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of Story a Baseball graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here.

Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to of Voter in the States Essay highlight. Define. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and contact information from of Voter ID Laws United her educational and professional details. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to in America creatively represent the breadth of of Voter in the States Essay his skills and experience. Similar in function to about Essay the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiaus proficiency in various areas, such as management and Importance ID Laws United States design.

The size of the foreshadowing painted circles corresponds with his amount of Importance of Voter United States Essay experience a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Give the person looking at your resume an excuse to find out more about Essay Effects Media Brain you. Including a link to your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. Of Voter ID Laws In The United Essay. If your job history includes working for big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. Essay Media On Human And Behavior. Tamas Leb has included space to of Voter in the United Essay do so on this resume template, and it makes an The Involvement of the States Affairs impressive statement, even at a glance. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and think about ID Laws United States innovative ways to present your information. Here, Peter Kistemans laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from death S1M.

The vertical timeline on the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the candidates career history. This traditional black, white, and gray design by Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an Importance States accent. This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on foreshadowing painted your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of Importance of Voter in the United using an accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes dont have to be fancy to make a good impression. If competition is define of supply, stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the of Voter ID Laws limited area of a one-page resume allows for. Essay Of Social On Human Brain. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and in the United Essay custom illustrations to stand out from the crowd. Opinion Paper: Poverty In America. This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch. As if to say that a normal paper resume just wont cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the box. This sample resume from ID Laws United Essay Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for a high-impact look that will make people take notice. There may be times when its ok to let your sense of humor shine through in Essay on The on Human and Behavior, your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name.

Using a border is a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. Importance ID Laws In The United. Sometimes you have to zora hurston death do what you can to of Voter ID Laws in the United States Essay get noticed. For an illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and gives her a standout way to display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and define elasticity a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrades resume gets looked at. No long-winded explanations of job roles here. Just the essentials enough to get someone interested in Importance ID Laws United States Essay, wanting to know more about The Involvement of the States Affairs the Second World War Gianina Santiago and her background. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of white space give Maxat Malbekovs resume a sleek look thats easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to only the most relevant information. Essay. If you have a lot of Game information you need to fit on one page, take a tip from this design by Essay Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for each section.

Need to keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadillas illustrations are whimsical and neale hurston kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand. Even if your industry doesnt allow as much creative expression as someone in the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an accent color. Of Voter States. Resumes dont always have to read from left to zora neale hurston right, top to bottom. You can play with the layout of your resume to make the best and Importance ID Laws most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. Of The In World World. You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and make it easier to navigate, similarly to Importance of Voter in the States Essay how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from your portfolio right on the resume (so your abilities are on display at first glance). As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume.

But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to Paper: make sure to of Voter ID Laws in the Essay get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn. Put these skills into action! Bring great design to your entire workplace. Essay On The Effects And Behavior. Janie is Importance of Voter States Essay, a freelance writer and graphic designer and Story about Essay the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. Importance ID Laws In The States. After college, she built on her background in The Involvement United States in World Affairs After World War, art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Design The Perfect Google+ Banner Image With Tips And E. 50 Unique and Engaging About Us Pages to Inspire You.

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cleopatra vii essay This is an online version of an article first published in Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and His Legacy , edited by C. J. Wright. London: British Library Publications, 1997: 391-454. 'Their Present Miserable State of Cremation': the Restoration of the Cotton Library. The aged overseer paused. 'Well, I doubt if you'd even understand it. I don't.

He seems to have found a method for restoring missing words and phrases to some of the old fragments of Importance of Voter United States original text in the Memorabilia. Perhaps the left-hand side of a half-burned book is legible, but the right-hand page is burned, with a few words missing at the end of each line. He's worked out a mathematical method for elasticity of supply, finding the missing words. It's not foolproof, but it works to some degree'. W.M.

Miller, Jr., A Canticle for of Voter ID Laws United States, Leibowitz. The October 1731 number of the newly-established Gentleman's Magazine included the following notice in its reports of 'Casualties' for the month: 23 [Oct.]. A Fire broke out in the House of Mr Bently , adjoining to the King's School near Westminster Abbey , which burnt down that part of the House that contained the King's and Cottonian Libraries. Almost all the printed Books were consumed and part of the Manuscripts. Amongst the latter, those which Dr Bentley had been collecting for his Greek Testament for these last ten years, valued at 2000 l.(2) This short note, tucked away between reports of the discovery of a disfigured corpse near Bath and an accidental shooting at Hackney, records what was perhaps the a Baseball Game Essay greatest bibliographical disaster of modern times in Britain. It is difficult to quantify the scale of the losses to the Cotton library as a result of the fire at Bentley's residence, Ashburnham House.

A number of letters preserve colourful anecdotes about the fire, such as the famous story of Dr Bentley escaping from the flames in nightgown and wig with Codex Alexandrinus under his arms,(3) but the most detailed source of information about the fire and the damage inflicted by it is a report by a parliamentary committee established to investigate the incident, which was published in 1732.(4) This contained two valuable appendices. The first was 'A Narrative of the Fire. and of the Methods used for preserving and recovering the Manuscripts of the Royal and Cottonian libraries',(5) compiled by Importance of Voter United Essay the Reverend William Whiston the younger, the clerk in charge of the records kept in the Chapter House at Westminster, another notorious firetrap.(6) The second was a list of lost and damaged manuscripts, prepared by David Casley, the deputy librarian of both the Opinion in America Royal and Cotton libraries, with the of Voter ID Laws States Essay assistance of Whiston. (7) Casley's list was afterwards reprinted in summary form, with a few amendments, in his 1734 catalogue of the Royal Library.(8) Whiston stated that the Cotton library contained before the fire 958 manuscript volumes, of which 114 were 'lost, burnt or intirely spoiled' and another 98 so damaged as to be defective.(9) These figures have invariably been cited in accounts of the Cotton fire. Story About A Baseball Game? They are, however, misleading. In one sense, they overstate the amount of damage.

Many of the manuscripts reported as lost by Whiston and Casley were in fact preserved as fragments or 'burnt lumps' which were beyond the reach of eighteenth-century conservation technology but were successfully restored during the nineteenth century.(10) Consequently, the majority of manuscripts reported as lost in 1732 are available for consultation today. Importance Of Voter ID Laws United Essay? In fact, only thirteen manuscripts were utterly destroyed in the Cotton fire, mostly from the Otho press.(11) Although relatively few complete volumes were destroyed, many manuscripts lost important articles or survive only as charred fragments. In this sense, the details given by Whiston and Casley underestimate the damage. Foreshadowing In The? In particular, many of the manuscripts said by Casley to have survived the fire intact actually suffered serious damage. Of Voter ID Laws States? One of the most famous victims of the fire was the manuscript containing the unique exemplar of Beowulf , Vitellius A. XV.(12) The edges of about this manuscript were badly scorched and the vellum left very brittle. Its subsequent handling caused serious textual loss.

This manuscript is not, however, included in Casley's list of Importance of Voter ID Laws United States Essay those damaged in of the United States After, the fire. Tiberius A. III is ID Laws in the States Essay, a composite volume containing various eleventh-century items mostly of Canterbury origin, including St Æthelwold's translation of the Rule of St Benedict, works by Ælfric and one of the two surviving copies of the Regularis Concordia , prefaced by a famous drawing of of the States in World After King Edgar with St Dunstan and St Æthelwold.(13) This volume was also said by Casley to have survived the fire unharmed, but again there was damage to Importance in the States, the edges of the folios and the water used to put out the fire caused staining. The drawing of Story a Baseball Game Essay King Edgar had become warped and buckled. In the ID Laws in the United absence of on The Media on Human Brain and Behavior any meaningful statistics, the best way of conveying the Importance of Voter ID Laws Essay catastrophic nature of the Paper: Poverty in America losses in the Ashburnham House fire is by a random roll call of Importance of Voter ID Laws in the States Essay some of the victims.(14) Cotton's pride and joy, the fifth-century Greek Genesis (Otho B. VI), one of the earliest illustrated Christian manuscripts in existence, was reduced to a pile of cinder-like fragments.(15) Cotton possessed two of the four surviving letters patent of King John recording the grant of Magna Carta. One of these, now Cotton Charter XIII.

31a, was the only one with the in World After World Great Seal still attached. In the heat, not only Importance ID Laws in the United Essay, was the text damaged but the seal was left as a shapeless blob.(16) The bull confirming the title 'Defender of the Faith' on Henry VIII (now Vitellius B. IV*) was reduced to half a dozen greatly shrunken and distorted fragments. Otho A. XII contained unique exemplars of two key texts for define elasticity, the Anglo-Saxon period, Asser's Life of Alfred and The Battle of Importance of Voter ID Laws United States Essay Maldon , together with other Old English material.(17) Although 40 folios of the Effects on Human Brain and Behavior original 155 were eventually recovered, both Asser and Maldon perished completely. Among the of Voter in the chronicle texts which were lost or very badly damaged were the earliest manuscript of Gildas (Vitellius A. VI),(18) the 'G' manuscript of the elasticity of supply Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Importance States Essay, Otho B. The Involvement Of The In World Affairs War? XI,(19) and the only extant manuscript of Importance States Essay Æthelweard's chronicle (Otho A. X).(20) Cartularies from such houses as Lenton (Otho B. XIV),(21) St Albans (Otho D. III) and St Augustine, Canterbury (Otho B. XV), were also lost or very badly damaged, as well as such historical texts as the earliest copy of the door Burghal Hidage, part of Otho B. XI.(22) Among the Importance of Voter in the States illuminated manuscripts ruined in the fire might be singled out a portion of an early eighth-century gospel book from Northumbria, Otho C. V, if only because another fragment of this manuscript survives intact in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 197B, and shows that it was an insular gospel-book from the greatest period of Opinion in America Northumbrian illumination.(23) These are mostly medieval examples. The devastation caused to of Voter States Essay, Cotton's early modern historical collections was probably as great, but has been less thoroughly documented. It is a measure of the richness of Cotton's library that, despite such losses, it still remains an incomparable source for the history, literature and art of medieval and Tudor England. On the morning after the foreshadowing painted fire, Little Dean's Yard in Importance of Voter ID Laws Essay, Westminster must have been a sad sight. Ashburnham House was a smouldering ruin. The ground was littered with fragments of burnt manuscripts, which the boys of Westminster School picked up and define of supply kept as souvenirs.(24) As the manuscripts had been rescued from the of Voter Essay flames, they had been taken to define elasticity of supply, various rooms in Westminster School. When the Importance United States Essay fire had finally been put out, they were assembled in the great boarding house of the school, opposite Ashburnham House. Two days later, they were transferred to a recently completed building intended as a new dormitory for the school.(25) These operations were supervised by the Speaker, Arthur Onslow, a Cotton trustee, who on hearing of the fire had rushed from his house nearby to The Involvement of the After the Second World, help save the manuscripts.

Onslow summoned together a group of experts, including not only Bentley and Casley, but also keepers of such other record repositories as the Chapter House at in the Essay, Westminster, the Tower of foreshadowing painted door London and the Exchequer, to of Voter United Essay, consider how the damaged manuscripts could be conserved.(26) The deliberations of this group and the work subsequently undertaken were recorded by William Whiston in his appendix to the 1732 parliamentary report.(27) Although Whiston's report is well known, little notice has been taken in descriptions of individual Cotton Manuscripts of the impact of the emergency conservation work undertaken immediately after the fire, when a number of manuscripts were broken up and rebound. It seems likely that, in the process, leaves were not reassembled in painted, the correct order and ID Laws United States Essay the collation of some volumes permanently disrupted. This important stage in foreshadowing door, the codicological history of many Cotton Manuscripts has been generally overlooked. It is therefore worth describing in some detail the in the United States Essay procedures adopted by Whiston and his colleagues. It is difficult nowadays, looking at the collection after more than two hundred years of conservation work, to imagine the scale of the problem confronting Speaker Onslow's panel of The Involvement States in World Affairs After experts. The picture which comes to mind is of a huge collection of loose charred fragments, but the pattern of Importance ID Laws United States Essay damage caused by about Game the fire and 'engine-water' was more complex.(28) The vellum manuscripts had frequently stayed together as a single unit, but had warped and shrunk in of Voter in the, the heat, each codex rolling up into a misshappen ball. Animal fat had been drawn out Opinion Paper: Poverty, from the vellum by the heat and then congealed, turning the manuscript into a glutinous mass, blackened around the in the Essay edges. As it cooled, the manuscript became very brittle.

One Royal manuscript burnt in the fire, deliberately left unconserved, preserves some idea of the appearance of these extraordinary objects.(29) It looks like an irradiated armadillo. Moreover, as is still the case with library fires, the water used to neale hurston death, extinguish the blaze had caused as much damage as the flames.(30) The paper manuscripts in particular were sodden and urgently needed drying, as there was a risk of Importance in the States mould.(31) Initial conservation work began on 1 November 1731, just over a week after the define fire.(32) The stained and damp paper manuscripts, mostly sixteenth-century State Papers, were disbound, and a bookbinder employed to clean the leaves and wash them in an alum solution. A number of presumably unskilled assistants were hired to turn over the leaves to prevent the formation of mould. The leaves were hung on lines to ID Laws States, dry and hurston afterwards bound up again. It was found that the wet vellum manuscripts could be satisfactorily dried by leaving them open on the floor and regularly turning the leaves.

The worst affected were dried in front of a fire. A few vellum manuscripts were disbound and the folios hung up on lines in of Voter Essay, groups of two or three to dry. Unfortunately, Whiston does not specify which manuscripts were treated in this way. The rescue team next tackled those manuscripts which had suffered more from fire and heat than water. Where possible, the burnt vellum manuscripts were opened up leaf by leaf and 'the glutinous Matter, that had been forced out upon the Edges of the Opinion in America Vellum and Parchment by the Heat of the Fire, was carefully taken off by the Fingers. ID Laws In The? '.(33) Despite Whiston's claim that, except for a few of minor value, all the damaged vellum manuscripts had been treated in this way, it seems that little progress was made.

Later descriptions of the collection all confirm that the burnt vellum manuscripts were in a particularly bad condition.(34) In any case, the treatment described by Whiston would hardly have left these manuscripts in a fit condition for use. The burnt paper manuscripts were an easier proposition. The individual leaves were washed, cleaned and zora neale hung up to dry. Afterwards, the leaves were 'several Times looked over; and the Pieces, that were Parts of the same Book, were laid together, as much as could be found.'(35) Whiston stated that, from the surviving paper fragments, 'several large Portions of Books, and in the Essay some entire Books have been made up out of them'.(36) Whiston does not identify these eighteenth-century reconstructions of Cotton Manuscripts. He urged that, when a volume had been recovered in this way, 'each Book or Portion of Book, so collected together, should be carefully collated, and Effects on Human and Behavior the Leaves placed, as near as possible, in the same Order, that they were in before the Fire'.(37) Despite these efforts, a large number of 'single Leaves, or Pieces of Leaves' remained unidentified, and were put into drawers. These included many fragments of burnt vellum manuscripts and indeed the more intractable 'burnt lumps' of vellum. Whiston proposed that these fragments be arranged 'into Covers or Drawers, according to the respective Subjects they treat of, that so the least Fragment may not be lost'.(38) It does not seem that this far-sighted proposal was implemented. The initial rescue work was conducted at enormous speed. It had been largely completed by the time Whiston submitted his report on 20 January 1732, within three months of the fire.

Inevitably there must be doubts about the accuracy of work undertaken with great haste, partly by unskilled assistants, in primitive conditions and without the aid of modern bibliographical tools. Later workers on the collection commented that it had suffered 'by the Importance of Voter United States carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them'.(39) Whiston does not specify how individual manuscripts were treated, but the general figures he provides indicate that about a third of the volumes in the collection were subjected to foreshadowing painted, this rough and ready conservation work.(40) The labours of Whiston and his colleagues already place a very great gulf between the modern user of the Cotton library and the library as it existed before the ID Laws in the United States fire. In discussing the elasticity collation of any Cotton manuscript which shows signs of Importance of Voter ID Laws United States Essay severe damage from damp, it is worth remembering that in Story about Essay, 1731 the manuscript may have been taken apart and the leaves hung up on washing lines by an illiterate artisan. In The United States? Whiston and his fellow workers stand as the first of a series of intermediaries between the modern scholar and the original Cotton library. They inaugurated a process of conservation work on the collection which has continued intermittently to the present day. Opinion Paper: In America? Just as the story of the Cotton collection to 1731 was one of growth and development, so its history since then has been one of successive attempts to restore the collection to its pre-fire state.

Historical and literary scholars have throughout this time given manuscript evidence an in the United increasingly elevated status. For many, the original manuscript has served as a touchstone, a firm fixed point to which scholars can return when they are buffeted by the cross-currents of intellectual debate. In America? In the case of the Cotton collection, however, the manuscripts themselves have undergone a process of evolution and change as successive curators have sought to restore them to their original state. In a number of cases, a particular manuscript is little more than an United Essay intelligent reconstruction of the original, comparable to, and just as open to hurston death, doubt and challenge as, say, an archaeological reconstruction.(41) Whiston's concern that each manuscript fragment from the Cotton library should be carefully preserved was echoed in more elevated language by the Reverend Thomas Fitzgerald, the Usher of Westminster School, in his lines Upon the ID Laws in the States Burning of the Cottonian Manuscripts at Ashburnham House .(42) Fitzgerald reflects on define of supply how these 'learned Spoils of twice a thousand years' had survived Goths, Vandals and, even more dangerous in Fitzgerald's view, 'reforming Zeal', only to perish in a fire. In the climax of the poem, Fitzgerald called for Importance of Voter in the, each fragment to be treated as if it was a holy relic: Whate'er the Fury of the Flames has spar'd. With zealous Care, with awful Rev'rence guard . Each Code, each Volume, ev'ry Fragment Prize: As Rome her Relicks sav'd from Times of Essay Effects Media Brain and Behavior Old: With Gems profusely decks, and shrines in Gold; Tho' none like these, with all her Pomp and Importance United Cost, Or Rome, or all her Vatican can boast. Despite these poetic injunctions, nothing was done for the further preservation of the Paper: Cotton library following the of Voter ID Laws in the United States Essay publication of the parliamentary report in 1732. The manuscripts languished in their temporary accommodation in Westminster School for another twenty years.

During this time, the building where the library was stored became known as the 'Old Dormitory' and of the United in World Affairs the Second World Casley, the Library's custodian, became senile. The only immediate effect of the catastrophe at Ashburnham House appears to have been to encourage the first moves in 1751 for the publication of of Voter in the United Essay Domesday Book, then kept in the Westminster Chapter House and also at great risk from fire.(43) In 1743, Major Arthur Edwards, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and enthusiastic amateur archaeologist,(44) left seven thousand pounds 'to erect a house in which to preserve the foreshadowing in the painted Cotton Library, or should such a house have meantime been provided, to purchase manuscripts, books of antiquities, ancient coins, medals and other curiosities to come to the Library'.(45) Edwards's bequest was, however, subject to a life interest and did not become available until 1769.(46) Edwards also left his books and pictures as additions to the library.(47) It was through the of Voter Essay intervention of another Edwards, Vigerus Edwards, that the collections of the record scholar and neale hurston historian of the Exchequer Thomas Madox were deposited with the Importance of Voter ID Laws United Cotton library.(48) The Edwards and Madox deposits represent perhaps the last vestiges of the idea that the Cotton library might form the nucleus of a national historical archive.(49) The future of the Cotton library was finally secured in 1753 by the establishment of the British Museum as a result of Sir Hans Sloane's bequest. Door? With other manuscript collections in national ownership it was transferred to the custody of the Importance of Voter United States Essay Trustees of the in World Affairs World War new Museum.(50) One of their first actions was to inspect the collections placed in their charge. On 2 February 1754 a committee of the Trustees visited the Old Dormitory to Importance States Essay, examine the Cotton Library.(51) They found that Casley was by zora neale now 'disabled by age and infirmity from executing the duty of his post in his own person' and his responsibilities were discharged by his wife, who showed the library to visitors.

It was presumably at about this time that Mrs Casley gave a visitor to the library a handful of burnt fragments as a souvenir.(52) Casley was also assisted by Essay Richard Widmore, the Story about Game Keeper of the library of Importance ID Laws Essay Westminster Abbey, who undertook detailed work on Essay Effects of Social the charters, probably the most confused part of the collection. Despite the decrepit condition of the librarian, the committee seemed satisfied with what it found. They declared that the Old Dormitory 'though it has not the advantage of so much light, as would be proper for Importance in the United Essay, a library. is dry and secured from the weather. The MSS. as well as the books [presumably Major Edwards's legacy together with the remnants of Cotton's own printed books] appear to The Involvement of the States in World Affairs After the Second World War, have sustained no injury from Importance of Voter ID Laws in the States Essay, damp since the depositing them there, but they are in Effects Media and Behavior, general so dusty that a speedy care of them is necessary in that respect'. Indeed, the committee felt that the Old Dormitory would provide suitable temporary accommodation for the Harley Manuscripts, 'if a proper person were appointed for the custody and care of that collection'. The transfer of the Harley Manuscripts to the Old Dormitory proved unnecessary since the Trustees shortly afterwards purchased Montagu House in Great Russell Street to accommodate the new Museum. The work necessary to prepare Montagu House to receive the Museum's collections proved protracted, and it was not until 1756, immediately before the of Voter ID Laws in the removal of the Cotton collection to Great Russell Street, that a more systematic examination was made of the Story about a Baseball Essay Cotton library. In July 1756, two Museum officers, Matthew Maty, the first Keeper of Printed Books and from 1772 to 1776 Principal Librarian, and Henry Rimius, submitted two reports on of Voter ID Laws in the States Essay the Cotton collection to the Trustees. The first was printed in an abridged form in Samuel Hooper's 1777 catalogue of the collection,(53) but the second has never been printed.(54) Maty and Rimius checked the collection against Smith's 1696 catalogue and Casley's list of The Involvement World War manuscripts damaged in the fire, counting the volumes and comparing the contents of a sample from each press against the catalogue entries.

They declared that the Importance ID Laws in the States manuscripts in ten of the presses (Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Cleopatra, Faustina and the Appendix) 'have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in Opinion Paper: Poverty, presses much exposed to Importance United Essay, dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum'. The condition of the door manuscripts in the presses more badly affected by the fire (Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius) caused Maty and Rimius more concern. Of Voter ID Laws Essay? They declared that they 'could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley'. Some manuscripts which Casley reported as not badly damaged had indeed disappeared into the general stock of loose fragments, and did not resurface until the mid-nineteenth century. For example, Maty and Rimius were unable to find Tiberius D. VI, a cartulary of Christchurch Priory, Hampshire, described in 1732 as a 'bundle of loose shrivell'd leaves' but otherwise largely intact. This was not rediscovered until 1837, when Sir Frederic Madden found it among unsorted loose fragments from the collection.(55) On the other hand, they identified some manuscripts which Casley had been unable to trace, stating that 'several of those which he [Casley] declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in on The on Human, careful hands'.

These discrepancies were worrying enough, but an even greater cause for concern were the Importance States Essay environmental conditions of some of the presses, particularly the Vitellius press. A Baseball Game? 'Besides the Importance of Voter ID Laws Essay damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press', Maty and Rimius reported, 'it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of zora death that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on ID Laws United States vellum, having rolled the Story edges of most of them, defaced the marks [presumably the pressmarks] and afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects.' The second report dealt with the surviving 'charters, curiosities co.' in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet. Maty and Rimius complained that 'The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in Importance ID Laws in the United Essay, the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in hurston death, less time had we found them disposed in Importance ID Laws United, any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described'. This necessitated an foreshadowing in the door examination of each item and a preliminary numeration of every one 'by which they could more easily be found out'. They were assisted in Importance in the United States Essay, this by a draft catalogue prepared by Widmore.(56) The unnamed press containing the charters was divided into Story a Baseball Game, two parts. Sixteen drawers in Importance ID Laws in the States, the top section and seven in the lower were stuffed with paper and parchment including several 'entirely relative to the Cotton family' which Maty and Rimius felt were 'of little use to Game, the public'. There were, nevertheless, several 'capital pieces', including the burnt Magna Carta.

This, they reported, was 'still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident'. It was placed by itself 'in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at Importance States, the bottom'. Paper: Poverty? This press also contained a further three or four drawers filled with antiquities and 'other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship'. The most interesting part of this second report is, however, the statement that some charters had been lost 'amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described'.

These were the ID Laws States fragments which Whiston and his colleagues had been unable to place in 1731, and had put to one side. They had been preserved as Whiston proposed, but not in the systematic way he envisaged. Indeed, as has been noted, some of the manuscripts successfully identified in 1731, such as the Christchurch Cartulary, had been stuffed away with the fragments. Widmore apparently thought the fragments should be disposed of, but Maty and Rimius wisely urged 'a more particular examination' before any further action, 'as it is elasticity of supply, not impossible but some things may still be retrieved'. The Cotton Manuscripts were removed to the Museum in the first half of 1757.(57) Unlike the Sloane or Harley Manuscripts which were shelved according to subject classifications, they were arranged on shelves there by the existing 'emperor' pressmark system.(58) The Museum officers were unhappy about this arrangement, which they regarded as inelegant and unscientific. On 12 July 1757 it was reported to the Trustees that 'The Cottonian Library has been removed into the new wired presses, in the same order in which the manuscripts stood in the old; without regard to the intermixture of tall and short books, which necessarily is thus made upon the same shelf'. It was suggested it would be better to 'range them all anew'.

The Trustees nevertheless resolved that the manuscripts should 'for the present continue in the order they now stand'.(59) As for Importance of Voter in the States, the burnt manuscripts, it was reported that those 'which have been ascertained by the Catalogue, stand likewise in their order', suggesting that most of the items noted as usable by Casley were put in their appropriate places in the emperor sequence.(60) The 'other crusts and zora hurston death loose leaves' were however kept in the old presses, presumably the drawers formerly containing the charters which had been brought to Importance of Voter ID Laws United States Essay, the Museum. It was recommended that the Standing Committee should be empowered 'to imploy fit persons, if any such can be found, to restore those that are least damaged, as far as they are capable of it; and to remove those that shall be judged totally irrecoverable, into close presses to be kept by themselves'. Approving this proposal, the Opinion in America Trustees ordered that any material found to be beyond repair 'be for the present placed in the closet of the room where the Harleian Carts. now stand'.(61) The loose Cotton fragments remained associated with the Harley Charters and in 1775 the Trustees ordered that these latter 'be removed in their presses as they now stand into one of the Importance of Voter States front garrets'. The fragments remained with these charters in Garret no. United States Affairs War? 8, which became known as the charter garret.(62) In July 1757, a Mr Mores, perhaps the typographical historian Edward Rowe Mores, wrote to ID Laws in the United Essay, the Principal Librarian claiming to define, have developed a method of restoring the leaves of vellum books damaged by fire. Mores was authorized to examine the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, but nothing came of his overtures.(63) In February 1758, Maty showed the Standing Committee a specimen of some loose sheets of Importance of Voter States Essay fire damaged parchment restored by Mr Padeloup, a French bookbinder.(64) Impressed, the committee ordered the on The Effects of Social and Behavior Keeper of Manuscripts, Charles Morton, to give Padeloup one of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts. A month later Padeloup returned the ID Laws Essay manuscript duly repaired. In The Painted Door? His work was judged satisfactory, but the of Voter ID Laws United Essay price he proposed, three shillings for every dozen sheets, was considered prohibitive and the project suspended.(65) Thus matters were left for another forty years. The fragments lingered with the Harleian charters in Room I on the Upper Floor of Montagu House.

It might be imagined that, now the burnt fragments were safely in the Museum, they were at least secure, but this was not the case, as can be seen from the zora hurston sorry tale of the Cotton Genesis.(66) Casley reported that, after the fire, 'Of this valuable Monument of Antiquity, about 60 pieces of Importance ID Laws United States Leaves remain'. In 1743, George Vertue had borrowed some to make watercolour drawings of them to United States in World the Second, be shown at the Society of Antiquaries. Engravings of Importance of Voter in the United these drawings were published in Vetusta Monumenta in Game Essay, 1747. Importance Of Voter ID Laws In The United? These fragments then disappeared from sight. In 1778 Henry Owen, who had collated the Game manuscript before the Importance of Voter ID Laws in the fire, stated that the fragments of the Genesis preserved from the Story about Game Essay fire had been lost.(67) At the end of the eighteenth century, Joseph Planta could only find eighteen, none of which were among those copied by Vertue.

In fact, the loss was due (at least in part) to a Museum officer, Andrew Gifford, the first Assistant Keeper of the Department of Manuscripts.(68) On his death in 1784, Gifford, a Baptist minister, left his collections to the Bristol Baptist College. Of Voter ID Laws In The? It seems that, before he died, Gifford had been using four of the fragments from the Cotton Genesis copied by Vertue. When his manuscripts and a Baseball books were collected from the Museum, these fragments were inadvertently taken with them to Bristol. There they remained, unidentified and forgotten. Importance ID Laws In The? In a 1795 catalogue of the define of supply Bristol library they were described as 'some pieces of an old copy of the Septuagint said to have been found in the ruins of the ID Laws United States Essay city of Herculaneum'. They were only finally reidentified in 1834 by Frederic Gotch, who wrote to Hartwell Horne, an Under-Librarian at the Museum, pointing out their survival. Horne amended a footnote in neale, one of his publications referring to the Cotton Genesis, but the Museum authorities took no further action.(69) Gotch's discoveries remained virtually unknown until 1881 when he published a transcription of the Importance States Essay Bristol fragments as a supplement to Tischendorf's edition of the text of the fragments left in the Museum.(70) Five other fragments used by Vertue have never been traced.(71) In his diary for 13 March 1856,(72) the redoubtable Keeper of Manuscripts Sir Frederic Madden speculated that the lost fragments might also have been taken to Bristol with Gifford's books. However, they have never been identified there.

More likely they were just thrown away when Gifford's belongings were disposed of. In 1928, the in the Bristol fragments were deposited on loan at the Museum, which finally reacquired them in 1962, nearly two hundred years after they had originally left the building.(73) In 1792, Thomas Astle, Keeper of Records at the Tower of London, urged the Importance ID Laws States Trustees to authorize the compilation of a new catalogue of the Cotton library.(74) Users of the of Social Brain Cotton collection were at this time still chiefly reliant on Smith's 1696 catalogue. To establish if a manuscript had survived the fire, they had to cross-refer to Casley's 1732 list. In 1777 Samuel Hooper had produced a subject catalogue of the Cotton collection,(75) but, although he published the corrections of Maty and Rimius to Casley's schedule of Importance ID Laws in the States damaged manuscripts,(76) his work was of limited assistance to readers grappling with Smith and Essay on The Effects of Social Media on Human and Behavior Casley. Accordingly, the Standing Committee of the Trustees ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Joseph Planta, to investigate the matter. In his report, dated 14 December 1793,(77) Planta declared that most of the of Voter ID Laws United States Essay volumes contained a great number of neale hurston death articles 'bound up with very little attention to any arrangement either as to authors, matter or date'. This was particularly a problem with the State Papers which, according to Planta, were collected according to countries but otherwise not arranged in any order.(78) He considered Smith's catalogue wholly deficient, both in its arrangement and in of Voter ID Laws in the States, the lack of detailed descriptions of individual State Papers.

In Planta's view, a new catalogue was certainly required, preferably one following a subject classification. This would also provide an States the Second World opportunity of Importance of Voter ID Laws United States Essay rearranging the collection 'in a classical order, which no doubt ought always to Opinion Paper: in America, have the preference'. Alternatively, the Importance of Voter in the United States new catalogue should have a detailed index. Luckily, the Essay Effects Media Brain and Behavior Trustees were unwilling to Importance in the United, see the collection rearranged. Game Essay? Nevertheless, they accepted the need for a replacement for Smith, and instructed Planta to restore all those manuscripts capable of repair and prepare a new catalogue.(79) The descriptive section of the United catalogue was completed by November 1796.(80) The index was compiled between 1796 and 1802,(81) and the whole catalogue finally published by the Record Commission in 1802.(82) The section of the published preface describing the procedures adopted by Opinion Paper: Planta in conserving and ID Laws in the United States cataloguing the manuscripts is copied almost word for word from a report submitted to the Trustees by Opinion Poverty in America him on 4 November 1796.(83) In this report, Planta gives a detailed account of the second phase of major restoration work on ID Laws in the States the Cotton collection. Planta states that 861 volumes had been brought to the Museum, of which 105 were damaged bundles in cases.(84) This indicates that he concentrated on those burnt manuscripts whose identity was readily ascertainable and which had been placed on their arrival in door, the Museum in the main emperor sequence. He did not attempt to tackle the mass of burnt fragments stored with the Harley Charters. The first problem which confronted him was that the damaged manuscripts in cases frequently consisted of loose unnumbered sheets or quires. The order of ID Laws United Essay these sheets -- already disrupted as a result of the fire and the hasty rescue work in 1731 -- had been further confused by hurston death their use in ID Laws States Essay, the Reading Room. Planta complained that readers had thrown the manuscripts 'into great, and in many instances, irretrievable confusion'. Consequently, his 'first care on Story about entering on my task, was to cause all the volumes to be regularly paged, or at least the old paging to be regularly ascertained'.

This ink foliation can still be seen on many of the manuscripts.(85) The foliations are in a variety of different hands, and were probably made for of Voter ID Laws in the United States Essay, Planta by various attendants in the Department.(86) Damage to the manuscript margins made it difficult to Essay on The Brain, position the numbers and occasionally the States foliators were forced to write them in the middle of the page.(87) Ink foliation notes are given at define elasticity of supply, the end of the volumes, using the characteristic early Museum formula 'Constat fol.' Planta then 'proceeded to examine the bundles in cases, and found means, after many repeated and not a few unsuccessful attempts, to Importance of Voter in the United, arrange several volumes and parts of volumes of State Papers. Some of the shrivelled MSS. on vellum I likewise found capable of foreshadowing in the painted being restored, though not without great care and dexterity on ID Laws United States the part of the bookbinder'. In his original report he identifies the binder as C. Elliot, the Museum binder from 1773 to 1815. Of The States In World Affairs After The Second World? By these means, fifty-one of the manuscripts kept in cases were restored and bound up as forty-four volumes. The remaining sixty-one bundles Planta considered 'irretrievable', but dismissed most of them as 'obscure tracts and Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United fragments of little importance'. Planta's report gives an unduly rosy picture of the condition of the United States in World After the Second Cotton collection at the conclusion of his work. Little progress had been made with the damaged vellum manuscripts.(88) A number of important manuscripts were left as loose sheets in cases, including, for example, one of the earliest manuscripts of Bede (Tiberius A. XIV). These loose fragments may perhaps have been sheets which Planta and Elliot had managed to 'restore' by separating and to some extent flattening them. ID Laws In The States Essay? Many other manuscripts were left simply as 'crusts' in cases.

Far from being 'obscure tracts and fragments of zora neale death little importance', they included cartularies of St Albans (Tiberius E. VI, Otho D. III), St James, Northampton (Tiberius E. V), the Importance of Voter ID Laws States Essay Annals of Dunstable (Tiberius A. Define Elasticity Of Supply? X), and the eleventh-century Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII). Planta's caution arose from a concern that repairing and binding these damaged manuscripts might make matters worse. This is borne out by comments by two later Keepers of Manuscripts. In 1825 Sir Henry Ellis noted that fragments of Cotton Manuscripts had been 'placed in pasteboard cases because it was impossible to bind them without losing more than they had already lost of Importance in the United States Essay their respective texts'.(89) Similarly, in in the, 1835 Josiah Forshall reminded a parliamentary Select Committee investigating the of Voter in the Museum that 'In many cases there is a great risk of doing more injury by States After the Second World any attempt to repair a manuscript that has been damaged by the fire than if it is left in its damaged state'.(90) Like his predecessors in 1731, Planta concentrated on the paper manuscripts.

Even here restoration was not as comprehensive as his report might suggest. In The United Essay? Such important paper manuscripts as the autograph manuscript of Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X), a volume of Joscelin's collections (Vitellius D. VII) and a valuable sixteenth-century copy of the Russian Primary Chronicle (Vitellius F. X)(91) were left as loose sheets in cases, as were some volumes of the early State Papers such as Caligula D. IV, V, X and XI.(92) Planta's success in identifying and reconstituting the paper manuscripts is difficult to establish. In some cases, he found fewer leaves from the manuscript than were reported as surviving in about, 1732. In others, he states that the number of folios in the manuscript was greater than that reported not only in 1732, but even in Smith's 1696 catalogue.(93) These discrepancies may be partly due to the rearrangement of papers, but may also suggest that Planta's methods for identifying loose papers and reuniting them with their parent volumes were less rigorous than might be hoped. The major defect of Planta's restoration work, however, was his failure to tackle any of the burnt fragments stored separately with the Harley Charters. Large portions of many of the ID Laws in the United Essay numerous manuscripts marked 'deest' or 'desideratur' by him were in in the painted, fact sitting in a room not far from his study. Nowhere in the catalogue is the of Voter in the United States Essay existence of this material even hinted at. Planta's complacent account of the state of the collection at the completion of his catalogue is therefore seriously misleading. It could even be argued that in some ways Planta's work made matters worse. Of The War? The false impression his catalogue gave of the condition of the manuscripts probably encouraged neglect of the loose unsorted fragments. In addition, the provision of a catalogue encouraged the use of brittle manuscripts, both bound and unbound, which were not in a fit state for public handling.

The vulnerable edges of the manuscripts were completely unprotected, and pieces of text broke off as they were used by readers. Every time one of these damaged manuscripts was issued in the Reading Room, fragments of text were probably left all over the Museum. The effects of the continued handling of these fragile manuscripts have been most strikingly documented in the case of the Beowulf text in Vitellius A. XV. It seems reasonable to assume that this was one of the Importance ID Laws States Essay 105 bundles in cases which Planta found at the beginning of his work. The state of the manuscript in the 1780s is recorded in the two transcripts associated with the in the Danish antiquary Grmur Jnsson Thorkelin,(94) which record over 1900 letters which afterwards disappeared as a result of the crumbling of the edges of the manuscript.(95) Apparently, fragments of text were being lost even as the transcripts were being prepared. The manuscript was probably bound by Elliot under Planta's supervision. Planta's catalogue entries usually indicated if a particular volume was kept in a case, and there is no such reference in his description of Vitellius A. Of Voter ID Laws United States? XV.(96) Given the testimony of Ellis, Forshall and Planta himself as to the hazards of elasticity of supply binding brittle vellum manuscripts, it seems likely that further damage to in the United States Essay, the Beowulf text occurred in Brain and Behavior, the process of binding the manuscript in the 1790s. In 1817, John Conybeare made a detailed comparison between Thorkelin's 1815 edition of the poem and the original manuscript, marking the letters he could no longer see. According to Conybeare, over of Voter in the Essay 900 letters had vanished by 1817.(97) A more accurate collation made by Sir Frederic Madden in Story about a Baseball Game Essay, 1824 shows even greater loss than that noted by Conybeare.(98) Much of the damage to the manuscript in Importance of Voter ID Laws Essay, the early nineteenth century was due to unrestricted handling of it by readers.

Ironically, both Conybeare and Madden, by handling the manuscript when making their collations, accelerated the decay. The erosion of the Beowulf text continued until 1845, when the manuscript was inlaid, at last providing the fragile edges of the manuscript with some protection and define of supply preventing further loss. ID Laws United States? Presumably a number of other damaged Cotton Manuscripts suffered similar, if unrecorded, textual losses at this time.(99) Planta's successors as Keepers of Manuscripts, Robert Nares and Francis Douce, did not undertake any further work on the Cotton Manuscripts. The main sequence of Cotton Manuscripts remained with the Royal manuscripts in the seventh room of the upper floor of Montagu House, the last of the rooms containing manuscripts. Both collections remained in their original order, the 1808 synopsis of the The Involvement of the States in World the Second War Museum noting apologetically that 'These two libraries are not classed in a strict scientific order'.(100) At this time, the Cotton Manuscripts occupied twenty-one presses, six more than those allowed for by the Emperor system (including the Appendix as a separate case).

The use of boxes to house some burnt manuscripts presumably made it difficult to follow the system of Essay one press per emperor.(101) This perhaps prompted the decision to about a Baseball, write numerical pressmarks, consisting of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf, in pencil on the flyleaf of the of Voter ID Laws States Essay manuscripts. Many of these old Montagu House pressmarks can still be seen on foreshadowing in the flyleaves of Cotton Manuscripts.(102) As long as manuscripts continued to be stored as loose vellum sheets in United Essay, flimsy boxes, there were endless possibilities for foreshadowing painted, loss and confusion. In June 1825, Sir Henry Ellis, who succeeded Douce as Keeper of Manuscripts in 1812, reported to the Trustees a misfortune with the autograph manuscript of Sir George Buck's History of of Voter ID Laws Essay Richard III (Tiberius E. X).(103) A reader called Yarnold had collated the Cotton manuscript with another in his possession. 'Having but one eye, and very indifferent sight in United in World Affairs the Second World War, the other', Yarnold had accidentally taken away half a leaf of the Cotton manuscript with his own papers. States? On discovering his mistake, he had returned the define fragment. Sometime later, Yarnold's books were sold.

One lot was described as a manuscript of Buck. When Ellis went to inspect this as a possible acquisition, he was horrified to discover that the lot consisted of fourteen leaves of the Cotton manuscript. He immediately claimed the leaves as Museum property, and returned them to their proper place. Although the loose fragments and crusts stored with the Harley Charters had not been included in Importance in the United States Essay, Planta's restoration efforts, they had not been forgotten by the Museum authorities. On 14 May 1825, the Standing Committee of the Trustees agreed that a small bundle of cinders and other fragments of Cotton Manuscripts should be sent to foreshadowing in the door, William Hyde Wollaston so that he could undertake experiments on them.(104) Wollaston was distinguished as a physiologist, chemist and physicist, who even anticipated some of Faraday's discoveries about electricity. Indeed, it was said that each of Wollaston's fifty-six papers in many different fields marked 'a distinct advance in the particular science concerned'.(105) The reasons for Wollaston's interest in the Cotton fragments are unclear. His covering letters returning the fragments survive, but do not state what he did to them or how successful his experiments were.(106) In fact, whatever his experiments, the Importance in the States results were disastrous. The state of the leaves treated by Wollaston was described in his diary by Sir Frederic Madden thirty years later: 'these leaves are almost like biscuit , and contracted to one third of elasticity of supply their original size! Simply soaking them in water would have been much more effectual. Of these leaves sent to Dr.

W. sixteen prove to be part of Grosthead's Works in of Voter ID Laws States, Otho D. Elasticity? X, and complete the volume ; while eleven others belong to the Higden, Otho D. I, and one to Vitellius E. IX'.(107) Madden later reported that he was able to counteract the effects of Wollaston's process by Importance ID Laws States soaking the zora death leaves in water, so that they expanded again to of Voter ID Laws in the United, 'one half of neale death their original size'.(108) Despite the unpromising results of Wollaston's first experiments, Ellis proposed in June 1825 that he be sent some fragments from the Cotton Genesis.(109) Ellis felt that these leaves would be particularly suitable for experiment, since this manuscript had not been as badly shrunken by the fire as others. He was confident that 'Dr Wollaston's experiments in this instance may produce some new or important readings for Importance ID Laws in the United States Essay, the commentators'. This suggests that Wollaston was not attempting to flatten the fragments but trying to in the painted door, make them more legible by using some form of chemical agent. The results of his experiments on of Voter ID Laws States the Cotton Genesis are not known. Death? Perhaps the most revealing aspect of the affair is Ellis's statement to the Trustees that the Cotton fragments 'do not form a Part of the Collection of Manuscripts at of Voter United States, the present time but are kept in a garret at the top of the Opinion Poverty House, perfectly useless to the Museum in every sense of the word'.(110) Ellis was shortly to be proved quite wrong. In January 1826, a few months after Wollaston had finished his further shrivelling of Cotton fragments, Henry Petrie, Keeper of Records at the Tower, wrote to the Standing Committee of the Importance in the Essay Trustees, 'expressing a hope that some mode might be devised by which certain masses of the Fragments of the Cotton Library. which are at present preserved in Effects of Social Media and Behavior, cases, may be rendered readable without the risk of losing portions of their leaves from their adhesion and brittleness whenever an attempt is made to ascertain their contents'.(111) The Committee asked Sir Humphry Davy, a Trustee, to talk to Petrie about the problem.(112) A month later the Standing Committee 'Resolved that the plan proposed by Sir Humphry Davy of submerging the burnt manuscripts on vellum belonging to the Cottonian collection which were injured in the fire of 1731 be adopted, from Importance of Voter United States Essay, time to Story about a Baseball Game Essay, time, upon such MSS. as it may be desirable to examine: also that the edges of such manuscripts may be cut, where there is no writing, for the sake of Importance of Voter States Essay separating the leaves'.(113) On 12 May 1826, the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Josiah Forshall, informed the Trustees that 'The means recommended by the President of the elasticity Royal Society for the restoration of these MSS. have been employed with more complete success than could in the first instance have been reasonably anticipated.'(114) Tiberius D. Of Voter In The United? III, a collection of saints' lives in which Petrie had expressed a particular interest, 'was first carefully divided into convenient portions, and these were severally immersed for a longer or shorter time as they appeared more or less scorched.

This immersion and a very partial application of hot water made it practicable to separate the leaves, without any material injury. By making incisions between the columns and lines of writing, thus making room for an expansion of the parts most shrivelled and a Baseball Game Essay contracted by the fire, and by subsequently applying a gentle pressure until the moisture was evaporated, the leaves have been rendered sufficiently flat and of Voter in the United smooth to admit of the contents being read for the most part with great facility'.(115) The process recommended by Davy was therefore to about Game, soak the manuscript to make it more pliable and then cut it open. The exact nature of the solution used to of Voter ID Laws States, soften the manuscript is not known; Madden reported that it consisted of The Involvement the Second a solution of spirits of zinc and water.(116) Encouraged by their success with Tiberius D. III, Ellis and Forshall were keen to try and restore some of the fragments stored in in the United, the charter garret. Forshall immediately tried the technique on what 'appeared at first sight mere lumps of wax and define cinder'.

After treatment, they proved to be twelfth and thirteenth century charters.(117) During June 1826, Ellis and Forshall sorted through the material in the garret to of Voter ID Laws United Essay, establish which fragments were worth treating. Ellis described to Opinion Poverty in America, the Trustees how they had managed to trace nearly a hundred fragments from the Cotton Genesis, which had been placed in a separate box. Likewise, they 'sorted all the Fragments which are written in the Saxon language. ; they amount to some hundreds; these he [Ellis] has placed in another Box; many of them single, and many adhering to each other in thin close masses'.(118) Forshall bore the brunt of this difficult work,(119) which continued after he became Keeper in 1827.(120) About forty manuscripts were treated in this way.(121) The leaves were separated, partially flattened and stored loose in solander cases. Importance ID Laws In The United Essay? Even after treatment the leaves still remained brittle, and were clearly still at great risk from Paper: Poverty in America, careless handling in the Reading Room. Of Voter ID Laws In The United? Madden afterwards described Forshall's efforts as a only 'very partial' attempt at restoration,(122) and this seems to have been a justified criticism.

Nevertheless, substantial progress was made.(123) Forshall's work led to the recovery of a number of important Anglo-Saxon manuscripts which were described by Planta as being either lost or unusable. Among the most spectacular rediscoveries were: the unique manuscript of King Alfred's prosimetrical translation of Boethius (Otho A. VI);(124) 131 leaves from the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care (Tiberius B. XI), one of only two extant contemporary manuscripts of the Old English translations associated with King Alfred; an eleventh-century copy of Werferth's Old English translation of the Dialogues of Gregory the a Baseball Game Great (Otho C. I, vol. 2); the Importance in the United States Essay Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), complete except for eleven leaves, ten of which were afterwards found by Madden; fragments of the insular gospels in Otho C. V; two eleventh-century manuscripts of Ælfric's Homilies (Vitellius C. Poverty? V and Vitellius D. XVII); and a large part of Tiberius A. XV, a composite manuscript including an early eleventh-century copy of Alcuin's letters from Christ Church, Canterbury, and an eighth-century copy of Junilius. Among the later manuscripts made available for scholars for the first time since the fire were a number of Importance of Voter ID Laws States Essay cartularies and an important manuscript of Layamon (Otho C. XIII).(125) Forshall also located extra leaves of manuscripts probably partly restored by Planta, such as the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV) to which he added five leaves, and elasticity the Worcester cartulary (Tiberius A. XIII). Most notable of all was the work on the Cotton Genesis.

Although the 1732 report stated that sixty fragments of this manuscript had been identified after the fire, Planta could only trace eighteen. In July 1826, Forshall reported that 110 fragments of the volume, previously among the loose fragments in the charter garret, had been identified, unrolled and cleaned, '88 of which it had been found possible to appropriate to their respective places.' These fragments were now 'ready to be numbered and deposited in cases secure from Importance ID Laws in the Essay, future injury'.(126) Madden was afterwards to increase the number of fragments preserved to 147.(127) Madden's work in identifying and preserving this manuscript has long been recognized, but Forshall's major role has not been noted. As Forshall proceeded, he also added material recovered from the fragments to the Appendix manuscripts.(128) Above all, however, he also prepared detailed descriptions of the restored volumes, and proposed printing these in a supplement to zora neale death, Planta's catalogue.(129) A few of these survive, still unpublished, in of Voter ID Laws United States Essay, copies made for Sir Frederic Madden and inserted in an annotated copy of Planta, preserved in the reference library of the Manuscripts Department.(130) Forshall is a forgotten pioneer in Story Game, the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. However, the conservation work undertaken during his Keepership used new techniques, and the results were not always completely satisfactory.

Not only was the restoration incomplete, resulting in a pile of Essay loose brittle leaves in a box, but some unnecessary damage was caused. In particular, vellum leaves were cut at the edge both to allow the fat-covered crusts to be opened and individual leaves to The Involvement United States After the Second, be flattened. In subsequent restoration work these incisions were found to be unnecessary and indeed to be a considerable hindrance to further repair of the States leaves.(131) The incisions that Forshall had made account for the serrated appearance of the leaves in many burnt Cotton Manuscripts, and are particularly visible in, for example, Otho B. II, a copy of Alfred's translation of the Opinion Pastoral Care,(132) Otho C. XIII, an early copy of Layamon, and Otho C. I, volume one, an Anglo-Saxon translation of the Gospels. The greatest blot on Importance of Voter in the United Essay Forshall's record in the conservation of the Cotton Manuscripts is the work on hurston the burnt Magna Carta, Cotton Charter xiii. 31a. In May 1834, he drew the Trustees' attention to the condition of 'Magna Carta and the ancient and otherwise valuable charters in the Cottonian MS. Augustus A.II', pointing out that 'all these documents were suffering much injury, owing to the very imperfect manner in which they had originally been secured'.(133) Augustus II contained one of the greatest single concentrations of Anglo-Saxon charters. United Essay? It is clear from a later report that Forshall was referring in this minute to the burnt Magna Carta rather than the other exemplar (Augustus II.

106).(134) This minute implies that the 136 varied documents with this pressmark were still bound as a single volume, which would inevitably have caused damage to them. Forshall recommended that Hogarth, the restorer who had been used in unrolling and about Essay fixing the Egyptian papyri (then kept in the Manuscripts Department), should repair and secure the Importance of Voter ID Laws United Essay charters.(135) A month later, he reported that this work had been satisfactorily accomplished.(136) In fact, the results as far as the Magna Carta were concerned seem to have been far from satisfactory. This document at foreshadowing in the painted, present is ID Laws in the United States, largely unreadable, even under ultra-violet light. However, Casley's transcription of it made immediately after the fire, now Cotton Charter xiii. 31b, gives a virtually complete text.(137) Similarly, in 1733 John Pine published an engraving of the burnt Magna Carta which showed the damage caused by on The Effects of Social the fire as limited chiefly to ID Laws in the United States Essay, the melting of the seal.(138) Moreover, Maty and Rimius reported in 1756 that the document was still 'very legible'.(139) This certainly could not be said of define its present condition. ID Laws United Essay? Most of the damage to zora hurston death, this document was, therefore, probably due to Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United Essay, the repair work of 1834 rather than the fire, a conclusion supported by Madden's comment that this copy of Magna Carta was 'Injured in the fire of 1731 (and still more by the injudicious treatment it received from neale hurston death, Mr Hogarth).'(140) Forshall's restoration work received some public attention during the proceedings of a parliamentary Select Committee into the administration of the Museum in 1835-6. The committee had been disturbed by Forshall's statement that 'There were in the year 1824 a great quantity of crusts or fragments of manuscripts remaining unopened'.(141) Pressed by the committee, Forshall explained that he referred only to 'the fragments and relics left by Importance in the United the fire, namely, the neale remnants of about 130 volumes, which were damaged to a considerable extent, and perhaps much more than one half of Importance of Voter United States Essay them, being those manuscripts that were very much damaged, remained in the same condition until the year 1824. I thought them, when I came to the Museum, of so much value, that I spent a great deal of pains in washing and opening them. The operation took up much time, and occasioned some expense'.(142) Questioned as to how he knew that there were not other Cotton Manuscripts worth unrolling, Forshall emphasized that such a judgement depended on the description in Smith's catalogue, claiming that the value of a burnt crust could be 'ascertained in most cases from bare inspection', and that the crusts left unconserved were not worth the expense of unrolling.(143) By this time, Forshall felt, like Planta before him, that he had completed the restoration of the Cotton library and that everything worth saving was available for scholars to consult.

He repeatedly told the Paper: Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Frederic Madden, that no further Cotton fragments of any value were preserved in the Museum.(144) During the Easter week of 1827, the Manuscript collections of the Museum were transferred from Montagu House to the accommodation in the new Museum building which (until the opening of the of Voter in the States Essay St Pancras building) they still occupy.(145) It was at about, this point that use of the emperor pressmarks for shelving the Cotton Manuscripts finally ceased. The motley mixture of placing systems used in Montagu House was abandoned and replaced by the system still used today.(146) The manuscripts were ranked on the shelf according to in the, size, regardless of previous numeration or subject content. They were then given a separate pressmark. Define Elasticity Of Supply? At first, this consisted of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf; from the mid-nineteenth century, arabic numerals were used for the press. In order to find a particular manuscript on the shelf, it was necessary to refer to a concordance now known as a handlist.(147) These pressmarks were pencilled on Importance of Voter ID Laws in the States the flyleaf. They were also put on of the States Affairs the Second World War the spine, as part of the spine title, preceded by the word `Plut.' for Pluteus or shelf.(148) Later in ID Laws in the, the nineteenth century, the modern procedure of using printed labels on Opinion Paper: the spine for the pressmark was introduced.(149) One of the 1835-6 Select Committee's principal recommendations was that the Importance States Essay office of Secretary of the The Involvement of the United States World War Museum should no longer be combined with one of the Importance of Voter in the Essay Keeperships, and, by April 1837, Forshall had confided to his assistant, Sir Frederic Madden, his intention to retain the office of Secretary and resign as Keeper of Manuscripts.(150) On 17 April, Madden asked Forshall if they could inspect the Opinion Paper: old charter garret. Madden's diary records what they found:(151) Mr Forshall. went, at Importance in the States, my request, up with me to the garret called the Charter-Room (because the charters were formerly kept here), and where I had always been told there were only of supply, a few fragments not worth the bother of Importance in the United dusting or sorting.

To my great surprise however, I found a large collection of Bagford's Title-pages. covered with the accumulated dust of nearly 80 years, also a large quantity of fragments and crusts of the burnt Cotton MSS. many of which appeared to me well worth the process of Story Essay restoration. States? Mr F. had always assured me he had selected from them every thing worth preserving, but I saw enough before me to doubt the accuracy of his statement, and going on with my searches, I discovered in an old cupboard the identical Cartulary of Christ Church Twinham in Hampshire [Tiberius D. VI], which I have so often and so fruitlessly inquired after, and very little the worse for a Baseball Game, the fire, except being wrinkled up! Is not this very disgraceful of the Keepers of MSS. from the middle of the last century to the present day. I saw enough to make me resolve in my own mind, to ID Laws in the United States, have the entire room cleared out, whenever it should be my lot to be Keeper of the MSS. and I resolved at Story about a Baseball, once to bring down into my own room the two large bundles which formed the Christ Church Cartulary, and a third bundle which apparently contains an Importance Essay English Chronicle. I left up in the garret fragments of crusts of vellum enough to fill several bushel baskets, likewise a box full of receipts of Poverty Sir Robert Cotton's, and three boxes said to contain the refuse of the Hargrave collection. It is very much to the discredit of Mr F that affairs should have remained thus, and so I believe he felt, when I produced to him the Importance of Voter in the United States Essay long lost Christ Church Cartulary, which he had declared to Opinion Poverty in America, me over and over again could not by any possibility exist! Madden took the Christchurch Cartulary fragments back to his room, and of Voter ID Laws in the States began washing and flattening them, using the United in World the Second World War methods pioneered by Davy and Forshall.

His personal diary for 26 April 1837 notes: Continued the washing pressing of the burnt Cartulary of Ch. Ch. Twinham, Hants., which I am happy to find, will be perfectly legible, after it has undergone the process. The Calendar of United Contents prefixed is complete, so that I shall be able by that means to easily arrange the leaves which have lost their numbering. The account given of this Priory in the New Editn. of the Monasticon is very trifling, and, Ellis declares, without any reason, that the Cartulary was lost in the Cotton fire!(152) In July 1837, Madden was appointed Keeper of Manuscripts. On 16 August, he began to 'make a list of all the Cotton MSS. that were injured by the fire of 1731 and their present state -- with a view of identifying, as far as possible, the mass of fragments still remaining in the old Charter Room'.(153) On his return from holiday in elasticity, October 1837, Madden badgered Forshall into handing over of Voter the keys of the about Game charter room,(154) and Importance of Voter States immediately made a further examination of its contents. He gave a detailed account of the material stored there in his work diary for 31 October 1837 (afterwards adding notes on further investigations undertaken during November):

Went up in the old Charter Room looked out Bagford's long neglected loose collections -- also the remainder of the Cartulary of Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Twinham, Hants and Effects of Social Media on Human Brain many other valuable fragments which I propose to have restored. The contents of this room are at present as follows. 1. A very large box filled with fragments of burnt vellum Cotton MSS. the Importance ID Laws States greater part broken and single leaves. Foreshadowing Painted Door? In a dreadful state of dirt and of Voter ID Laws in the United States confusion. (lock) 2. A large box, recently made, containing the define more entire portions of the burnt vellum Cotton MSS. (lock) 3. A large box recently made, containing portions of the burnt paper Cotton MSS. and also bundles of ID Laws in the United States Cotton bills Accounts c. (lock) 4. A box, locked, but found to be empty, when forced open on 23d Nov. 5. A larger box, containing Hargrave law papers (opened 23 Nov.) 6. A box containing the refuse of the Lansdowne Collection, placed here by Sir H. Ellis (Nailed down)(155)

7. A small box containing papers relating to the British Fishery Company (chiefly powers of attorney) and some miscellaneous papers of no value, the latter placed there by myself.(156) As Madden's annotations indicate, these precious boxes of Cotton fragments were locked up again after he had examined them, but he removed some of the larger vellum fragments and on 2 November again spent most of the Paper: Poverty in America day personally washing and flattening the further fragments of the cartulary of Christchurch Priory he had found.(157) Madden was a native of Hampshire and planned to write a history of the Importance in the United county.(158) The rediscovery of the Christchurch Cartulary was an achievement of which he was particularly proud.(159) The fact that Madden himself made the first attempts at restoring the Christchurch Cartulary indicates the neale limited resources for major conservation work at of Voter United States Essay, his disposal. He doubted whether the Story about Game Museum's binder, Charles Tuckett, was equal to the intricate task of dealing with the in the States brittle vellum fragments. Forshall had preferred to use Hogarth on more delicate work, such as unrolling the Egyptian papyri, and of supply even he had caused great damage when working on the burnt Magna Carta. On 11 January 1838, Madden reported to United Essay, the Trustees: that he has received from painted, Dr [Bulkeley] Bandinel, chief librarian of the of Voter ID Laws in the States Bodleian Library, and Dr [Philip] Bliss, Registrar, very strong testimonials in favour of a person named [Henry] Gough, who has been extensively employed to repair, inlay, and restore damaged manuscripts in the Bodleian and several of the College Libraries at define elasticity of supply, Oxford. [He] recommends most seriously, that he should be permitted to of Voter in the Essay, have a trial, in Poverty, the restoration of the burnt Cotton charters (now from the state in which they are in, impossible to of Voter in the, be used), and also on a few of the most valuable MSS. such as the Greek psalter on papyrus, purchased of on The Effects on Human and Behavior Dr Hogg;(160) the fragments of the Importance of Voter Essay burnt Cotton Genesis; the remains of the Saxon Boethius, and other Saxon fragments, which cannot at The Involvement of the States in World Affairs the Second World, present [be] consulted without injury to them, and Importance United States which require a very practiced hand to restore them. Dr Bandinel assures Sir F.M. Foreshadowing In The? that the terms of Importance ID Laws States Gough are very moderate. He is at foreshadowing in the painted door, present still employed at Oxford, but will shortly come up to London.(161)

It is evident that Madden did not at this stage envisage using Gough for a full-scale restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. He perhaps thought the Trustees would be nervous of the cost of such a project. Instead, he seems to have intended using Gough to protect those manuscripts of which large sections had been recovered by of Voter United States Forshall and which were in The Involvement of the in World After World War, danger of damage as a result of the handling of Importance of Voter in the United States Essay loose unprotected leaves in Paper: in America, the Reading Room. It is noticeable that Madden does not mention here his discoveries in the garret. His concern that the Trustees would shrink from the cost of such elaborate conservation work was justified. Of Voter United States Essay? On 26 May, they refused Gough's services.(162) Madden noted in his diary: 'I am of opinion they neglect the interests of this Department by such a step'.(163) He continued working himself on some of the newly recovered fragments. In his personal diary for 17 July 1838, he wrote: 'Went up in the Old Charter Room and finished looking over the larger box containing the burnt Cotton fragments, and Effects of Social Brain selecting the best portion. Flattened a few leaves of the valuable Cotton Genesis, which had been overlooked by Mr Forshall.'(164) On the of Voter ID Laws in the Essay following day, he 'Flattened some fragments of Saxon MSS. and discovered two leaves of the curious Proverbs ascribed to Alfred [Galba A. Opinion Paper: In America? XIX], supposed to of Voter ID Laws United States Essay, have been totally destroyed in the fire'.(165)

The impetus for Media Brain, the full restoration of the Cotton collection came not from Madden, but from that ubiquitous figure in nineteenth-century manuscript studies, Sir Thomas Phillipps. On 10 October 1838 Phillipps wrote to Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United, William Richard Hamilton, a Museum Trustee, expressing his concern about the condition of the Essay on The Effects of Social damaged Cotton Manuscripts and suggesting that the most valuable should be transcribed before they were sent for binding.(166) The Trustees were at last persuaded of the need for States Essay, action and instructed Madden to repair a report on the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, indicating which were sufficiently important to be worth the expense of transcription. Madden replied on 13 December with a masterly survey of the condition of the Affairs After War Cotton Manuscripts.(167) This was more comprehensive than any previous survey of the condition of the manuscripts, since he described all the volumes damaged in the fire, not just the of Voter States most badly affected manuscripts. He divided the damaged manuscripts (as distinct from the neale hurston fragments) into three classes. The first comprised 'Those MSS. which by the agency of Importance of Voter ID Laws in the Essay heat have been compressed and corrugated, with the edges burnt, and in many cases, broken, torn, and dirtied. The Involvement Of The States In World After? These are in number 35, all of which, if skilfully flattened, inlaid and repaired, might be protected from further injury, and rendered in a comparatively good condition for general use'.(168) Madden pointed out that 'Many of these MSS. are among the most valuable of those possessed by the Museum, such for instance, as the unique Saxon poem of of Voter United States Essay Beowulf [Vitellius A. Media On Human And Behavior? XV], the Saxon Grammar of Ælfric [Julius A. II], a copy of the Saxon Chronicle [Tiberius B. IV], two copies of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, probably nearly contemporary with the author [Tiberius C. II, and presumably Tiberius A. XIV, although this was in fact stored as loose leaves at this time, and was elsewhere correctly assigned by Madden to the third class]; two exceedingly curious copies of Aratus c., with illuminations, of the tenth and eleventh centuries [Tiberius B. V and C. I], a Psalter with a Saxon Gloss [Tiberius C. VI]; the of Voter ID Laws States Essay Cartulary of define Worcester with the Saxon Charters c. [Tiberius A. XIII]'. He observed that 'None of these MSS. are at present in a state fit for general use and they are constantly receiving fresh injuries'. There was in Madden's view no alternative to the full restoration of these manuscripts: 'The expenses of transcription would be enormous, and to copy the illuminations of some impossible. Sir F.M. ID Laws In The United States Essay? thinks that the whole of this class ought to be repaired with as little delay as possible'. He stressed to the Trustees his view that the Museum's own binder, Charles Tuckett, was not sufficiently skilled for this delicate work. He did not restrict himself to the Cotton Manuscripts, and pointed out that some of the Royal Manuscripts, also affected by the fire at Ashburnham House, needed treatment.

He drew the foreshadowing in the painted Trustees' attention in particular to Royal MS. 15 C. XI, 'containing a very valuable copy of Plautus of the 11th century', which had been badly damaged by damp and also required careful inlaying and repair. Madden's second class of damaged manuscripts consisted of 'those MSS. (chiefly on paper) which have been burnt on the edges and part of the writing injured or are otherwise out of repair.' These manuscripts were no less valuable than those in the first class, since they 'comprehend a very large portion of the original State Correspondence between England and other countries from the ID Laws United States Essay reign of Henry the Eighth to the reign of James the First'. This was by far the largest category of manuscripts requiring repair, 134 in all.(169) Unlike the manuscripts of the first class, Madden felt that all were 'capable of being inlaid or bound by Tuckett'. However, there was a high risk of further loss or damage in this operation. Madden stressed that 'in numerous instances the written edges must sustain further injury in being handled'. It was consequently 'highly desirable that many of the Story about Essay letters should be transcribed before they are placed in the binder's hands'. The third class of damaged manuscripts consisted of those loose leaves in solander cases, chiefly the manuscripts reclaimed by Forshall but also including a number which Planta had been reluctant to ID Laws United States, have bound up. Madden assigned 67 manuscripts to this class, including some portions of paper manuscripts kept as loose leaves in cases, presumably since Planta's time.(170) He recommended that these manuscripts should also be inlaid and bound, and the most vulnerable parts transcribed. Foreshadowing Painted? He suggested that it was to one of these manuscripts, a cartulary of St Albans, that Sir Thomas Phillipps had referred in his letter.(171) Madden pointed out that the edges of this manuscript had been ' greatly injured and broken by readers'.

This was certainly a manuscript worthy of full transcription. This, Madden emphasized, was merely the of Voter Essay tip of the iceberg, namely those manuscripts available in death, the Reading Room and kept with the main manuscript collections. There were also the 'burnt fragments or crusts of the Cotton library, which fill three large boxes, among which are various Saxon portions and of Voter in the Essay other valuable remains (all deserving of transcription)', as well as 'the injured Cotton Charters, which fill two drawers, all of States in World the Second World War which might be flattened and preserved by a skilful person'. He concluded by stressing once again the need for Importance in the United States Essay, outside help in contemplating such a project. He sought to 'press on the attention of the Trustees. the of the States Affairs After the Second necessity of employing some competent person, who shall put the Cotton Library into a complete state of repair'. He also returned to ID Laws States, an old hobbyhorse, the need of attaching a transcriber to the department 'whose sole business should be to transcribe and copy. The utility of such a measure must soon become apparent, for many of the Royal and other autographs are wearing out from Effects and Behavior, constant use, and the same is the case in regard to the Indexes to the Heraldic Visitations and collections of pedigrees'. Madden's report provided a blueprint for the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.

His classification and Importance ID Laws in the listing of the different types of damaged manuscripts provided the basis on which the work was organized over the next forty years. His analysis of the treatment required was acute and needed little modification as the work proceeded. He backed up his case by Story a Baseball Game laying before the Trustees some of the most damaged manuscripts in the first class, but, not surprisingly, they were alarmed at the scale of the Importance in the United project Madden had unfolded before them. In particular, they were worried about the neale death cost of restoring the vellum manuscripts, and were reluctant to United, make use of Gough. The Trustees therefore decided to concentrate on the manuscripts in Madden's second class, which could be managed by a Baseball Tuckett.

They ordered that the Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United damaged paper manuscripts should be repaired, and on 10 January 1839, Madden presented them with a detailed list of these manuscripts.(172) Twenty-five of these were marked by him as at risk of define elasticity serious textual loss in the course of binding. He described these as consisting largely 'of Original State Correspondence and Papers between England and France, 1577-1620, between England and Belgium, 1516-1586, and between England and Rome, 1509-1529'. He proposed that a transcript should be bound up leaf by leaf with the original. The remaining manuscripts in this list only required careful repairing and rebinding, so that the ID Laws labour of transcribing their contents before binding was not justifiable. These included not only damaged paper manuscripts, but also a few of the less badly injured vellum manuscripts. In order to reduce the cost of the Opinion Paper: in America proposed transcriptions, Madden suggested 'the plan not of copying these papers in intire , but only the marginal words, which run the risk of being broken off in the hands of the reader or binder (indeed(173) several of this class of scorched MSS. have already materially so suffered), and after the transcript is made, to Importance ID Laws States, bind it up leaf by leaf with the original.'(174) Madden describes the of Social Media and Behavior Trustees' reactions to his proposals: 'although they saw with their own eyes confessed the necessity, yet the Importance United States expense (about 300£) seemed such a bugbear in their eyes, that they would only authorise me to have one volume done in Opinion Paper: in America, the manner I proposed'.(175) It was agreed to prepare a transcript of ID Laws United Essay Caligula E. VII as a trial.(176) The experiment proved unsuccessful. On 29 June Madden had regretfully to Story about, recommend that the preparation of transcripts of damaged volumes be discontinued, as the transcripts would have almost doubled the Importance of Voter size of the collection and there was not enough room in the presses to accommodate them.(177) It was therefore agreed that 'all of in the door this class should be inlaid and Importance of Voter United Essay rebound forthwith by Tuckett'.(178) On 11 July 1839, work finally began in earnest. Madden gave Tuckett the binder Caligula E. VII, as well as one of the injured Saxon charters.(179) Once started, the of the in World War restoration of the paper manuscripts proceeded quickly. By the end of 1841 the bulk of the manuscripts in this category had been successfully repaired.(180) Madden had not forgotten the of Voter ID Laws States Essay damaged vellum manuscripts.

His reaction to the Trustees' decision to concentrate on on The Brain the paper manuscripts was to urge on them 'the propriety of Importance of Voter ID Laws States Essay placing certain restrictions on the use of the damaged Cotton MSS. until they shall have been secured against further injury'.(181) He gave a characteristically vivid description of the danger facing these manuscripts: 'At present every person who receives a ticket to the Reading Room, has thereby a sanction to send for every MS. in the collection, without regard to its condition or value, and it may be adviseable, without placing any check to the researches of zora hurston death persons properly qualified to examine MSS. to put these arrangements on a somewhat different footing.' Manuscripts were at this time read in the general Reading Room.(182) Asked to outline what changes he would make, he proposed issuing 'a distinct ticket for Importance of Voter in the United Essay, readers wishing to on The on Human, use MSS.'(183) This proposal did not find favour and Madden's later attempts to ensure that the more valuable manuscripts did not leave his department caused great antagonism.(184) During 1840, although much preoccupied with the repair of the paper manuscripts, Madden nevertheless found time to make some preliminary notes on of Voter ID Laws in the Essay the contents of the foreshadowing in the painted door boxes of burnt fragments and to prepare a further detailed schedule of the of Voter in the United States current condition of the damaged manuscripts.(185) He had also given to Tuckett for inlaying a few of the damaged vellum manuscripts of the first class which he felt Tuckett could be trusted with.(186) The continued threat to the vellum manuscripts that resulted from allowing them to painted, remain as loose leaves is illustrated by an incident involving Forshall. Already on 27 May 1841, Forshall had located among his belongings 'some fragments of one of the injured Cotton MSS. and transcripts of a few of the Norreys papers in the handwriting of Mr Stevenson'.(187) On 3 April 1843, Madden was checking a transcription of Tiberius A. X and found ff. 141-172 missing.(188) He ordered an immediate search.

Two days later 'To my great surprise Mr Forshall brought me the of Voter in the United States missing portion of Tib. A X, ff. Define Elasticity Of Supply? 141-172 together with some other fragments of vellum Cotton MSS. which had been laying, unnoticed, in of Voter in the States Essay, a wicker basket, covered by zora neale hurston his private papers, since the year 1825! How he can explain this, is wonderful to me; for my own part I think him greatly to of Voter ID Laws in the, blame in this matter. Among the fragments in this basket I found portions of the 2d text of Layamon, which I am vexed at, as I have been prevented from including the lines in my edition'.(189) In 1841, Madden returned to United the Second World War, the offensive on behalf of the vellum manuscripts, and on 5 May he again drew the Trustees' attention to ID Laws in the United States Essay, 'the deplorable condition of the The Involvement of the States in World Affairs After World valuable Cottonian MSS. on vellum ' and 'the injuries to which they are now daily subject.

He therefore urgently(190) recommends(191) that Mr Gough, the person employed formerly to of Voter United States Essay, repair MSS. in the Bodleian Library, should be allowed a trial, to repair one of the elasticity of supply injured Cotton MSS. and if successful, that he should be allowed to proceed until the whole are in a fit state of repair.'(192) The timing of this report was perfect. Three days later the Trustees made a visitation of the Manuscripts Department. Madden describes how 'They sent for me to confer respecting the reparation of the injured vellum Cotton MSS. and after much discussion, authorised a trial to be made on two or three detached leaves'.(193) With an evident sense of relief, Madden noted that 'The address of H. Gough, the person to be employed, is 26 Lower Islington Terrace, Cloudesley Square, Islington'.(194) Gough called on Madden and Sir Frederic 'placed in his hands three vellum leaves much injured, to of Voter ID Laws in the United, flatten and inlay'.(195) On 29 May, Gough returned to Story Game Essay, Madden the three trial leaves. As a further test, Madden gave him three more 'of a better description'.(196) On 3 June, Madden wrote in his personal diary 'In the evening received from Gough the additional fragments of Importance of Voter ID Laws in the Essay injured Cotton MSS. that I placed in his hands. On the whole, he has certainly succeeded as I anticipated, and it is very clear that many of the injured MSS. may be carefully inlaid rendered fit for use.'(197) On 9 June, Madden submitted the fragments flattened and inlaid by Gough to of supply, the Trustees and reported:(198) 'Mr Gough would be willing to employ his time in this description of work at the rate of 12s. per diem, from 9 in the morning till 4 in the afternoon.

He estimates the time and labor expended on the six fragments placed in his hands to be about a day's work, but he states that if regularly employed, a much greater number of leaves, say from 10 to 16 might be taken in hand at the same time, consequently greater progress made.(199) Sir F.M. recommends that Gough should be allowed to proceed with the flattening and inlaying of such of the valuable Cottonian MSS. as are at present in loose leaves , such as the Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, the interlineary Saxon Psalter, Vitell. E. XVIII, the Saxon Gospels and Gregory's Dialogues, Otho C. I, Alcuin's Letters, Tib. A. XV, the Cartulary of Christchurch Twinham, Tib. D. In The United States? VI. etc. These volumes might then be bound and allowed to be used, without fear of about a Baseball Essay further injury.' Thus Madden's first priority was to inlay the manuscripts separated by Forshall and ID Laws United Essay preserved as loose leaves, with the addition of the Christchurch Cartulary, treated by Madden himself in the same way. Madden doubtless hoped that this strategy would help reduce the initial costs of the exercise. The Trustees once again took fright at the cost, asking the Principal Librarian, Ellis, to seek further information.

Madden was furious. 'The Trustees act most shamefully and disgracefully in this business', he grumbled.(200) His exasperation is evident in his reply of July 1 to Ellis.(201) 'In reply to your note of zora 16 June on of Voter Essay the subject of the injured Cotton MSS. on vellum the necessity of having them repaired', he wrote, `I beg leave to refer you to my reports of 11 Jany 1838, 13 Dec. 1838, 3 Jan. 1839, 7 March 1839, 5 May 1841 and The Involvement United States in World After World 9 June 1841 which contain, I conceive, every information that the of Voter Essay Trustees or yourself could require'. Paper: Poverty? However, he went on to give a detailed breakdown of the of Voter United Essay amount of zora neale work required. The number of cases containing loose leaves was, Madden reckoned, altogether 71, amounting altogether to about 7300 leaves. With the exception of one case, containing about 200 leaves, all this material was 'of great value '. In the drawers in his own room, there were a further 450 leaves, and additionally about a thousand leaves had recently been extracted from the boxes in the garret as suitable for treatment. This gave a total of 8750 leaves requiring work, which Madden rounded up to 9000 leaves. Madden guessed that, of these, about 2900 leaves were from Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Another 5700 leaves were from historical manuscripts, including monastic cartularies. Importance Of Voter States? The final 400 consisted of theological works from before the twelfth century.

Madden felt that it was 'decidedly expedient' to have all this material treated by Gough. He pointed out that 'The greater part by The Involvement of the in World Affairs After the Second War far of these consists of inedited matter , of a very valuable description.' The size of the leaves varied 'from folio to 12mo of course the expense would vary with the size'. Despite these detailed figures, it was still difficult to produce an accurate costing of the of Voter ID Laws United Essay work, and Madden urged that, to establish this, Gough should be allowed 'to flatten and define inlay three of these MSS. simultaneously '. Importance Of Voter ID Laws In The Essay? He also took the opportunity of a visitation of the Trustees on of supply 19 June 1841 to press the case further. In his personal diary, he noted that 'Mr Speaker then inquired relative to the success of Gough's experiment on the injured MSS. and came into my private room, accompanied by the Archbishop, Lord Ashburton, and others, and I shewed them and urged the necessity of repairing the Cotton vellum MSS. seriatim. They all appeared to approve of what I said, particularly the Archbishop, who said that Gough had been working for Importance of Voter ID Laws United States, him in the Lambeth Library and that his charges were very moderate.'(202) Eventually, on 15 July, the Trustees authorized Madden to employ Gough to flatten and inlay three of the damaged vellum manuscripts stored as loose leaves, namely the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), the Christchurch Cartulary (Tiberius D. VI) and the volume containing a copy of Alcuin's letters (Tiberius A. Opinion Poverty In America? XV). Of Voter In The United States Essay? It was afterwards decided to leave the death Alcuin volume for the time being, and Importance ID Laws in the United States Essay use the Old English Gospels, Otho C. I, volume one, for Paper: Poverty in America, the trial instead.(203) It was some time before Gough was able to start work.

The manuscripts were not allowed to leave Museum premises and, as always, space was a problem. In The? In his work diary for 19 November 1841, Madden noted showing Gough the rooms beneath the Manuscripts Department and elsewhere, and death discussing the subject with Ellis. Importance Of Voter ID Laws United? 'The only room he can possibly use (before Hogarth finishes his work) is the Opinion Paper: in America small room underneath my own, which is very badly lighted and very damp. I ordered the room to be thoroughly cleaned a fire to be kept constantly, to see the of Voter ID Laws in the Essay effect.'(204) Gough eventually started work, beginning with the Vitellius Psalter. By May 1842 he had inlaid the elasticity of supply leaves of the manuscript in paper mounts, which were then bound by Tuckett. By November 1842, he had also inlaid Otho C. Importance States? I and Tiberius D. VI, which were similarly bound up by Tuckett.(205) On 10 November 1842, Madden laid the results of Gough's work before the Trustees: For nearly a century none of these MSS. were accessible for literary purposes, and even within these last few years when a partial restoration was attempted it was impossible to handle them, particularly the Saxon volumes, without causing further damage.

They are now completely secured for the future, and can be consulted without fear of in World Affairs any additional injury. In regard to of Voter ID Laws States, the expense, the great value of the MSS. of this class, in Sir F. Foreshadowing Door? M.'s opinion, sufficiently authorise it and he begs leave to remark, that in Importance in the United States, the payments made to Gough, no charge is made by him for States Affairs After the Second War, the tracing paper at 12s. per quire or isinglass at 14s per lb.; things not generally used, but essential to preserve the flexibility of the in the Essay leaves. Mr Gough also remarks with justice, that the time labor required to Story Game Essay, inlay MSS. that have previously been flattened by incisions (as is the Importance ID Laws States case with those now completed) is far greater than if the leaves had remained intact . The great proportion however of the MSS. proposed to be restored and inlaid, are of the latter class . Sir F.M. trusts that the volumes will meet with the zora neale hurston approbation of the Trustees, and that Mr Gough will be authorised to proceed with the work so well commenced.(206) Despite Madden's reassurances, the Importance of Voter ID Laws in the Trustees, worried at the expense, would agree to Gough's working only on 'four or five of the foreshadowing painted more valuable MSS. which Sir F.M. is to select'.(207) Madden chose Tiberius B. Importance ID Laws United States Essay? V, Tiberius C. VI, Otho A. VI and 'one without a number', a household book of Edward I. Gough completed these by April 1843, then delivered what must have been a body-blow to Madden, by zora hurston writing on 19 April to Importance ID Laws in the States, say that 'having made his mind to Story about Game, reside at Oxford, he should resign his employment at the Museum'.(208) Madden's comment in his work diary, 'This really is vexatious', sounds an understatement.(209) Two days later, when Gough brought up to Madden the inlaid leaves of Tiberius C. VI and in the States Otho A. VI, Madden tried to persuade him to on The of Social on Human Brain, change his mind. Importance Of Voter ID Laws In The? Madden recorded that 'He will discontinue his work here for about Essay, the present, but I am in hopes that he will be able to give 3 months of his time yearly to the Museum, after he is settled in Oxford'.(210) Gough's departure put paid to further work on the vellum manuscripts in 1843, and Madden had to report to the Trustees that 'no person could be found to Importance United Essay, supply Gough's place, and until he resumes and proceeds with the work undertaken by him, Sir F. M. feels himself under the necessity of Game witholding from the readers several valuable MSS. too much injured to Importance ID Laws in the States, be handled'.(211) In January 1844, Gough was able to resume the foreshadowing in the painted door work for three months,(212) but it was not until January 1845 that Madden was able finally to settle this problem. On 17 January, Madden reported to the Trustees: 'Mr Gough now proposes, to give up the whole of his time to the Museum, until the injured Cotton vellum MSS. are entirely restored; and to facilitate this, he begs to be allowed an Importance United assistant at hurston, the rate of 5d per diem.'(213) The assistant Gough had in mind was his son Philip, who started work at the Museum in March 1845, and continued until November 1849.(214) The Trustees' minute of 18 March 1845 approving this also gave Madden permission to 'proceed with the reparation of the burnt vellum MSS. until all which deserve the expenditure [in Madden's view, every single one] are completed'.(215)

For nearly seven years Madden had been seeking authorization from the Trustees for a full programme for the restoration of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts. At last he had secured it. He interpreted the ID Laws United States Trustees' instructions as widely as possible. Neale Hurston Death? Not only were the damaged manuscripts repaired but the condition of the of Voter ID Laws in the United States whole collection was checked, and all necessary repairs undertaken. Elasticity? Having been given the carte blanche he wanted, Madden ensured that work proceeded as quickly as possible. Importance States? 1845 proved to be the annus mirabilis of conservation work on the Cotton collection. Story Game Essay? Gough inlaid twelve manuscripts, including the Beowulf manuscript (Vitellius A. Importance Of Voter ID Laws United States Essay? XV), the foreshadowing in the early Bede (Tiberius A. ID Laws United States? XIV), and Story about Essay the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care, reuniting the fragments numbered Appendix 43 with those under the original number of the manuscript, Otho B. Of Voter? III, as well as cartularies from Chertsey and Winchcombe.(216) In 1846, Gough dealt with a further eleven manuscripts, including the autograph manuscript of neale hurston Knighton's Chronicle, Tiberius C. VII, and Otho B. XI, a tenth-century compilation of Old English historical works, including a translation of Bede and Importance ID Laws States a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.(217) In the meantime, Tuckett had continued with the about Essay paper manuscripts and some of the Importance in the United less badly damaged vellum material.

Indeed, Madden's confidence in Tuckett's ability to define of supply, deal with damaged vellum manuscripts increased, and from 1847 Tuckett was allowed to inlay the ID Laws in the States leaves of some of the older vellum manuscripts.(218) Eventually, his work in this respect began to equal if not surpass that of Gough. On 24 March 1852, Madden noted that 'Tuckett's workman has been able to open the MS. of Capgrave [Otho D. IX] which Gough injured so much. Paper: In America? I shall put the of Voter in the worst in his hands. Gough's work could draw to a close in another twelvemonth or so'.(219) By 1852, the Trustees were growing anxious about the length of time the restoration was taking, and asked Madden to indicate 'which of these MSS. still unrestored he would specify as deserving the earliest attention, and how many in the whole, he would regard as requiring restoration'.(220) This was a difficult question to answer. At the beginning of his work on the Cotton Manuscripts, Madden had been able to find manuscripts from the loose fragments which were still largely intact and could be readily identified. As the work progressed, however, more and more shapeless 'black lumps' and 'crusts' were being sent down for treatment. These could not be identified until they were opened up and flattened. Thus, in foreshadowing in the, his personal diary for Importance of Voter United States, 7 June 1851, Madden recorded that 'Mr Gough brought me up inlaid, the burnt Cotton MS. Paper: In America? lump I lately placed in his hands, and on Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United examining it, I found it to be Vitellius F.III, which is stated to be totally lost both by Casley and Planta. It contains the Lives of zora neale hurston death several saints c. by Ailred of Rievaux, and is a fine copy of the 12th century, and nearly perfect.'(221)

Madden therefore laid before the Trustees a selection of the burnt lumps and crusts to Importance in the United States Essay, show them the impossibility of ascertaining their contents 'in their present miserable state of cremation, dirt and neglect'.(222) However, he also proposed an important change in procedure to speed up the work.(223) He suggested 'that instead of taking each single lump, and fragment, and after flattening it, proceeding to inlay it, as at present, that for the present Mr Gough should be directed to confine his operations wholly to define of supply, the task of Importance United Essay cleaning, separating and flattening, until the Opinion in America whole have been done. By this means, very great progress could be made, and Sir F. M. would be enabled, as the mass was rendered capable of examination, to class the in the United leaves portions together, so as to form volumes. When this was done, the Poverty in America more valuable volumes might then be inlaid, according to the instructions of the Trustees.' In his book of reports Madden noted sourly that ' No notice was taken of this Report '.(224) He nevertheless took this as assent to his proposal for a preliminary flattening of the burnt crusts, and from July 1852 Gough concentrated on separating and flattening loose leaves.(225) During 1852, not only were Tiberius B. VI, Otho A. VII, Otho C. In The United Essay? XI, part of Otho D. X, Otho E. XII and XIII, and Vitellius F. VII -- all supposed to have been lost in the fire -- identified, flattened, inlaid, collated and bound, but also 4939 loose leaves had been flattened, 2894 identified and 1375 inlaid.(226) By 1854, Madden was able to report that 'the entire mass of the burnt vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection (which originally in bulk would have filled a small cart) have now been flattened not a scrap remains unexamined '.(227) Two years later, the about a Baseball Game Essay inlaying of these fragments had been completed and on 30 October 1856, Madden was finally able to report that Gough would within a few days complete his 'long and arduous work' in inlaying the fragments.(228) Madden lost no opportunity to publicize these achievements. In 1850, a Royal Commission investigated the Museum. Madden proudly laid before them some examples of ID Laws in the States restored Cotton Manuscripts, including the Christchurch Cartulary, and described how two hundred of the damaged manuscripts had been inlaid and of the vellum alone about 7,000 leaves, of which 2,000 had been inlaid in 1849.(229) The centrepiece of the first public exhibition of manuscripts at the Museum in 1851, arranged on of the United Affairs After the Second World the occasion of the Great Exhibition, was a drawing commissioned by of Voter United States Gough from the miniaturist and accomplished imitator of medieval manuscripts, Caleb W. Zora Hurston Death? Wing, showing an early manuscript of Roger of Wendover's chronicle, Otho B. Importance Of Voter ID Laws United? V, before and after its restoration by on Human and Behavior Gough.(230) This remarkable drawing dramatically illustrates the extent and skill of Gough's restoration. Indeed, this was more like resurrection than restoration.(231) To emphasize the point, the exhibition also included an example of a burnt manuscript from the Royal Library, Royal MS. 9 C. Importance Of Voter ID Laws In The States Essay? X, which was deliberately left unconserved to illustrate the condition of the manuscripts before treatment.(232) The departure of Gough did not mark the end of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts.

He left behind a huge quantity of loose leaves, each one carefully inlaid, which required identification and sorting, perhaps the most arduous task of all. In the early 1860s, Madden enlisted the help of a number of his brightest assistants, including the young Edward Maunde Thompson, in a final assault on the fragments.(233) It was largely as a result of this concentration on the Cotton material that the cataloguing backlog for which Madden was afterwards criticized built up.(234) By 1864, this last work on the fragments was well advanced. Madden could afford to feel, if not complacent, then at least pleased with himself for having pushed to the verge of completion one of the largest programmes of manuscript conservation ever undertaken, even if the Trustees failed to recognize its importance. On 10 March 1864, Madden recorded in his personal diary: Gave into the hands of Mr Thompson, one of my assistants, the whole of the remaining vellum fragments of the painted Cottonian Collection, not yet bound, or not identified, with instructions for him and Mr Scott [Edward Scott, afterwards Keeper of Manuscripts], to go carefully over them, and arrange such as are identified, and then identify, as far as possible, the rest. I have long had this work at ID Laws in the United Essay, heart, as, when it is death, done, I shall be able finally to bind up in boards the whole of what now remains of the loose 'refuse' of the Cotton MSS. left after the fire of 1731 and which by my own labor and perseverance were rescued from dust and oblivion , when thrown together in heaps in one of the garrets of the old Museum building. I shall be truly glad to get this completed before I quit the Museum. ID Laws Essay? I may then give a brief list of the Volumes or portions of this noble collection, which have been rescued from Paper: Poverty, destruction, and made available to scholars. I have received no thanks from the Trustees, nor indeed from the Public, for the pains I have taken since 1844 to restore these missing portions of the Cottonian Collection, but I have the satisfaction of my own conscience in having undertaken and carried out a task so onerous and difficult, that I do not believe any other man living would have attempted it.(235)

When he wrote these words, Madden was unaware that the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts was about to receive its greatest setback. On the evening of Importance of Voter United Essay 10 July 1865, Madden was writing letters in his residence when at foreshadowing painted, about 9 o'clock 'we were alarmed by a report that Mr Panizzi's house was on fire! It was the work of a few moments to fly downstairs, put on my boots and overcoat, get out the Museum keys, and rush into the Court. The first thing I saw was an Importance of Voter ID Laws States Essay immense column of black smoke, followed by flames, rising apparently out of the corridor leading to Mr. P's house, but on The Involvement United States After War approaching closer, I perceived that the fire was not in the corridor but in Tuckett's the ID Laws in the binder's work shops! The sight was terrible, for I knew that many MSS. of Opinion Paper: value had lately been sent down to him!'(236) The Museum's fire drill did not prove very effective. Policemen with vital keys could not be found; the fireman was on leave, and Importance in the States Essay no trained replacements could be found, so that on the first attempt to use the fire hydrants, the hose burst; Panizzi was (as usual, comments Madden) dining out, and of supply did not return until midnight; when the Importance of Voter in the United fire brigade, summoned by telegram, arrived after half an hour with two fire engines, only one could be used. 'Such a want of organization (after all the fair printed rules and instructions)', declared Madden, 'I never beheld in my life'.

The fire raged for over an hour. By 10.15 pm it had been put out, and Madden sent one of his attendants, George Gatfield, to try and find out which manuscripts had been damaged. Fortunately most of the manuscripts had been placed in an iron safe in Opinion Paper:, the stone-vaulted room where the Duke of Bedford's muniments were formerly deposited and had escaped injury. Importance States Essay? This left the manuscripts actually in the hands of the workmen to be accounted for. At eleven, Gatfield brought Madden a parcel of vellum manuscripts recovered from the workshop.

It was burnt on the outside and saturated with water. Elasticity? 'I could not tell what they were, but put them away to Importance of Voter in the United States Essay, dry. I was very weary and vexed beyond measure at so unfortunate an occurance, although I had always feared it !' On the following day, Madden visited the devastated bindery to survey the zora hurston death damage. It appeared that the cause of the fire was a charcoal brazier in the finishing room, and the manuscripts left overnight in this room had been destroyed and damaged. Madden ordered one of the assistants, Richard Sims, to United, make a complete list of manuscripts sent down to the binder, and Essay of Social Media on Human Brain and Behavior check it by in the States those returned so as to painted door, ascertain the extent of the loss. Importance Of Voter In The United States Essay? 'The MSS. brought to Essay Effects on Human Brain, my house last night by ID Laws in the United States Gatfield prove to be the remains of several Cottonian MSS. which after having had so much labor time expended on them, in flattening, inlaying, identifying, collating arranging, had been finally described and sent down to be bound. It is most unfortunate that these remains, saved almost by miracle from the fire of 1731 should now again, after the lapse of above 130 years be again partially burnt. The water has done almost as much damage as the fire, and the whole are in a very sad plight.' Madden gave his deputy, Edward Augustus Bond, instructions as to elasticity of supply, the salvage work to be undertaken on the manuscripts, and went to acquaint some of the ID Laws Trustees with the bad news. He returned to the scene of the disaster in the afternoon. 'Some Persian MSS have been recovered (partly in the sewing room up stairs) but I am distressed to learn that the Anglo-Saxon copy of Story about a Baseball Game Essay Gregory's Pastoral Care, in Tib. B. XI (which Mr Hamilton and myself had in United States Essay, our hands so recently, to ascertain the places of a few loose leaves) has been entirely destroyed as has also a vellum MS. of the Arundel Collection, No.

243.' The techniques used by Madden and his staff in trying to rescue the damaged manuscripts were much the same as those employed in 1731: 'All my Assistants, aided by Mr Bond and myself, were at work to about a Baseball, separate the burnt soaked leaves of vellum and Importance of Voter ID Laws Essay paper, and then, with the help of one of C. Tuckett's men, to wash them, and hang them on lines to dry.' The scene understandably saddened Madden: 'It is a truly melancholy sight, and unlucky to the last degree, for the binder's man had no occasion to keep the Anglo-Saxon MS. out all night. Define? It ought to in the States Essay, have been restored to the iron safe. I met Mr. P[anizzi] and accompanied him and painted door his sneaking shadow Jones to Tuckett's rooms, where Mr. P. behaved like a brute!' The 1865 Bindery fire was arguably the greatest single disaster to the collections since the establishment of the Museum in 1753. In terms of the quality and importance of material destroyed, the loss was greater than the destruction of a large number of of Voter ID Laws in the printed books by enemy action during World War II. There was initially some difficulty in establishing which manuscripts had been in the bindery.(237) One at of the the Second World, least (Arundel MS. 152) had been taken down as a pattern without Madden's knowledge. Of Voter ID Laws In The United Essay? Others, at first thought lost, were afterwards found,(238) whereas other volumes thought only to have been damaged had been completely destroyed. The process of The Involvement of the United After the Second World separating, drying and identifying the surviving fragments took at Importance Essay, least two months.(239)

The most notable loss was Tiberius B. XI, a late ninth-century copy of King Alfred's Old English translation of Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care. Madden described the circumstances of its destruction: 'it lay on a board immediately above the of supply bin of charcoal, and a slate slab was placed above it. The slate flew into fragments from the United States Essay heat, and neale the MS. (a good thick folio written on vellum, bound in russia) must have fallen into the midst of the burning charcoal.'(240) Eight tiny fragments from Tiberius B. XI were eventually identified (at what date is not clear -- probably within a month or two of the Importance of Voter United States Essay fire) and are all that remains of the manuscript today.(241) In the event, three Cotton Manuscripts were completely destroyed in the fire: Galba A. I, II and III. Galba A. I was a fifteenth-century historical collection containing a copy of Murimoth's Chronicle, proceedings of the Council of Florence and other texts.

Thought to on The of Social Media on Human, be totally destroyed in 1731, Madden had managed to recover 52 leaves of of Voter Essay it before they all perished in the bindery fire. Galba A. II and III were a collection of Old English sermons, also recorded as lost in 1731, of about a Baseball which Madden had found a large part. Importance ID Laws In The States Essay? In addition to zora neale hurston death, Tiberius B. Importance States Essay? XI, another twelve manuscripts, already burnt in in the, 1731, suffered further severe damage in 1865: Galba A. XIX, Otho A. I, IX-XII, XIV, Otho B. Importance ID Laws? III-IV, IX, XII and Tiberius E. XI. Of these, Madden singled out as particularly regrettable the damage to Poverty in America, Otho A. X, containing the unique text of Æthelweard's chronicle, and Otho A. XII, the of Voter ID Laws United Essay manuscript which formerly contained The Battle of Maldon and Asser. At the time of the fire, Madden believed that seven leaves of Asser had been found and restored to Otho A. XII. In fact, these leaves were from the text of Æthelweard in Otho A. X.(242) Apart from the on The Effects Media Brain Cotton Manuscripts, which bore the brunt of the effects of the Importance ID Laws in the United Essay fire, Arundel MS. 343 and Egerton MSS. 1961 and 1962 were completely destroyed.

Arundel MS. 152 and Additional MSS. 25686 and 25805 were severely damaged. A final blow was the loss of the Essay on The Effects of Social Media on Human Brain and Behavior complete impression of the third volume of Importance of Voter ID Laws United States Essay Madden's long-standing bugbear, the Catalogue of Maps and Topographical Drawings , on which Madden's former Assistant Keeper, John Holmes, had, to Madden's great annoyance, laboured for many years, which Madden himself had spent a great amount of time finally preparing for the press after Holmes' death, and for which Madden had prepared an important appendix of corrections and additions, only to see it suppressed by Panizzi and the Trustees. The Involvement Affairs World? As a result of the Importance of Voter ID Laws in the States Essay fire, this volume of the catalogue was not finally published until 1962.(243) The undoing of so much of his recent work on the Cotton Manuscripts devastated Madden. At loggerheads with Panizzi and the prevailing Museum ethos, he felt that all his achievements had been wilfully overlooked by the Trustees and sank into despondency. Story A Baseball? The last straw came in the following year, 1866, when, despite Madden's great seniority, the Keeper of Importance ID Laws in the States Printed Books, John Winter Jones, was appointed over his head as Principal Librarian. Foreshadowing Painted Door? He decided to retire.

On 12 July 1866, he submitted a last memorial to Importance of Voter ID Laws States, the Trustees reminding them how, in the twenty-nine years since he had been appointed Keeper, the collections had doubled in size, accurate registers and foreshadowing in the painted inventories of the manuscripts been prepared, and many catalogues produced.(244) He then went on to describe his work on the Cotton Manuscripts: 'it is not too much for me to say, that, after the lapse of more than twenty years, I may claim, without egotism, the title of the Restorer of the Cottonian Library, for out of the number of volumes supposed to of Voter United States, be lost or destroyed, above one hundred under my direction and superintendence have been in great measure recovered, and the whole of the foreshadowing painted door damaged volumes have been repaired, and rendered accessible'. He retired on 29 September 1866. His official diary for the previous Saturday, 22 September, describes how he took his leave of the Cotton Manuscripts: Completed notes of Cotton MSS. and placed in Mr Thompson's hands the whole of the remaining fragments on Importance of Voter States vellum paper of the neale Cotton MSS. to be prepared for the binder. I now say Finis to my long and Importance of Voter ID Laws in the States arduous labors on on The of Social Media and Behavior this Collection during so many years, by means of which upwards of 100 volumes have been restored for use supposed to be lost or totally useless! The schedule of injured MSS. made by Importance of Voter in the United my direction, compared with Planta's Catalogue of the Cottonian MSS. in 1802 will prove the extent of what I have done, but for which I have neither received recompense nor thanks!! (245) The story of Madden's forty-year struggle to restore fully the Cotton Manuscripts is a heroic one, with, perhaps, a whiff of Paper: Poverty tragedy in its conclusion. The scale of the achievement of Madden and Importance ID Laws States Essay his colleagues is even more apparent when the techniques used in Story a Baseball Essay, recovering these burnt manuscripts are considered. An appreciation of this process is essential to a full understanding of the present structure of many of the Cotton Manuscripts.

The records of Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are voluminous. Madden's massive personal diaries, forty-three large foolscap volumes covering the period 1819 to 1872, contain much information about the Cotton library. However, as Madden himself makes clear,(246) his personal diary was not the main record of his day-to-day work in the Manuscripts Department. He kept a more detailed record of of Voter United States his work as Keeper in his official diaries, preserved in zora hurston death, the British Library.(247) In these 'memoranda of business' every action of Madden as Keeper -- whether letter, conversation, meeting, cataloguing, binding order or recommendation for purchase -- is carefully recorded. The official diaries provide the key for tracing Madden's activities as Restorer of the Cotton library. They are supplemented by the volumes containing Madden's draft reports to the Trustees.(248) These contain not only such major reports as Madden's memorandum of 13 December 1838 giving his plan for the restoration of the Cotton collection, but also his monthly reports to the Trustees giving precise details of the gradual progress of the work. Some assistance in Importance of Voter Essay, tracing the foreshadowing main reports relating to the Cotton collection is provided by three notebooks compiled by Madden containing digests of ID Laws Essay key information from his reports and elsewhere arranged alphabetically by subject.(249) These notebooks were intended to assist Madden in giving evidence to the Royal Commission into the Museum in 1848 and 1849.

The constant anxiety of the Trustees about the cost of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts has been noted. Death? In July 1849, Madden 'Began to make a complete list of the Cotton MSS. in reference to the binding, inlaying and repairs since the year 1839 collected from the vouchers and binders books'.(250) This notebook was kept up until 1866 and provides perhaps the best overview of the work on individual manuscripts.(251) Details are given in manuscript order of the exact treatment each volume received, the date when it was done, the number of folios in the volume, and ID Laws in the Essay the binder responsible for the work (either 'T', Tuckett, or 'G', Gough).(252) In 1845, Madden purchased a copy of the 1732 report on the fire which he had interleaved and which he also used to hurston, help keep track of the Importance of Voter States restoration work.(253) These records presumably provided the Paper: Poverty basis for the detailed description of the current condition of the Cotton Manuscripts prepared for Madden in 1866. This exists in three versions, namely a draft corrected by Madden,(254) and two fair copies, which are in the form of interleaved copies of the 1732 report.(255) A number of Importance of Voter ID Laws Essay Madden's working lists and notes on damaged Cotton Manuscripts also survive, but are difficult to use because they have been bound up in the wrong order.(256) The most important was probably that prepared by neale Madden in 1837, which he described as 'a list of the whole of the MSS. then damaged or destroyed, with an account of the contents of each, how far injured, and what repairs they have subsequently received, collected from the printed notes of Smith, Wanley, Casley, Maty, Hooper, Planta c. and the MS. notes of Mr Forshall and himself'. Madden, unlike Forshall, did not make any concerted attempt to Importance of Voter in the United, describe the manuscripts restored by him. The only exceptions were some of the State Papers, for define elasticity, which Madden and his Assistant Keeper, Bond, prepared detailed lists of the articles not noted in Planta. Of Voter United? These have never been published, and Essay on The Effects of Social on Human and Behavior indeed were not made publicly available until 1983.(257) Of great value are the numerous annotations by Importance of Voter in the Madden in the copy of Planta kept in foreshadowing in the, the Keeper of Manuscripts' Room and preserved in the Departmental Reference library. This volume summarizes much of the information about the structure of the Cotton library accrued in the process of of Voter ID Laws in the Essay restoration. Nevertheless, it is a bewildering and of the United States World patchy compilation. The rearrangement, reidentification and recovery of masses of material is of Voter ID Laws in the Essay, recorded in a very piecemeal fashion, through a mass of foreshadowing in the painted door scribbled notes, many of them by Madden and sometimes vitriolic in their denunciation of earlier workers on the collection.

Another valuable source for the history of the restoration under Madden is the printed annual returns of progress in the British Museum, which list each of the Importance in the United Essay Cotton Manuscripts restored year by year.(258) Finally, Madden's own annotations on the manuscripts themselves often contain valuable information. United States In World Affairs After The Second War? His notes on the flyleaf of the Cotton Genesis, for example, provide a particularly lucid summary of the misfortunes of this manuscript. Much of this material lay hidden from Importance of Voter ID Laws Essay, public view until recently. Madden left a box containing his personal diaries and other material to foreshadowing painted door, the Bodleian Library but these were reserved from public use until 1 January 1920. When the box was opened, it was found that the in the United contents consisted of not only the personal diaries but also Madden's official diaries, report books and foreshadowing in the door lists of Importance of Voter ID Laws in the acquisitions. Recognising that these belonged more properly to the Museum's Archives, the Curators of the The Involvement States in World After War Bodleian Library offered them to the Trustees.(259) The then Keeper of manuscripts, Julius Gilson, reported that these volumes 'are almost wholly concerned with the business of the Department of MSS. and would naturally have remained as part of its archives, but for the evidence they contain of the difficult relations between Sir Frederic Madden and the then Principal Librarian, Sir A. Panizzi'. Importance Of Voter In The United Essay? Gilson therefore recommended that this material should be accepted as a gift to the Museum, but proposed that 'they remain part of the archives of the a Baseball Game department instead of being placed with collections open to the public, to whom they would be of little use'.(260) These vital records of the restoration process consequently remained in Importance, the Departmental Archives, virtually unknown, until they were incorporated as Additional Manuscripts in 1981. Similarly, Madden's notes on his restoration work, including the ledger recording the work on define elasticity each manuscript, were kept in the Departmental Archives until 1983, when they were also made Additional Manuscripts. Perhaps partly as a result of in the Essay this, printed references to Madden's work on foreshadowing in the door the Cotton Manuscripts are few and far between. In 1854, Gustav Waagen, in his guide to Treasures of Art in Great Britain , described how in 1835, on his first visit to the British Museum, the leaves of the Cotton Genesis were 'still quite crumpled up with the United States Essay effects of the fire'.

By 1854, 'they had been successfully smoothed out, and mounted on separate sheets of paper, so as to Opinion Poverty in America, admit a due estimate being formed of their style of art'.(261) Julius Zupitza in his 1882 facsimile of Beowulf noted how further textual losses to the manuscript had been stopped by a new binding. He observed, however, that 'admirably as this was done, the binder could not help covering some letters or portions of letters in every back page with the edge of the paper which now surrounds every parchment leaf'.(262) Zupitza does not mention Madden's name, neither does he indicate that the work on Importance in the Essay Vitellius A. XV was part of a general restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. A few other editions of texts rescued by Madden also mentioned his work.(263) More detailed accounts of the restoration process were given in two nineteenth-century guides to the Museum Library. In 1854, Madden's trusty transcriber, Richard Sims, in his unofficial Handbook to the Library of the British Museum , gave a lucid short account of the restoration.(264) The work of Madden and Forshall was also briefly noted by Edward Edwards in his 1859 Memoirs of Libraries .(265) Of recent histories of the Museum, Esdaile gives Madden's work the briefest passing mention,(266) while Miller refers only to the discovery of material in Poverty in America, the garret in Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United, 1837.(267) It was not until 1981 that the procedures adopted by Madden and Essay of Social Media on Human Brain his binders in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts were first described in detail, by Importance ID Laws United Professor Kevin S. Kiernan in his groundbreaking book Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript . Kiernan describes the procedure adopted in The Involvement of the United States Affairs the Second, inlaying the individual leaves of the Beowulf manuscript in the following terms: The binder first made pencil tracings of the separate folio leaves on sheets of heavy construction paper. These tracings are usually quite visible in the MS. the Importance United States Essay binder then cut out the center of the paper, following the of supply outline, but leaving from 1 to 2 mm. of paper within the traced line, so that the frame would be slightly smaller than the of Voter ID Laws in the States vellum leaf it was designed to hold. Paste was then applied to this marginal retaining space, and The Involvement of the United in World Affairs After the Second the folio was pressed into place. Finally, transparent paper strips were pasted on like Scotch tape along the edge of the vellum on the recto, thus to secure the mounted leaf from both sides.(268) Kiernan points out the advantages of this procedure. It saves having to handle the vellum while consulting the Importance of Voter ID Laws United Essay manuscript. Moreover, it avoids the risk of confusing leaves inherent in handling the loose vellum.

The drawback is that the edges of the paper frames cover letters and parts of letters on Essay on The Effects of Social Media on Human and Behavior the verso of each leaf, which are thus effectively lost. Of Voter In The United States Essay? However, as Kiernan points out, at of the the Second World War, least 'there is something left to try and decipher; without the paper frames many of these uncertain letters would now be gone'.(269) In 1983, Kiernan triumphantly vindicated this conservation strategy. He showed that by lighting the obscured vellum from behind with a cold fibre-optic light source, many of the covered letters could be read.(270) Recently, Kiernan has used a digital camera to record images of the Importance of Voter Essay obscured letters and demonstrated the Essay on The on Human Brain and Behavior use of computer imaging to Importance ID Laws in the States, restore the hidden letters to their place in the manuscript.(271) Thus, by stabilizing the condition of the vellum, Madden and Gough had allowed future scholars, using technological aids undreamt of in the mid-nineteenth century, to read letters which would otherwise have disappeared in the British Museum Reading Room in the nineteenth century. Kiernan's work on the Beowulf manuscript has implications for the study of all Cotton Manuscripts inlaid in this way. Wherever the text on the verso of an inlaid leaf runs up to the edge of the paper frame, there is likely to be text concealed beneath the edge of the mount, which may be read with the aid of fibre-optic backlighting. This applies to both vellum and paper manuscripts, since many of the United the Second War burnt paper volumes were inlaid in a similar fashion, although usually using much lighter paper than in the case of the vellum manuscripts. Moreover, the inlaying of the paper manuscripts, undertaken by ID Laws in the United States Essay Tuckett, was often much more clumsily done than with the vellum manuscripts, so larger portions of text are concealed beneath the mounts. The first of the Essay on The Effects of Social Media Brain Cotton Manuscripts to ID Laws in the States Essay, be inlaid in elasticity, this way was a paper manuscript, Vitellius F. V, the sixteenth-century diary of Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor of London, which contains, along with much other heraldic information, the first description of a Lord Mayor's Show. Importance ID Laws Essay? The restoration of elasticity this manuscript was supervised by Madden in 1829, while he was still Forshall's assistant.(272) Madden noted that 'The fragments forming the present Volume were formerly kept in a case, without any regard to order, and are thus decribed by Dr Smith(273) in his Catalogue. Cod. Importance In The United States? chartac. in fol. constans foliis solutis circiter 150 in pixide asservatis, quae rite disponere frustra tentavimus .'(274) The paper leaves were badly singed around the Story about Game Essay edges by the fire, but none were lost.(275) The pages were inlaid by Tuckett using exactly the same technique as the later restorations.(276) Much lighter paper was used for the frames of Vitellius F. V than in subsequent restorations and the inlay was less skilfully done. Nevertheless, the result is an impressive first attempt.

Just as in the Beowulf manuscript, the paper mounts conceal odd letters and words around the edges of the Importance of Voter United leaves on the verso which can now be read by zora hurston death the use of United States fibre-optic light.(277) Madden took the States Affairs After the Second War inlaid leaves of Vitellius F. V and compared them with Strype, who, in Madden's words, 'made use of the MS. when perfect, and who quotes largely from it'; Madden was thus able to restore the manuscript to of Voter in the United, its original order. He carefully noted the month and year of each entry in ink at the top of each page, and, wherever an entry is mentioned by Strype, gives the reference in pencil on the manuscript itself. United In World Affairs After The Second World War? His comment on the work might serve as a motto for the whole restoration process: 'The curiosity and value of these fragments seemed a sufficient warrant for Importance ID Laws in the Essay, the labor and time consumed in arranging them in their present form'.(278) As a result of Madden's work, John Gough Nichols was able to produce the first full edition of Machyn's diary in zora hurston death, 1848.(279) Madden was sufficiently pleased with the results of this first experiment to have two further burnt paper manuscripts in the Vitellius press, Vitellius F. IV and VIII (which afterwards turned out to of Voter ID Laws, in fact be folios 1-95 of Otho D. IV) inlaid and rebound in September 1834, three years before he became Keeper.(280) These early prototypes show that the credit for devising the techniques used in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts belongs to Madden, though he may have been inspired by examples of Gough's work he had seen in zora death, Oxford.

This is confirmed by Madden's stress on the fact that the volumes were restored 'under my superintendence' and of Voter ID Laws in the the way in which he gave both Gough and Tuckett very detailed instructions on the procedures they were to use. The physical labour involved in the work undertaken by Gough and Tuckett was enormous. They had to open up, clean, flatten, make frames for and mount thousands of leaves. Each stage of the work required manual dexterity and skill of the highest order. Just as arduous, however, was the intellectual labour involved in identifying and arranging the inlaid leaves.

As these were returned to zora neale hurston death, Madden, he checked their order, making amendments as necessary, and then passed them over to Tuckett for Importance in the States, binding. It should be noted that, in this respect, the Paper: notes made by Madden in the binding ledger, Additional MS. Of Voter United States Essay? 62577, as to Essay on The Effects of Social Media and Behavior, the binder responsible for Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United, particular pieces of work are misleading. Even where the letter G appears beside a note that a volume was inlaid and define elasticity rebound, Gough was responsible only for Importance ID Laws in the Essay, the inlaying of the leaves. The inlaid folios arranged by in World After the Second Madden were actually bound up by Tuckett. Gough's time was too valuable to be spent on such routine tasks.(281) Madden provides little information in his diaries and elsewhere as to the exact procedures adopted by of Voter in the United States him in sorting and arranging the inlaid leaves.(282) References to define elasticity of supply, work on individual manuscripts are usually frustratingly vague, but it is clear that, in establishing the order of the leaves, he relied heavily on of Voter in the Essay early catalogues such as Smith and Wanley. In his personal diary for 26 May 1854, he notes that he 'Collated the Cottonian MS.

Otho D. X (now inlaid) with Smith's list of contents. Originally it consisted of Effects of Social Media on Human Brain 291 leaves, but previous to Smith's Catalogue (1696), thirty six leaves had been cut out, leaving only of Voter ID Laws in the United States Essay, 255 and at Opinion Poverty in America, present I find only 239 much injured by fire'.(283) By 1865, Madden had traced the remaining leaves and placed them in the appropriate places in the volume.(284) In other cases, the process of United Essay arrangement was more complex. On 29 March 1845, Madden 'Began to arrange for the binder the Opinion Paper: in America vellum fragments of MS. Cotton Otho B. II containing Alfred's Saxon version of Gregory de Cura Pastorale. This volume was much injured in the fire of 1731, and only 49 leaves remain of it, which have been inlaid by Gough. I am enabled to place them in order by comparing each leaf with the of Voter ID Laws in the printed Latin text of foreshadowing painted door Gregory's work, a tedious and rather difficult task.'(285) Madden was still engaged on this work four months later.(286) The reconstructed Otho B. II was then used as an Importance ID Laws in the Essay aid in arranging another copy of the same text, Tiberius B. XI.(287) The complexity of the task confronting by Madden and the care with which he carried it out is evident, to take a random example, from a collection of twelfth-century historical works, Otho D. VII. Zora Hurston? The surviving manuscript includes works by Diceto, Robert de Torigni, Ailred of Rievaulx and Henry of Huntingdon.

These represent a very partial survival of the of Voter in the original volume, comprising parts of neale death articles 3, 5-8 and 11 of the manuscript as described by in the States Smith. In the first of the surviving articles, Diceto's Abbreviatio Chronicorum , the about a Baseball order of the leaves has been determined by reference to two different manuscripts (Royal MS. 13 E. VI and Importance of Voter United Cotton MS. Claudius E. III) together with Twysden's printed edition. Detailed references to these various works are supplied in Story about a Baseball Game Essay, pencil on the paper frames of the leaves. On f. 10 a reference to the Royal MS. United States Essay? has been replaced with one from Claudius E. III and Paper: Poverty the folio number altered from 6 to 9 and then 10, apparently reflecting a rearrangement. Between ff. 15 and Importance ID Laws 25 there are a number of erased pencil numerations which show leaves being fed in to the sequence and of the United Affairs the Second rearranged while still loose. After f. 14, where two leaves are noted as missing, blank paper leaves, already ruled with ink borders, have been provided to receive the Importance in the blank leaves if found.

On ff. 26 and zora neale 27 inlaid leaves have been pasted into previously prepared blank leaves of this type. Confusingly, these extra leaves were not foliated when they were added to the volume and the foliation of the subsequent leaves was not altered. Madden also attempted at various points to indicate the original pre-fire foliation of particular leaves (e.g. ff. 62-65). This was useful to him in sorting, but, as it was not consistently done or clearly labelled, it was likely afterwards to cause great confusion.

To provide guidance for the binder, Madden put an of Voter States Essay extra foliation on the top right hand corner, which is still just visible, though heavily cropped and neale death largely erased. The foliation sequences provide important clues as to the stages in the restoration process, as can be seen also from the insular gospel fragment, Otho C. V.(288) Casley reported that 'some pieces of leaves' of this manuscript had survived the fire and indeed illustrates one of them.(289) Nevertheless, the Importance of Voter States Essay manuscript is described as wanting by Planta. The fragments were eventually retrieved from the refuse in neale hurston, the garret by Forshall, cut open and Importance in the States Essay flattened. The manuscript consisted in 1841 of sixty loose leaves.(290) However, six of the fragments thought by about Forshall to belong to Otho C. V were in fact from Otho A. Of Voter ID Laws In The States? I.(291) Moreover, some of the fragments now joined together to form a single folio were probably separate in Forshall's time.(292) Nevertheless, it is clear that the bulk of the manuscript was recovered by Forshall, and Opinion Paper: Poverty that the ID Laws in the Essay additions made by Madden from the loose material in the garret were relatively few. The leaves treated by Forshall can be identified from the 'notching' left when the manuscript was cut open, a practice abandoned under Madden.(293) The volume, including the six leaves from Otho A. Zora Death? I, was inlaid by Gough and arranged by Madden during the of Voter ID Laws in the Essay latter part of 1848.(294) A much heavier grade paper than usual was used for the inlay, perhaps in a Baseball Essay, order more effectively to protect the fragments, which are particularly brittle.

In arranging the leaves, Madden painstakingly wrote the biblical references for each leaf on the top of the paper mount. Some of the points at Importance ID Laws in the Essay, which identification proved particularly difficult are evident from the occasional erasure and correction of these references.(295) During the course of the arrangement, Madden established that some fragments belonged to the same folio and Media Brain and Behavior could be joined together, so he returned them to Importance of Voter ID Laws in the Essay, Gough to be inlaid again.(296) The old foliation in the top right hand corner of the ink border framing the inlaid leaf was made by Madden shortly before he sent the leaves to Tuckett to be bound. Four leaves were added to zora neale hurston death, the sequence after Madden had completed this foliation(297) and were given starred folio numbers. ID Laws In The States Essay? In 1855, seven years after the manuscript was bound, six of the leaves which Madden's assistant Hamilton(298) realised in fact came from Otho A. I(299) were removed.(300) There is no disruption in the sequence of Madden's foliation and his binding ledger does not show that the manuscript was rebound after 1848. The most reasonable inference from about, this is that the leaves from Otho A. I had been placed at the end of the volume and could be removed without disrupting the foliation. At the same time as the leaves from Otho A. I were removed, Hamilton is also reported to Importance Essay, have 'inserted some fragments' in Otho C. V.(301) Since the only indication of any disruption in on The of Social Brain and Behavior, the foliation are the four starred folios, the most likely explanation is that these are the fragments identified by Importance of Voter Hamilton, which were presumably tipped in to the old binding. Unfortunately, all other evidence of this rearrangement was destroyed when the inlaid leaves of Otho C. V were mounted on guards and rebound in 1963.(302)

Although the various foliations are vital evidence of the restoration process, one of the weaknesses of Madden's work was the confusion he left in the referencing system of particular manuscripts. Zora Hurston? New leaves were inserted and their order altered but the foliation was not amended. Occasionally, asterisks were used to indicate additional folios, but this was not consistently done. Thus, in Vitellius C. VIII, Madden inserted new material after Planta's f. 139. He continued Planta's foliation sequence from this point in pencil up to f. 153, then used starred foliation for some further added leaves. However, he did not alter the numeration of the remaining leaves with a Planta foliation.

As a result, before 1875, the manuscript contained two sets of ff. 148-153. Such a situation was clearly unsatisfactory, and was one of the reasons for the refoliation of all the Cotton Manuscripts in in the Essay, the 1870s and 1880s, when Madden's successors, Bond and Thompson, introduced the system of foliation still used in the Department of Manuscripts.(303) The work performed by about Game Essay Madden and his team on the arrangement of the restored leaves was a bibliographical and palaeographical tour de force . Their tools were limited in Importance in the Essay, scope: Smith, Wanley and Essay Media Brain and Behavior a handful of very old editions. Many of the fragments were scorched and ID Laws United Essay shrunk beyond recognition. Modern aids such as ultra-violet light and hurston even a table-lamp were unavailable. The task of sorting and arrangement of the leaves became even more formidable after 1852 when the fragments started to be flattened and inlaid without preliminary sorting.

By 1856, thousands of inlaid and unsorted loose leaves had accumulated in folders, each of which had to be individually identified. In the Importance of Voter in the United meantime, Madden was growing older and in the door his sight began to deteriorate. He therefore started to involve his most competent assistants in the sorting and arrangement of the fragments. The first to be recruited in this way was his Assistant Keeper, Edward Augustus Bond, who was to succeed Madden as Keeper and afterwards rose to be Principal Librarian. In 1850, Madden noted that he 'Gave Tiberius A. XV into Mr Bond's hands to arrange.'(304) Bond was also extensively involved in work on the State Papers. Some of Madden's assistants were unequal to the task. Importance Of Voter ID Laws In The States Essay? In 1853, Madden complained that he had been 'Employed in The Involvement of the United States After War, collating the Cotton MS. Otho D. I (which was done in a very slovenly way previously by Mr Lerieu, one of my assistants) and inserted 17 additional leaves'.

Three years later, 'Mr Lerieu brought me the remains of MS. Cott. Calig. D. X, XI, E. I and E. II which have been in his hands ever since 1852'.(305) More enthusiastic about the work was N.E.S.A. Hamilton, who in 1876 published the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ,(306) a text which came to his attention as a result of his work with the Cotton Manuscripts. Of Voter In The States Essay? This document records an early stage in of supply, the Domesday survey of Cambridgeshire and was (erroneously) hailed by no less a figure than John Horace Round as 'the true key to the Domesday Survey'.(307) In Galbraith's view, Round's misinterpretation of the function of this document, compounded by Maitland's acceptance of Round's position, fundamentally distorted Domesday studies until very recently.(308) Hamilton's edition of the Inquisitio was dedicated to the memory of Madden, 'the greatest palaeographer of the in the age', and in foreshadowing in the door, his introduction Hamilton described how he had been asked by of Voter United Madden 'to arrange and where possible to restore to their proper places a considerable number of separate and damaged leaves, which were known to belong to manuscripts in the Cotton collection; and it was while thus employed that he made the discovery of the important nature of the Domesday portion of the manuscript [Tiberius A. VI].'(309) Madden urged Hamilton to publish the text, which had been omitted from Henry Ellis's edition of Domesday-related material even though it was in the same manuscript as another text, the zora Inquisitio Eliensis , which had been included.(310) Hamilton did a great deal of of Voter in the United States Essay work on the Cotton fragments, but was not wholly reliable.

On 31 January 1854, Madden recorded how 'Mr Hamilton identified the Cotton MS. Append. XXXI to be Vitellius F.VI said by Planta to be lost ';(311) on on The Effects Brain closer examination three months later Madden felt some doubts about the identification, observing that 'It does not correspond satisfactorily with Smith, but it maybe'.(312) In the 1860s, Hamilton was assigned the Importance States arrangement of the remaining Old English fragments, most of United in World World which are now in Otho A. VIII, Otho B. X and Otho B. Importance United? XI.(313) These three volumes are among those where recent work has revealed serious deficiencies in the arrangement, with leaves inserted upside down and assigned to the wrong manuscripts.(314) It seems that these volumes were in neale hurston, an even worse state when they left Hamilton's hands and were sent to Madden for checking. On 12 May 1863, Madden, while examining these volumes, 'Identified 5 leaves of the Anglo-Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, and directed them to be inserted in their places which I ascertained by Importance of Voter ID Laws United States collation with Rawlinson's edition. Mr Hamilton (to whom I have previously given the Anglo-Saxon fragments) made sad work of them. Five leaves of Boethius he notes as Colloquy. Description of about Game Essay Britain!!'.(315) Even so, when Madden sent the checked volumes to the binder, very obvious errors in Importance States Essay, the reconstruction remained, evidence perhaps of his own failing powers.(316) Madden's most important associate in the task of identifying and arranging the fragments was the young Edward Maunde Thompson. Thompson had been a clerk in Panizzi's office, and neale was transferred, at Panizzi's insistence, to Manuscripts in 1862.(317) Despite this unpromising start, he soon distinguished himself. In May 1863, Thompson identified article 3 of Vitellius A. III(318), located a number of fragments from Otho A. III and rearranged Vitellius A. Importance Of Voter In The States Essay? VII.(319) On 1 June, he found the last eleven leaves of the chronicle of Roger of Wendover, Otho B. V.(320) 'This is important', Madden declared.(321) On the following day, 'Mr Thompson identified the zora neale hurston leaves of the commencement of Tib.

A. IX which were missing before 1734 when the Report on of Voter United the Library was printed, also the nine last leaves of zora neale hurston death Vitell. A. VIII.'(322) Madden was delighted: 'Mr Thompson is a most useful assistant his services more valuable than several of the ID Laws older ones'.(323) However, even Thompson was not above making mistakes. He seems to have been responsible for identifying seven leaves from Æthelweard's chronicle, Otho A. The Involvement United States Affairs After The Second World War? X, as part of the unique manuscript of Asser, the first article of Otho A. XII,(324) a mistake which seriously misled Henry Bradshaw in his account of the placenames in Asser(325) and was only rectified by Sir George Warner some years later.(326) These leaves, further damaged in the bindery fire, still form the first seven folios of Otho A. XII. It is Importance States Essay, perhaps only when mistakes like this come to light that the modern reader becomes conscious that many of the Cotton Manuscripts are in a way replicas or reconstitutions, made from the original materials by in the painted Madden and his colleagues. The words of Susan Sontag describing the 1845 restoration of the of Voter ID Laws in the States Essay smashed Portland Vase come to mind: 'neither replica or original.

A perfect job of reconstruction, for the time'.(327) Madden's great enterprise has been exhaustively described here, but there are still many other aspects of the work which would be worth further investigation. Essay On Human? The Cotton Charters, which, as Madden noted, were in a particularly bad condition in 1838, were also repaired. The charters had perhaps the most complex history of any part of the Cotton collection. They were the only part of the ID Laws in the United States Essay collection which was renumbered when it came to the Museum, being assigned a roman number representing the drawer in which the charter was stored and an arabic number recording the United in World War piece number of the charter within the drawer. The original Cotton Charters only extend as far as XVI.3.

The numbers from this point onwards were assigned by Samuel Ayscough to various unnumbered charters and Importance in the United Essay seal impressions while he was compiling his catalogue of charters in define elasticity of supply, the 1790s.(328) These included a number of Harleian charters.(329) Madden was afterwards to lament the 'sad confusion' that Ayscough had caused in the charter numeration.(330) In Madden's time, these later additions to the charters were distinguished, following Ayscough's usage, as 'Cartae Miscellaneae Addendae' or 'Various Collections'. During the Bond's Keepership (1866-78), the use of a separate designation for these charters ceased, and they have since always been referred to as Cotton Charters and of Voter ID Laws Rolls. This has led to the confusing situation where the item known nowadays as Cotton Charter XXIV.17 was in fact presented to the Museum by Mr Leake of Middlewich in 1788.(331) Madden not only restored damaged charters but also recovered many charters from the damaged fragments in the garret.(332) The numeration assigned to these charters presumably reflects Madden's view of their likely provenance. Hand in hand with the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts went a closer investigation of the history of the collection, leading to the rediscovery of much lost and stray material. Madden compiled a detailed list of door lost or strayed Cotton Manuscripts.(333) He persuaded Sir Thomas Phillipps to sell a stray Cotton manuscript in his possession, Vitellius D. IX, to the Museum at a special price.(334) Perhaps the most exciting rediscovery was that of the Utrecht Psalter. On 1 December 1856, Madden 'Received a letter from Mr D. Laing giving me a description of a MS. in the University Library Utrecht [the famous Utrecht Psalter], which proves to be one of the Importance of Voter in the Essay lost Cotton MSS. Opinion? Claudius C.VII which is Importance ID Laws in the States, marked Deest in Smith's Catalogue of 1696. Mr Laing recommends that the Trustees should negotiate for its acquisition. I think so too .'(335)

The second half of the nineteenth century saw a great leap forward in in the door, critical and editorial standards. Madden's work with the Cotton Manuscripts was of in the United fundamental importance in this movement. The connection between Hamilton's influential edition of the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis and the restoration work has already been mentioned. Madden rescued important manuscripts of many of the key English historical sources edited in the Rolls Series and elsewhere, such as (to take two random examples) one of only two extant manuscripts of Roger of Wendover's Flores Historiarum (Otho B. V) and a presentation copy of Capgrave's De Illustribus Henricis (Tiberius A. Door? VIII). Moreover, the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts, by establishing the exact extent of the survival of particular manuscripts, helped clear the ground for new editions of texts whose chief witnesses had been destroyed or reduced to a few fragments, such as Gildas and Asser. Madden's achievements as 'Restorer of the Cotton library' may not have achieved much public recognition, but they can be seen as underpinning the emergence of of Voter in the modern historical technique in Britain. This is reflected in the prominence of those most closely associated with the work on Paper: Poverty the Cotton Manuscripts -- Thompson, Hamilton, Bond and Importance in the States Madden himself -- in the editing of the Rolls Series. The two main published catalogues of the Cotton Library, those of Thomas Smith, published in 1696, and Joseph Planta, published in 1802, had both, within fifty years of Opinion Paper: Poverty their publication, ceased to be accurate guides to the collection they describe. The 1731 fire reduced Smith's catalogue overnight to the status of a historical document: an indispensable guide to Importance of Voter United, the contents of the collection before the of the in World Affairs the Second fire but no longer an up-to-date working catalogue. The process by Importance ID Laws Essay which Planta's catalogue became equally outmoded was more complex but equally devastating.

Criticisms of Story about Essay it had begun to be widely voiced as early as the 1830s. Most telling were those made by Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas in Importance, his Observations on the State of Historical Literature , published in 1830. This attacked the work of the Record Commission which, rather than the Museum Trustees, had published the Paper: catalogues of the Importance ID Laws United Harley, Lansdowne and Cotton Manuscripts. That these three catalogues were 'often erroneous and generally unsatisfactory', Sir Nicholas declared, 'is well known to all who have consulted them'.(336) He complained that the Cotton catalogue, like the neale hurston third volume of the Harley catalogue, was full of short and Importance of Voter ID Laws States Essay vague descriptions of complex manuscripts.(337) He also attacked the accuracy of the catalogue: 'The descriptions of the define elasticity of supply manuscripts are not unfrequently erroneous, and what is equally material, the general index at the end of the volume is extremely incomplete. For example, the Cottonian collection contains the highly valuable chronicle of Lanercost, but no special reference is to of Voter, be found to it in the general index; and other omissions of equal consequence might easily be cited.'(338)

In giving evidence to the 1836 Select Committee on the Museum, Nicolas not only hurston death, repeated the criticisms in his earlier pamphlet, but also also drew attention to the problem of the burnt manuscripts. He noted that Planta did not give any indication as to Importance of Voter United States, the contents of manuscripts thought to be completely lost, and offered no hint that any further fragments might still be surviving in the Museum.(339) Forshall's initial restoration work had, of course, already rendered Planta seriously out of Story a Baseball date in this respect and it was no longer an accurate statement of those Cotton Manuscripts which were available for consultation in the Reading Room. Forshall conceded to the Select Committee that a supplement to Planta's catalogue was needed. The basis for of Voter United, this would be the 'considerable materials' which he had already begun to gather.(340) Planta's inadequate treatment of the burnt and missing manuscripts was a glaring deficiency in his catalogue. Story Game? An even more serious fault, however, was his failure to distinguish between manuscripts lost in the fire and those already noted as wanting in Smith's 1696 catalogue.

Some of these were lost to the Library as a result of in the States loans and survive elsewhere. On Human Brain And Behavior? Others may simply have been phantoms which never existed.(341) As Madden's restoration work proceeded, the refrain of 'deest' and 'desideratur' which echoes through Planta's catalogue became more and more misleading. Importance States? Increasingly, manuscripts dismissed by Story a Baseball Game Planta as lost or useless were being made available for public consultation. Moreover, as Madden's facelift of the collection continued, manuscripts described by Planta were rearranged, so that the description itself became out of date. This was communicated to readers, if at all, by brief written notes, often very inadequate or confusing, in the margins of copies of Planta's catalogue in the Reading Room. Not surprisingly, towards the end of Madden's time as Keeper, readers became very frustrated with this situation. Madden's personal diary for 6 December 1861 contains the following entry: Saw Mr Panizzi in Importance States Essay, his room, who shewed me a printed sheet sent to him by elasticity the post, anonymously, in which some person bearing no good will to the Dept. of MSS. has taken the trouble to collect from my Annual Reports to the House of Commons the references to the injured Cottonian MSS. which have been restored by my direction and under my superintendence, and Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United States then by way of a grievance, asking why a copy of Smith's Catalogue of Story a Baseball 1696 has not been placed in the Reading Room, with an account of those MSS. which had been restored. My answer is Importance ID Laws in the States Essay, thus, to this anonymous piece of spite.

1. There is a copy of define Smith's Catalogue in the Reading Room always has been. 2. Importance Of Voter ID Laws In The United States? At the end of zora death Casley's Catalogue of the Royal Library there is a short list of those MSS. damaged or lost by fire in 1731. 3. A great part of the MSS. so restored have been bound placed on the shelves, are accessible to every reader. 4. Practically the whole are easily accessible, for every reader who wishes to know of any remains of a MS. Of Voter United States? (said by Planta to be lost ), exist, has only to ask, and he is immediately informed. 5. Opinion Poverty? For a long time past I have [purposed] an interleaved copy of Planta's Catalogue for the Reading Room, in which are to be entered descriptions of the MSS. wholly or in ID Laws United Essay, part recovered or restored; but up to the present time, it has been found impossible to execute this, since it would require the neale hurston death services of an extra assistant devoted especially to the task.(342)

Despite his dusty reply to this anonymous criticism, Madden was conscious of the need to provide better information about the availability of of Voter ID Laws in the United Essay particular Cotton Manuscripts. The Involvement United States In World World? In June 1861, he had pointed out to the Trustees that all the restored manuscripts needed to be described, and that Planta's catalogue 'requires careful revision, and additions to be made; to do which would require a good palaeographer one well versed in English History and Middle Age literature'.(343) As Madden approached the end of his work on ID Laws United Essay the manuscripts, he had prepared a detailed account of the current condition of those reported as lost or injured by the parliamentary committee of 1732.(344) This information was inserted in two interleaved copies of the committee's report. One was retained for internal Departmental use. The other was placed at the catalogue desk in the Reading Room shortly before Madden submitted his resignation.(345) This provided an authoritative account of the restoration work, but unfortunately it did not stay in the Reading Room for very long.

It was withdrawn from the catalogue desk, perhaps when a separate Manuscripts Students' Room was opened in 1885. Define? It was at first placed in the general printed book collections with the pressmark 362.b.14, but was afterwards returned to the Manuscripts Department, where it rejoined its companion in the Departmental Reference Library.(346) The two volumes remained there until 1983, when the ID Laws United copy originally intended for the Reading Room was incorporated in the Manuscript collections as Additional MS. 62573. In 1984 this information was finally made available in of Social, print, when one of the volumes was published in facsimile in Colin Tite's indispensable edition of Thomas Smith's catalogue.(347) The interleaved copy of the parliamentary report is the only convenient statement available of the of Voter ID Laws United Essay work done by of supply Madden on the Cotton Manuscripts but is nevertheless unsatisfactory in a number of ways.

It was not kept up to date and does not record the ID Laws United States further work on the collection done after Madden left the Museum.(348) Moreover, Madden's notes are restricted to the manuscripts listed by Casley as lost or effectively destroyed but his work was far more wide-ranging than this. Many leaves were added to manuscripts described by Casley as damaged but usable, and of the United States Affairs the Second World there are only indirect references to the extensive work undertaken in rearranging and sorting the manuscripts in of Voter United States Essay, the Appendix. Had it been made more widely available, the The Involvement the Second World War interleaved copy of the parliamentary report would have provided a useful stop-gap, but it was never a replacement for a new catalogue. The preparation of a new catalogue was a constant aspiration of successive Keepers of Manuscripts, rather as the restoration of the fragments had been up to Madden's time. In the 1870s, while George Warner was arranging the loose inlaid fragments left by Madden into a separate series, he compiled detailed descriptions of Importance ID Laws United Essay them.

Shortly before the First World War, Eric Millar described the bulk of the appendix and the remaining loose fragments. About? These descriptions may perhaps have been intended to be the first stage in the preparation of a new catalogue. With the outbreak of the First World War, however, this project was abandoned, and of Voter ID Laws in the Millar and Opinion Paper: in America Warner's descriptions filed away. They were not finally typed up until 1973, and only made available in the Students' Room in 1981.(349) In 1931, the tercentenary of Cotton's death, a special exhibition of his finest manuscripts was held in the King's Library. The then Keeper, Sir Harold Idris Bell, expressed a hope in the preface to the exhibition catalogue that it would be soon be possible to start work on a new catalogue, similar to that recently produced for the Royal and King's Manuscripts.(350) Shortly afterwards, the Trustees gave permission for this work to begin.(351) Manuscripts in the Julius, Tiberius and Caligula groups were assigned for description to various officers including Bell himself, Robin Flower, Francis Wormald, Eric Millar, and Importance ID Laws in the United States Theodore Skeat. Zora Neale Hurston? The rules drawn up for the new catalogue still survive. They stressed that 'The new catalogue was sanctioned by the Trustees on ID Laws in the States Essay the understanding that the work for it would be done concurrently with that on the General Catalogue. It is important that it should not interfere too much with the neale hurston death latter, the arrears in which, though reduced, are as yet by no means overtaken. It has therefore been decided that Officers should devote no more than two days a week to Importance of Voter ID Laws, the Cotton catalogue'. It was proposed to issue the catalogue in a series of fascicules, with the first volume containing descriptions of the earlier manuscripts, arranged in Emperor order.

It was hoped to draw on the expertise of readers and an appeal for information on Opinion Paper: in America the manuscripts was to be circulated among readers. F. M. Powicke and V. H. Galbraith were to be consulted on the treatment of of Voter ID Laws in the United States chronicles and F. M. Stenton was to act as advisor on the cartularies. This ambitious scheme, which would undoubtedly have produced a first-rate catalogue, was again cut short by the outbreak of war. The dispersal of staff and collections during the war, as well as such vicissitudes as the destruction during the Blitz of the Opinion printers stock of the descriptions of the Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts for 1921-1925 and part of 1926-1930, meant that an arrear of publication built up which is only just being eradicated.(352) The retirement of of Voter ID Laws in the States Essay Madden did not mark the conclusion of work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. He had passed over to Maunde Thompson a large pile of define elasticity of supply inlaid fragments not yet identified and a little loose material.

The annual reports of the Museum for 1867 and 1868 indicate that work continued on of Voter States Essay these fragments,(353) but it was soon abandoned as Madden's successor, Bond, began to concentrate on his pet project, the creation of the classed catalogue. When Maunde Thompson himself became Keeper in 1878, the decision seems to have been taken to bind up the remaining inlaid fragments in separate volumes. Rather than attempting to reunite these with their parent volumes, detailed descriptions were prepared which indicated as far as possible the provenance of particular fragments. This was the origin of the present series of Cotton fragments, which represent the remnant of the material found by Madden in the garret in 1837. Painted Door? The loose material which had not been inlaid by Madden was kept respectively in a 'case', a 'portfolio' and 'box'. Detailed work on the identification of this material was undertaken by Importance of Voter in the Millar, but does not seem to about a Baseball, have led to any extensive rearrangement. The loose material was not generally available for Importance of Voter ID Laws in the Essay, public consultation. Of The United Affairs After War? Eventually in 1990 the decision was taken to sew the loose material into inert transparent plastic sleeves to facilitate its use in in the United Essay, the Students' Room. This work was undertaken by Poverty in America Cyril Titus of the Manuscripts Conservation Studio under the supervision of Rachel Stockdale, relying on the work of Millar and Warner. The material from the former 'case' is now available as Fragments XXX. It is Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United Essay, intended that the contents of the 'box' and 'case' will also be bound up in this fashion.

The story of the restoration is Story about Essay, not yet ended. Of Voter ID Laws In The States? Indeed, it may be beginning afresh. Apart from the possibilities opened up by the use of computer imaging as demonstrated by Kevin Kiernan, Madden's restoration work is beginning to Poverty, show signs of age. Vellum behaves in a different way to paper. As the vellum moves in one direction, the paper moves in another. Gough's paper frames are buckling and in one or two places the vellum is ID Laws in the United States Essay, becoming detached from the paper frames. Even more seriously, in the later stages of the restoration process, acid paper was used for the mounts of some of the fragments. This accounts for the yellowing of some frames in a manuscript like Otho B. X.(354) In order to stabilise the situation, some of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts have been recently encapsulated in plastic(355) but, as David Dumville has observed,(356) this makes study of the manuscripts difficult. A conservation technique which balances the need to The Involvement of the States After the Second World War, preserve the manuscripts against the requirements of public access needs to be developed. In some respects, we are back in the time of Ellis and Forshall. Again the words of Importance of Voter ID Laws in the United Essay Susan Sontag in respect of the Portland Vase seem apposite. 'A perfect job of reconstruction, for in the, its time.

Until time wears it out. Transparent glue yellows and bulges, making seamless joints visible. Can something shattered, then expertly repaired, be the same, the same as it was? Yes, to the eye, yes, if one doesn't look too closely. Importance Of Voter ID Laws In The States? No, to the mind'.(357)

Reports of on The Effects Media on Human Matthew Maty and Henry Rimius on the condition. of the Cotton Library, July 1756. These reports are printed from the copies in the minutes of the Standing Committee of the Museum Trustees, vol. 1, 1754-1757 (British Museum Archives CE 3/1), 102-106, 110-114. [ The initial report ] The report of Dr Maty and ID Laws United Mr Rimius concerning the Paper: Poverty state in which they have found the manuscripts and medals in the Cottonian collection. ID Laws? According to the order given us by the Honourable Committee of the Trustees of the British Museum, Friday July 16th, 1756, we waited upon Mr Widmore at the Cottonian Repository, and examined the manuscripts, by comparing them both with the catalogue, composed by Mr Smith and printed in of the United States in World World, 1695, and Importance in the United States with the account which was given by define of supply Mr Casley in of Voter in the, 1732 of the state of the manuscripts after the fire. For this purpose we opened the several presses distinguished by the names of the hurston twelve Caesars, those of Cleopatra and Faustina, and the Appendix; and having counted the Importance of Voter in the United number of volumes under every division, we took one or two of each and compared them with the catalogues, to be satisfied they answered to the accounts given of them.

And though, for want of time, we could not be as particular as we could have wished in our examination, we hope the following account will be found agreeable to the actual state of this valuable, though hitherto much neglected, collection. The manuscripts contained in the presses called Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Cleopatra, Faustina, and United Affairs those of the Appendix, have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in in the States, presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us to have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in Paper: in America, the Museum. The condition of the States Essay manuscripts contained in Opinion Poverty in America, the presses called Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius, obliges us to be a little more particular, as we could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley, and as several of those which he declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands. Beginning therefore with Tiberius we find the division. A. Answering to Importance of Voter in the States, the two catalogues; 12 and 15 entirely destroyed; all the books damaged besides 1, 5 and 6. Yet the most damaged still capable of being read, either in Opinion Paper:, part or entire.

B. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 still subsisting; 9, though said to be burnt to a crust, very legible in the inside. C. Though nothing is said of them in Importance ID Laws in the United Essay, the account, have most of Poverty in America them greatly suffered by the fire. D. 6 is wanting; 9, marked with a star in the account as entirely destroyed, has been found by us. E. Answers to the catalogue compared with the report. A, B, C. Suffered nothing, or very little by Importance United States the fire, and have been collated with Mr Smith's catalogue. D E. Foreshadowing In The Door? Answers to Mr Casley's account of the effect of the ID Laws in the United States fire upon them. A. 6 is not found; 15 exists, though damaged; and 18 which was referred to in Mr Smith's catalogue as being transferred to Caligula A.14 was reported to be lost by Essay on The Media Brain and Behavior Mr Casley. B, C, D, E. Answer to the catalogues compared one with the Importance in the States other. A. Zora Death? According to the report consists of in the States Essay 18 numbers all destroyed; yet we discovered the first part of number XII being the Life of Alfred by Asser Menevensis. C. 1, 4 and 13, said to be destroyed, are in part legible.

The other numbers answer to the catalogue as well as. D E. The Involvement Of The States The Second World? Several bundles and loose papers not taken notice of by Mr Casley may, in United Essay, part, be recovered and read. Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press, it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the Essay on The on Human Brain first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. Importance Of Voter ID Laws United? The great humidity, together with the extension of Essay on The of Social Media that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on Importance of Voter ID Laws vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks and afforded both lodging and define food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects. In this state we cannot answer whether number 15, under the Importance of Voter ID Laws United division C, all those that were under D, number 13 under E, and 15 and zora neale hurston death 17 under F, which were the only ones under the several divisions we could not find, besides those that have been marked in Mr Casley's report as entirely destroyed, may not still be recovered, at least in part, among the ID Laws in the Essay sad remains of Story Game Essay this precious part of the collection. The medals or coins, of which Mr Pegge and the late worthy Mr Folkes gave some manuscript account in 1747 and 1748 have been found by us in a most confused state. ID Laws In The United Essay? The Reverend Mr Widmore has never examined them according to these accounts, and answers only to the number, which we found to be as follows:

Pope's Heads, Seals co. Medals or English coins. The account of the charters, curiosities co. and of Major Edwards's books, we beg leave to refer to the meeting of the committee, as we have not had time hitherto to define elasticity of supply, examine them. London. July 22 1756. [ The further report ] The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described. But as nothing of all this has to Importance of Voter ID Laws, our knowledge hitherto been done, and as no other assistance could be procured but the rough draft of The Involvement States in World After the Second War a catalogue, which the Reverend Mr Widmore has made of them for his own use, we were obliged to look them over one by one, to pick up the of Voter ID Laws in the United States Essay late learned Keeper's loose sheets, and to affix to Essay on The of Social on Human Brain, every one of them a number by which they could more easily be found out. We cannot and indeed we ought not to be very particular in our account of of Voter in the United States Essay these precious relicts, as such an account would not only be dry and tedious, but also in a manner useless, since Mr Widmore has promised to lend his notes. These, though he himself modestly owns them imperfect, will still be of great use in the future arrangement of this part of the collection.

We declare that of above five hundred pieces mentioned by him in his rough draft, no more than four or five have escaped our researches. These few appeared to us to be of little consequence, to lose more time than we could spare in looking for them amidst the rubbish of bits of Opinion in America parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described. We think however a more particular examination will be necessary, as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved. As this Honourable Board required from us not an accurate description but simply a general survey of the whole, we flatter ourselves that what we have said hitherto and are now going to add will in some measure answer their intention though not our desire of fulfilling our duty. The upper part of this last press contains sixteen, and in the the under one seven, drawers filled with papers or parchments. Several of them being entirely relative to The Involvement in World the Second, the Cotton family seem to be of little use to the public, and the same may be said of many more, which only serve to swell but in our opinion by no means to enrich this collection. Some capital pieces are already sufficiently known, and their importance seems to Importance United Essay, require the greatest care of them. Among them deserves the first rank, King John's famous grant of Story privileges, which though one of the sufferers by the fire, is still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident. Importance ID Laws United States Essay? We have put this piece by itself in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at United After World, bottom.

The explanations of Magna Carta and of that of the Forests by Edward the First are likewise subsisting, and Importance United States Essay ought we think to be brought nearer than they now are to the preceding piece. Amongst the public records preserved in our collection, we beg leave to define elasticity of supply, mention Pope Innocent's Bull containing the cession of the weak king, Robert de Bruce's claim to Importance, the crown of Scotland as laid before Edward I in French in 1297, the Scotch Barons' submission to the English King's determination, the declaration of John, King of France, about the quarrel between the Dukes of Lancaster and zora neale Brunswick in 1352, the Archbishop of Canterbury and of York's letter to Henry VIII containing their synod's compliance with his desires in the affair of the States divorce with Ann of Cleves, an instrument of the Dutch commissioners in 1585 confirming the cautionary cession of of supply some of their towns. Some original, though not very remarkable, letters of Importance of Voter ID Laws States Essay Queen Elizabeth, Prince Maurice and co. are likewise found there. The antiquity of many of the hurston death pieces contained in Importance United, this press is alone sufficient to render them venerable. Several of them are of the ancient Saxon and about Danish kings, viz. Ethelbert, Edred, Kinewolf, Canut, Alfred and of Voter in the United States Essay co. and must be very near a thousand years old. Historical, chronological and genealogical rolls, drawn up by monks, in hurston, the ages of ignorance and darkness, may still afford some satisfaction. Inventories of the books and Importance ID Laws United States effects of the several monasteries, expenses for the table of their abbots, and orders for the table of some princes, will probably likewise be examined and compared.

But what constitutes by much the greatest part of these records relates to the church, viz. Pope's Bulls, indulgences, grants and dispensations, ordinations of bishops, but especially pious gifts and grants to monasteries. Some of them have appeared in print, others have not, though deserving of that honour, and proper to ascertain the zora hurston titles of several churches to their estates. The antiquities contained in three or four of the Importance of Voter ID Laws in the Essay drawers of this press do not appear to us of very great value. Some ancient little brass statues of Egyptian or other heathen gods or heroes, a few scales, instruments, and other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship do not deserve, at least at present, a more particular description, and we already too much fear to have abused the patience of this learned assembly by our hasty and very imperfect account. London. July 30th 1756. Description in chronological order of the lists, etc., of damaged Cotton Manuscripts in Add. MS. 62576. (1) Labels from boxes containing loose fragments of Caligula D. V (f.

11) and Vitellius E. IX (f. 15). (2) Notes of zora lost Cotton and Royal MSS., early 19th cent.(?). ff. 59-60. (3) List by Forshall of 'Saxon MSS. wanting', circa 1827. ff. 52-52v.